2020 Chinese legislative election
All 870 seats in the National Assembly
436 seats needed for a majority
An early legislative election will take place in China on sometime in early 2020 to elect the 870 seats of the National Assembly, the lower house of parliament. China has the world's largest number of registered voters at 1,594,286,108.
Originally the election was not due until March 2021, but an early election was announced on 18 January 2020 following new constitutional reforms proposed by the Hongxian Emperor, seeking to consolidate his support in the National Assembly of China for making the changes. The reform would essentially reduce the Chinese parliament's role to voting on the government's budget and making the Prime Minister only answerable to the monarchy. The ruling Nationalist Party supports the changes, but they are opposed by the leading opposition parties, the Progressive Party and the China Social Democratic Party. The Royalists announced they would endorse Nationalist candidates in most areas, except in their traditional strongholds, to create a unified front in support of the Emperor.
On 27 January, due to the disruption caused by the 2019–20 China coronavirus outbreak that started in December 2019, the Hongxian Emperor announced the election will be postponed from the first announced Election Day of 31 January 2020 until an unspecified future date when the virus is contained and the lockdown of Hubei Province was lifted. The restrictions taken to contain the virus outbreak would disrupt voting in many parts of the country if the election went ahead. By mid-February, the virus became a pandemic and had more than 75,000 infections confirmed by the Qing government, and additional provinces placed restrictive measures on travel and other safety measures, making the election put off until at least after April 2020.
The Qing dynasty uses an electoral system of parallel voting, with 320 seats allocated using first-past-the-post voting (FPTP) in determined singe-member constituencies based on prefectures and prefecture-level cities, and party-list proportional representation (PR) for the other 550 seats.
Since his coronation in 1996 the Hongxian Emperor has gradually increased the power of the monarchy, and has purged the government of more democratic partisans and former Xuantong era bureaucrats who opposed absolutism. On 16 January 2020, the Emperor announced new constitutional changes in China, which caused Prime Minister Yang Wenli to resign in disagreement over some of the proposed changes. The central leadership of the Nationalist Party of China headed by Gao Weihan, which has the plurality of seats in the National Assembly and is the ruling party in the Qing Empire, supported the Emperor's initiative. To solidify his control over the lower house of parliament for enacting the proposed constitutional reforms, on 18 January the Hongxian Emperor called for an early election on 31 January. The opposition, led by the Progressive Party of China head Zhang Zhenfang, condemned the move as an attempt to return absolute monarchy in China. He also called it an "insult to the legacy of Sun Yat-sen." In his annual speech, the Emperor said it was necessary to strengthen the government, a view share by the KMT leader and Assembly chairman Gao Weihan.
On 27 January 2020, due to the coronavirus outbreak that first began in December 2019 and spread rapidly in the central Chinese city of Wuhan as well as the rest of Hubei Province, the Emperor announced the Election Day would be moved from 31 January to an unspecified future date. As Hubei and several cities were placed on lock down by the Chinese authorities to contain the virus, the situation would disrupt voting if it went ahead on that date. By mid-February, the virus spread to other provinces of China and more than 75,000 infections were confirmed by the Qing government as of February 19, 2020. The government decided the election would be postponed for at least one or two months as the containment efforts continued and travel restrictions within China were imposed.
Since 2017, only four parties have seats in the National Assembly, but the Imperial Ministry of Justice registered a total of nine parties to take part in the 2020 legislative election. To register a party must have seats in a provincial assembly or collect at least 700,000 signatures, and as of 18 January 2020 five parties met these requirements.
|Party||General seats||Party list||Total|
|China Social Democratic Party||2||110||112|
|Chinese National Socialist Party||–||–||0|
|Chinese Communist Party||–||–||0|
|Alliance for Change||–||–||0|
|12 February 2020||Reference News||51%||5%||18%||12%||2%||5%||4%||2%||1%||–|
|5 February 2020||Xinhua||49%||8%||16%||13%||<1%||2%||3%||2%||1%||3%|
|30 January 2020||South China Morning Post||50%||6%||16%||15%||<1%||8%||5%||<1%||<1%||–|
|24 January 2020||China Daily||55%||7%||14%||13%||<1%||5%||3%||<1%||<1%||3%|
|Wuhan and Hubei Province placed on lock down because of coronavirus outbreak.|
|21 January 2020||Xinhua||57%||9%||16%||11%||<1%||2%||3%||<1%||<1%||–|
|17 January 2020||China Daily||53%||6%||22%||9%||1%||4%||3%||1%||1%||–|
|15 January 2020||Reference News||54%||7%||18%||13%||<1%||2%||4%||2%||<1%||–|
|10 January 2020||The Economic Observer||48%||5%||21%||16%||–||3%||2%||–||–||5%|
|6 January 2020||Xinhua||52%||8%||15%||14%||1%||5%||4%||1%||–||–|
|1 January 2020||Guangzhou Daily||47%||11%||20%||19%||–||3%||–||–||–||–|
|30 December 2019||China Daily||50%||8%||15%||17%||–||2%||<1%||<1%||–||7%|
|25 December 2019||Xinhua||55%||4%||14%||13%||<1%||3%||3%||2%||2%||4%|
|22 December 2019||The Economic Observer||52%||7%||16%||15%||–||6%||3%||1%||–||–|
|18 December 2019||Xinhua||51%||9%||12%||13%||1%||5%||2%||2%||1%||4%|