Administrative divisions of Kalșeri
Kalșeri is a federation of thirteen cantons; the cantons themselves are divided into 37 judicial provinces, 597 municipalities and 2 Special Territories. Municipalities may be subdivided into smaller divisions, whose names change by canton. Each canton is completely free to decide on its own administrative structure, with no nationwide approval required.
The current administrative division system was established with the Skanhal Statute, passed in 1891; subsequent modifications have since been applied.
The thirteen cantons (flalia, singular flal), established in 1783, are the member states of the federation. Cantons have virtually unlimited power and responsibility within their borders and their autonomy is protected by Section IV of the Charter of Kalșeri. Their duties include (but are not limited to):
- ownership of non-private property;
- education of inhabitants;
- maintenance of hospitals and implementation of welfare programs;
- justice and law enforcement, through provinces;
- management of sub-canton local government;
- maintenance of non-Highway main roads;
- regulation of industry;
- fundraising to support activities;
- management of canton-wide transportation;
- administration of non-federal natural reserves and Special Territories.
Each canton has its number of High Councillors, depending on its population at the time of election.
The thirteen cantons are:
|Flag||Canton||Abbreviation||Capital city||Governor||Official languages||Date of establishment||Area||Inhabitants (2018 est.)||Density||HC seats|
|City-Canton of Cape Sundervale
|CS||–||Governor-General William Rothes
Mayor Alfred Coombe (BIP)
|English (preferred language)
|1991||211.45 km2 (81.64 mi2)||152,493||721/km2 (1,868/mi2)||1|
|Canton of Cartier Island
(French: Île Cartier)
|Henriville||President of the Cantonal Council René Rodian (PNC)||French (preferred language)
|7,773.06 km2 (3,001.18 mi2)||527,300||68/km2 (176/mi2)||4|
|City-Canton of Chalmersville||CH||–||Mayor Laura Hodgson (SCP)||Kalhan
|1954||57.98 km2 (22.39 mi2)||673,109||11,609/km2 (30,068/mi2)||5|
|City-Canton of Evalria||EV||–||Mayor Ioana Fischer (SCP)||Kalhan
|1783||329.05 km2 (127.05 mi2)||1,502,553||4,566/km2 (11,827/mi2)||10|
||Canton of Janval||JV||Hutchinson||Albert Schiller (LDP)||Kalhan
|1783||10,282.80 km2 (3,970.19 mi2)||2,494,145||243/km2 (628/mi2)||17|
|Canton of Kalúen||KL||Percy||Andréas Kortin Sau (LDP)||Kalhan
|1783||13,177.51 km2 (5,087.84 mi2)||4,592,510||349/km2 (903/mi2)||31|
|Canton of Lág||LG||Branbury||Michael O'Toole (SCP)||Kalhan
|1783||7,747.53 km2 (2,991.32 mi2)||3,992,553||515/km2 (1,335/mi2)||27|
|Canton of New Kerry
(Irish: Chiarraí Nua)
(Irish: Cathair na Farraige)
|Vivian O'Keeffe (LDP)||Kalhan
|1989||9,036.17 km2 (3,488.88 mi2)||3,211,435||355/km2 (920/mi2)||21|
|Canton of New Lothian
(Scottish Gaelic: Lodainn Nuadh)
|NL (internal abbreviation)
LN (North American abbreviation)
(Scottish Gaelic: Baile Hartley)
|Henry McIntyre (NLPP-LDP)||Kalhan
|1783||13,645.75 km2 (5,268.63 mi2)||2,592,184||190/km2 (492/mi2)||17|
|Canton of San Rafael
(Spanish: Cantón de San Rafael)
|SR||Las Encinas||Antonio Guillén (AS-LDP)||Kalhan
|1783||11,168.66 km2 (4,312.22 mi2)||1,882,524||169/km2 (437/mi2)||13|
|Canton of Takalim||TK||Lennoxton||Frankiskus Navean (SCP)||Kalhan
|12,321.80 km2 (4,757.45 mi2)||3,928,531||319/km2 (826/mi2)||26|
|Canton of Tigupoke||TG||Cowhill||Thomas Hartovich (SCP)||Kalhan
|1891||4,420.64 km2 (1,706.81 mi2)||839,144||190/km2 (492/mi2)||6|
|Canton of Urgel||UR||St. Adrian||Viliam Gerna (SCP)||Kalhan
|6,195.09 km2 (2,391.93 mi2)||2,384,919||385/km2 (997/mi2)||16|
The formation of new cantons is regulated by Section IV of the Charter of Kalșeri. To secede, a candidate canton must have at least 250,000 inhabitants at the time of the declaration of secession, a referendum in the concerned canton must be passed, and a special bill making the secession official must be passed by the High Council and signed by the President; unilateral secession is explicitly prohibited. This right has only been exercised twice: with the creation of the city-canton of Chalmersville in 1954, as a means to end the New Lothian-Lág-Urgel dispute over who actually owned the city, and with New Kerry seceding from Takalim in 1989.
Section IV of the Charter also contemplates the partial or total suspension of the autonomy of a canton, after which the involved tasks would be handled directly by the State. The suspension of cantonal autonomy, which requires unanimous approval by the High Council, has never been applied so far.
The provinces (provinsia, singular: províns) are used as statistical subdivisions and judicial court districts, and take the name of the most populated municipality within the provincial territory.
Provinces were established in 1837, on the ashes of the former cantons, which had gone through a process of merging to save costs; these divisions served for merely statistical purposes until 1891, when the Skanhal Statute delegated the judiciary duties of a canton to the provinces.
Due to either their small size or low population, Cape Sundervale, Evalria, Chalmersville, Cartier Island and Tigupoke are consolidated province-cantons (CPCs), where the borders of the single province are coterminous with those of the canton.
Multiple presidents have considered the idea of abolishing provinces, the most recent of which was Phil Garner; however, his proposal was ultimately abandoned. Several cantons have since then proceeded to abolish provinces, the most recent of which Tigupoke, in 2016, when the cantonal government announced that its two provinces would be abolished and that the canton would become a CPC; after the announcement, other cantons have been considering similar proposals.
The municipalities (șámenia, singular: șamen), established in 1783, share some of the functions carried out by the cantons: unlike with cantons, the creation, modification or abolition of municipalities only requires a special bill to be passed in the canton's legislative body. The duties of the municipalities include (but are not limited to):
- local zoning;
- registry of births and deaths;
- registry of deeds;
- contracting for local roads and public works;
- local planning and zoning;
- provision of local police, ambulance and fire services;
- local transportation regulation (such as car registration, maintenance of local roads) and traffic control.
Municipalities are usually composed of a single settlement, but it is not uncommon to see clusters of small settlements being managed by a single municipality, especially in highly populated cities, like Klián, and less hospitable areas, such as northern Iskio.
Requirements for creating new municipalities are not universal: some cantons set specific criteria, such as Lág requiring a minimum of 1500 inhabitants and a popular vote on the affected area to be passed, while other cantons have more lenient regulations, such as Iskio only requiring the proposed municipality to have "a well-defined town center".
Municipalities are called "parishes" (paróșia, parroquias and paroisses) in Iskio and Relkaf, "quarters" (runia, sing. runiu) in Evalria, Chalmersville and Cape Sundervale, "counties" (contaetha/kontéaia) in New Kerry, and "farm councils" (runargeria) in Tigupoke. Cantons also use the term "city" (rel) to define municipalities that have either reached a certain number of inhabitants or were made cities by presidential decree.
If a municipality falls under 500 inhabitants, it is usually disincorporated and redefined as an unincorporated territory, available to be annexed to another municipality or to be freely redeveloped. There are two ways a municipality can be disincorporated:
- the affected municipality submits a disincorporation request to the canton, which evaluates the request and either approves it or rejects it;
- the cantonal legislature approves a special bill concerning the disincorporation of said municipality.
Special Territories (Speșalton Flalia) are parts of the canton not handled by a municipality. Unincorporated territories, administrated directly by the canton, cover natural areas of national relevance, and may have restrictions on access and residence.
Municipalities may be divided into smaller subdivisions, which cover a merely statistical role. Their names vary among the cantons:
- farm lawns (runarflaia) in Tigupoke;
- hamlets (amletia) in Iskio and Relkaf;
- houses (seria) in Kalúen, Janval, New Lothian, Evalria, Chalmersville and Cape Sundervale;
- counties (kontéaia) in Lág, Takalim and Urgel;
- townlands (bailte fearainn/relhalia) in New Kerry.
Fourth-level subdivisions do not require any cantonal intervention and are handled entirely by the municipalities.
In New Kerry, townlands bear an Irish name and are routinely used in rural post addresses; townlands are also used as a method of subdivision of cities.
|Canton (first level)||Second level||Third level||Fourth level|
|Cape Sundervale (CPC)||Quarter||House|
|Cartier Island (CPC)||Parish||Hamlet|
|Șikomán National Park|
|Tigupoke (CPC)||Farm Council||Farm Lawn|