Alaska

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Commonwealth of Alaska

Alaska (en)
Аляска (ru)
Alax̂sxax̂ (al)
Alaasikaq (in)
Anáaski (tl)
Alas'kaaq (pgy)
Flag of Alaska
Flag
Coat of arms of Alaska
Coat of arms
Motto: North to the Future
Anthem: Alaska's Flag
Location of Alaska
Capital Juneau
Largest city Anchorage
Official languages English, Russian, Aleut, Tlingit, Inupiaq
Demonym(s) Alaskan
Government Federal semi-presidential constitutional republic
• President
Nicolas McCarty
Sean Coghill-Ross
Griffan Holland
Legislature Parliament
National Council
House of Commons
Independence 
July 8, 1733
October 18, 1867
May 17, 1884
July 8, 1950
Area
• Total
1,717,856 km2 (663,268 sq mi)
• Water (%)
13.77%
Population
• 2018 estimate
738,448
• 2014 census
708,132
• Density
0.49/km2 (1.3/sq mi)
GDP (PPP) 2014 estimate
• Total
$49.12 billion
• Per capita
$44,174
Currency Alaskan dollar (AD)

Alaska, officially the Commonwealth of Alaska, is a sovereign state located in North America and based in the western coastal region of Anglo-America. It shares an eastern border with Yukon and Astoria, and a maritime border with Ussuria thanks to its west most island, Attu Island, in the Bering Strait. Alaska is one of the largest countries in the world, but is also one of the most sparsely populated countries in the world with a total population of around 787,909 according to 2018 estimates. Half of all Alaskans live in the Anchorage metropolitan area and its economy is dominated by oil, fishing and natural gas, which are abundant in the country. Tourism also plays a significant role in the Alaskan economy as well and trade with various international organizations and nearby countries in East Asia have also benefited the country as well.

Historically speaking, Alaska was initially colonized by various native tribes, but was later colonized by the Russian Empire in the 18th century leading to the establishment of Russian America in 1733. The colony remained in Russian control until the Kingdom of Sierra acquired it in the Alaska Purchase in 1873. It was initially administered as an unorganized territory until the Klondike Gold Rush when it became a self-governing organized territory. During Great War I, Alaskan troops supported the Kingdom of Sierra against both the Landonist International and Triple Alliance. It gained independence as a republic in 1950 after Alaskan voters turned down constituent nationhood within the Kingdom or commonwealth status. During Great War II, it remained neutral although it provided non-combative support to Sierra and the Allied Powers during the war.

In the modern era Alaska is a developed country with an advanced economy and decent standards of living, though poverty is a problem that Alaska suffers from in the modern era. Alaska is a federal constitutional republic under a semi-presidential system and ranks 13th worldwide in press freedom, 8th in free speech, 10th in social progress and 20th in prosperity. Alaska is a member of various international organizations such as the League of Nations, World Trade Organization, NATO and the Conference of American States among others.

Etymology[edit | edit source]

The name "Alaska" (Russian: Аляска, tr. Alyaska) was coined during the Russian colonial period where it was used to refer to the Alaskan peninsula and was derived from an Aleut-language idiom, which figuratively refers to the mainland. Literally, it means object to which the action of the sea is directed. The name Alaska was used by the Sierran government to designate the territory and later when it became a self-governing dominion.

History[edit | edit source]

Pre-colonization[edit | edit source]

Long before the arrival of the first European settlers, Alaska was first settled by by various native tribes and indigenous peoples in the region. DNA and Linguistic studies have proven that the tribesmen first arrived in Alaska via the Bering land bridge and at the Upward Sun River site, the skeletal remains of six-year old infant were found. The DNA from the infant's fossils showed that she belonged to a population that was genetically separate from various other native groups located in the New World at the end of Pleistocene. The remains were unearthed by Ben Potter from the University of Alaska Fairbanks and were unearthed at the Upward River Site in 2013 and named the long gone group the Ancient Beringians. The Tlingit people had developed a society with a matrilineal kinship system of property inherence in present day Southeast Alaska and in parts of present day Eastern Rainier. The Haida people were also in the same region as the Tlingit and are now known for their unique arts.

Russian colonization[edit | edit source]

Russian Revolution and independence[edit | edit source]

Great War I and Interwar era[edit | edit source]

Great War II and neutrality[edit | edit source]

Cold War[edit | edit source]

Contemporary era[edit | edit source]

Geography[edit | edit source]

Demographics[edit | edit source]

Race and ethnicity[edit | edit source]

Languages[edit | edit source]

Religion[edit | edit source]

Government and politics[edit | edit source]

Political structure[edit | edit source]

Administrative divisions[edit | edit source]

Political parties[edit | edit source]

Military[edit | edit source]

The Alaskan Defense Forces include the Army, Navy, Air Force, and the Alaskan Territorial Guard, the military volunteer reserve.

Economy[edit | edit source]