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Republic of Anatolia and Thrace
Cumhuriyet-i Anadolu ve Rumeli
جمهوریتی آناضولو و روم ایلی
Δημοκρατία της Ανατολίας και της Θράκης
Anthem: "İstiklal Marşı"
and largest city
|Government||Federal parliamentary republic|
|Nihad Cemil Mentesheli|
|Kelim Kurban Izmirli|
|House of Governors|
|House of People|
• Proclamation of the Republic
|23 July 1927|
• Abolishment of Sultanate
|12 August 1927|
• First Parliament session
|9 December 1927|
• Ascension of Thrace
|20 December 1927|
• Ascension of Anatolia
|5 March 1928|
• New Official Name
|5 March 1928|
|546,883.64 km2 (211,152.95 sq mi)|
• 2019 estimate
|120.03/km2 (310.9/sq mi) (35)|
|Currency||Anatolian Para (P) (ARP)|
The Republic of Anatolia and Thrace (Turkish: Cumhuriyet-i Anadolu ve Rumeli), informally known as Anatolian Republic, or Anatolia or Turkey (archaically) is a transcontinental country located on Western Anatolian peninsula in Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeastern Europe. The Republic is border on its northwest by Greece and Bulgaria; to the east by Armenia and Georgia and to the south and southwest by Syria. The Black Sea, Mediterranean Sea and Aegean Sea from the country's maritime borders. The country's official language are Turkish (which is written in both Arabic script and Latin script) and Greek.
The country is a member of the League of Nations, Central Treaty Organization and an applicant for the European Community (EC) membership. Colloquially, Anatolia is referred to by the pars pro toto Turkey. With a population 65.6 million people, all living within a total area of roughly 547,000 square kilometers (212,000 sq mi)- the Anatolian Republic is the 35th most densely populated country in the world, with a population density of 120.03 per square kilometres (311/ sq mi).
Etymology[edit | edit source]
The name Anatolia derives from the Greek "Ἀνατολή" (Anatolḗ) meaning "the East", and designating (from a Greek point of view) eastern regions in general.
Whilst, the name of Thrace refers to the Balkan part of the country and is referred to in Turkish as Rumeli (روم ایلی).
History[edit | edit source]
The Anatolian Peninsula is one of the oldest permanently settled regions in the world. Thrace has also been inhabited for at least fourty thousand years ago.
Paleolithic Era (500,000 BC - 10,000 BC)[edit | edit source]
In 2013, a stone tool was found in the Gediz river that was dated to 1.2 million years ago.
The Burgaz, Karayn, Okuzini, Beldibi, Belbasi, Kumbucayi and Yadayn caves are evidences of Palaeolithic habitation.
Chalcolithic Era (4,000 BC - 2,200 BC[edit | edit source]
Hattians and Hurrians[edit | edit source]
Bronze Age (2,200 BC - 1,000 BC)[edit | edit source]
Hittites[edit | edit source]
Indo-European Hittites came to Anatolia and gradually absorbed both Hattians and Hurrians c. 2,000-1,700 BC.
Phyrgians[edit | edit source]
In 1,180 BC, the Phyrgians who were another Indo-European people, achieved ascendancy in Anatolia.
Iron Age (1,000 BC - 550 BC)[edit | edit source]
Cimmerians[edit | edit source]
The Phyrgian Kingdom was supplanted by Cimmerians in the seventh century BC.
Lydia, Caria and Lycia[edit | edit source]
The most powerful of Phyrgia's successors were Lydia, Caria and Lycia.
Greek Colonies[edit | edit source]
Aeneas is said to have founded the city of Aenus (now, Enez) while trying to find new lands on his legendary travels.
Odyrisians[edit | edit source]
The Odyrisians were the first Kingdom in Thrace and held wide prominence.
Persian Achaemenid Empire[edit | edit source]
The Achaemenid Empire annexed the territories completely in the sixth century BC.
Ancient History (550 BC - 500 AD)[edit | edit source]
Thracian soldiers were a component of the Persian Army.
Greco-Persian War (499 BC)[edit | edit source]
In 499 BC, The Greek city states rebelled against the Persian rule during the Greco-Persian War (499 BC).
Macedonians[edit | edit source]
Thrace had started adopting Greek culture slowly in this period.
Diadochi Era[edit | edit source]
Romans[edit | edit source]
In 168 BC, Thrace became a Roman tributary after the Third Macedonian War. Later, it would become a Roman province. Many Thracians would be awarded citizenship and would share privileges awarded to Romans.
The process of Hellenisation that became with Alexander's conquest accelerated under the Roman rule.
Parthians[edit | edit source]
From the 1st century BC upto the third century AD, large territories were contested between Romans and Parthians.
According to the Acts of Apostles 11, Antioch (now, Antakya) was the birthplace of the first Christian community.
In 324, Constantine I declared Byzantium (later, Constantinople; now, İstanbul), as the new capital of the Roman Empire. The city cpntinues to be a capital city for continuously 1697 years as of 2021.
Byzantines[edit | edit source]
In 395, the Roman Empire split with the terrotories of Thrace and Anatolia under the Eastern Roman Empire (later termed Byzantine Empire).
The Byzantines divided their empire into several themes and were ruled by provincial leaders called Tekfurs in Turkish. During their rule, Constantinople fully reached its pre-Ottoman glory and also it was amongst the last Byzantine territories to fall in 1453.
Early Middle Ages (5th century CE - 10th century CE)[edit | edit source]
Bulgarians[edit | edit source]
Thrace was under Byzantine rule till the seventh century when it was split between northern First Bulgarian Empire and southern Byzantine theme of Thrace. The Byzantines and Bulgarians would have successive conflicts for Thrace and control over the land seitched multiple times till the 14th century.
Sassanians[edit | edit source]
The Byzantines and Sassanians kept struggling to for the control of Anatolia till the first half of the seventh century.
Higher Middle Ages (1,000 CE - 1,250 CE)[edit | edit source]
Seljuks[edit | edit source]
The Seljuks from Kınık branch of Oghuz Turks penetrated into Anatolia by the later half of the eleventh century. In 1071, Seljuks led by Alp Arslan defeated Byzantines at the Battle of Manzikert (the city is now in Kurdistan), opening the gate to Anatolia. The Seljuk period ushered in rapid development of Anatolia, after years of inactivity by the provincial Byzantine administrators. Seljuks were patrons of Persian art and architecture.
In 1243, Seljuks were defeated by the Mongols at the Battle of Köse Dağ, causing the Seljuk Empire's power to slowly disintegrate.
Mongols and Catalan Company[edit | edit source]
The Byzantines faced great trouble in Thrace when a Mongol invasion led by Nogai Khan ravaged the theme, followed by Catalan Company rebels. However, Mongols made their presence permanent in Anatolia till 1294, after which they lost their territories in what is now the Anatolian Republic. With the fall of the last Western Mongol remnant, the Ilkhanate in 1330s the Mongol threat was over. The Mongol and post-Mongol era are known for ushering in a period wherein small beyliks were gaining power and lands.
Late Middle Ages (1,250 CE - 1,500 CE)[edit | edit source]
Ottomans[edit | edit source]
In the wake of Seljuk defeat, one of the Turkish beyliks governed by Osman I. The Ottomans grew fast and started conquering their neighbouring Beyliks by diplomacy, matrimony or conquest. The Ottomans gained their first territory in Thrace as the Çimpe Castle. Later, the Ottomans captured Adrinapole, which was made the second capital of the Ottomans as Edirne. The Ottomans faced a setback, when Timur invaded and captured their Sultan. However, within a few years they achieved what they had lost.
The Ottomans completed their conquest of the Byzantine Empire by capturing its capital, Constantinople, in 1453; their commander thenceforth being known as Mehmed the Conqueror, an event with immense religious significance for the Muslims. The newly acquired city was made the Ottoman capital.
Early Modern Age (1,500 CE - 1,800 CE)[edit | edit source]
In 1514, Sultan Selim I (1512–1520) successfully expanded the empire's southern and eastern borders by defeating Shah Ismail I of the Safavid dynasty in the Battle of Chaldiran. In 1517, Selim I expanded Ottoman rule into Algeria and Egypt, and created a naval presence in the Red Sea and successfully ending the rule of the rival Mamluks and bringing them into submission.
Subsequently, a contest started between the Ottoman and Portuguese empires to become the dominant sea power in the Indian Ocean, with a number of naval battles in the Red Sea, the Arabian Sea and the Arabian Gulf. The Portuguese presence in the Indian Ocean was perceived as a threat to the Ottoman monopoly over the ancient trade routes between East Asia and Western Europe. The Ottomans aided the Gujarat Sultanate in its own struggle against the Portuguese. Despite the increasingly prominent European presence, the Ottoman Empire's trade with the east continued to flourish until the second half of the 18th century.
The Ottoman Empire's power and prestige peaked in the 16th and 17th centuries, particularly during the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent, who personally instituted major legislative changes relating to society, education, taxation and criminal law. The empire was often at odds with the Holy Roman Empire in its steady advance towards Central Europe through the Balkans and the southern part of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. The Ottoman Navy contended with several Holy Leagues, such as those in 1538, 1571, 1684 and 1717 (composed primarily of Habsburg Spain, the Republic of Genoa, the Republic of Venice, the Knights of St. John, the Papal States, the Grand Duchy of Tuscany and the Duchy of Savoy), for the control of the Mediterranean Sea. In the east, the Ottomans were often at war with Safavid Persia over conflicts stemming from territorial disputes or religious differences between the 16th and 18th centuries. The Ottoman wars with Persia continued as the Zand, Afsharid, and Qajar dynasties succeeded the Safavids in Iran, until the first half of the 19th century. Even further east, there was an extension of the Habsburg-Ottoman conflict, in that the Ottomans also had to send soldiers to their farthest and easternmost vassal and territory, the Aceh Sultanate in Southeast Asia, to defend it from European colonizers as well as the Latino invaders who had crossed from Latin America and had Christianized the formerly Muslim-dominated Philippines. From the 16th to the early 20th centuries, the Ottoman Empire also fought twelve wars with the Russian Tsardom and Empire. These were initially about Ottoman territorial expansion and consolidation in southeastern and eastern Europe; but starting from the Russo-Turkish War (1768–1774), they became more about the survival of the Ottoman Empire, which had begun to lose its strategic territories on the northern Black Sea coast to the advancing Russians.
Late Modern Period (1,800 CE – 1,950 CE)[edit | edit source]
From the second half of the 18th century onwards, the Ottoman Empire began to decline. The Tanzimat reforms, initiated by Mahmud II just before his death in 1839, aimed to modernise the Ottoman state in line with the progress that had been made in Western Europe. The efforts of Midhat Pasha during the late Tanzimat era led the Ottoman constitutional movement of 1876, which introduced the First Constitutional Era, but these efforts proved to be inadequate in most fields, and failed to stop the dissolution of the empire. As the empire gradually shrank in size, military power and wealth; especially after the Ottoman economic crisis and default in 1875 which led to uprisings in the Balkan provinces that culminated in the Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878); many Balkan Muslims migrated to the Empire's heartland in Anatolia, along with the Circassians fleeing the Russian conquest of the Caucasus. The decline of the Ottoman Empire led to a rise in nationalist sentiment among its various subject peoples.
Independence Movements[edit | edit source]
Bulgarian and East Rumelian Independence[edit | edit source]
Hellene Independence[edit | edit source]
Great Arab Revolt[edit | edit source]
Armenian Independence[edit | edit source]
Kurdish Independence[edit | edit source]
Declaration of the Republic[edit | edit source]
In the early spring of 1927, the already collapsing markets finally crashed. The wealthy Greeks and Armenians that had for centuries supported the financial system had now moved to their new countries. The financial situation had reached disastrous levels.
Along with which Cemal Pasha's mistreatment of minorities had created insurgencies in the Empire. To most, the Pasha was a Seffah (excutioner). Nobody in the army liked him. He was the symbol of failure.
The domestic situation of the Ottomans was not better either.
Shefik was fed up of the Three Pasha government. He was a comrade of Nazim Pasha, who Enver Pasha's man had killed. The Three Pashas were cause of worry to the soldiers. Shefik had met with several other disgruntled leaders and joined the Young Ottomans. He suggested a coup and takeover of the government from the Three Pashas.
The organisation members reluctantly agreed to this idea. However, he was asked to submit a draft plan of action.
Shefik suggested blocking the straits that seperated the Asian and European parts of Istanbul. He also suggested placing forces on Anatolian-Istanbul and Thracian-Istanbul borders.
He is reported to have said:
If Capital falls, The Three Pashas fall too.
Payitaht düşerse, üçpaşalar düşer.
.پایتخت دوشرسه، اوچپاشالر دوشر
Both Ismet and Kemal agreed to Shefik's plan. Kemal was made responsible to further the coup to Anatolia, while Ismet had to look after Thrace.
Shefik knew that though his plan had to be a top-secret, he needed manpower. He was in search of people affected by the Three Pashas.
He established the Kuva-i Hurriyet, comprising members of various sections.
He visited Greek slums (Mekânlar-i Rumlar), and promised the young unemployed to have them hired. The poor Greeks agreed to the incentive. Roughly, every sixth member of the Kuva-i Hurriyet was a Greek.
The next group that was willing to join were Balkan migrants (muhacir pl. muhacirlar), who were in need of pay, shelter and wanted to be a part of the nation.
The Kuva-i Hurriyet was a mixture of ethnicities. The common characteristic of these irregulars were poverty. Their lives had decimated under the Three Pashas.
On 7th August 1927, the Kuva-i Hurriyet marched into Sublime Porte, capturing Cemal Pasha.
The Yildiz Palace was surrounded by the Kuva-i Hurriyet.
The royal family was assured of their safety. On 23rd of July Abdulmejid II signed the declaration of Republic and officially replaced the Three Pashas with a triumvirate of himself, Shefik Pasha and the Sheikh-ul-Islam. He declared the Kuva-i Hurriyet s a part of the Republic's new army.
On 12th August, pressurised Shefik was forced to remove the Sultan's titles and granted him a lesser title of "Shah Veled", making him a ceremonial officeholder. The royal family was given a residence at Pembe Sarayı, which later would be known as Beyt-i Âl-i Osman.
Ascension of Thrace and Anatolia[edit | edit source]
On 20th December, Thrace acceded to the Republic.
The Shah Veled was approached to ask Anatolians to surrender to Mustafa Kemal Selanikli's army and accede to the Republic.
On 5th March 1928, Anatolia too acceded to the Republic. The same day, Shefik Pasha changed the official name to The Republic of Anatolia and Thrace.
Pre-war years (1928-1941)[edit | edit source]
In May 1928, The Freedom and Accord Party (Turkish: ) launched its first newspaper, "Vakt-i Cedid". The paper would later come under state control after the party's merger in TBD.
In November 1928, Shefik Pasha was shot on the arm by an unknown individual, which sparked nationwide rallies in support of the Pasha.
In January 1929, Shefik Pasha appointed his military aide-de-camp Ahmed Anzavur Cherkes as his Vice-president. This is believed to be due to his worsening health.
Gradually, Anzavur performed much of the presidential duties and in 1930, succeded Shefik Pasha upon death of the latter. Though, Anzavur was the youngest president in Anatolian history (aged 45 at swearing in) , he could serve only for two years, before dying at 47 from tuberculosis. It is believed that chronic asthma caused him to become prone to the disease.
In 1932, the chief of Kuva-i Hurriyet-i Anadolu, Mustafa Kemal Selanikli was sworn in. His election was the first free election open to the public. His emphasis on Anatolian people who had been neglected post-1927 had made him popular amongst the masses. He was also famous amongst migrants from Hellas, who like him had left their homes. His reign was known for its reforms.
The London Naval Treaty in 1934 marked a remarkable change in the Foreign policy. The Republicans in power saw this as a chance to switch from German alliance to French alliance by giving shipbuilding contract to French company, Compagnie de Acier d'Anatolie, which built several warships for the country. This period became known as Ship Diplomacy Era.
His successor Fuad Kartal Saruhanli led the Republic during the Great War I. He had earlier served in the Balkan Wars, and was an accomplished poet. His speeches had motivated and reignited the morale of soldiers. Fuad was a monarchist and supported alliance with Germany, however, the opposition parties threatened with votes of no confidence and he was forced to oblige. He is credited with creation of the war song, "Fıravan Hayatsin".
Great War I[edit | edit source]
On March 16th 1942, Romanian government declared war on Hungary. The invasion that began on 17th rose tension in Istanbul. The close proximity between Romania and Hellas worried both Bulgarians and Anatolians.
Anatolian First Army crossed Greek border into Western Thrace on 17th July, led by Fahri Sabit Bahri. The army enjoyed initial successes until being caught unaware near Alexandropouli, with General Ahmed Kenan Preshovali becoming a prisoner of war.
The defeated army moved back into the Anatolian border and regrouped near the village of Karaköy, after being reinforced by Thracian First Army. The united army numbering 1,50,000 soldiers moved back into Thrace in September 1942. This time obliterating Hellene defence at the Second Battle of Alexandropouli.
The united First Army then advanced into Macedonia.
At Siege of Kavala, Anatolians defended the city of Kavala bravely for two months after which the British enforced Hellene troops won the siege. The total number of British troops was believed to be 25,000 strong.
From December 1942, Helleno-Anatolian Front was quite again.
The Anatolians signed peace treaty along with Bulgarians. Under the Treaty of Verdun, all Aegean Islands that once belonged to the Republic, were granted to Hellas. The repatriations embittered the folk against European powers and led to great financial troubles. These events began a period of rapid rebuilding and development that it is known as "The Little Renaissance". The public opinion on Kingdom of Sierra changed negatively after the Great War I, while French help in rebuilding rose Francophilia in the populace.
Contemporary History (1,950 CE - 2,000 CE)[edit | edit source]
Inter War Years (-)[edit | edit source]
Great War II[edit | edit source]
Cold War Era[edit | edit source]
Present day (2,000 CE - present)[edit | edit source]
Politics[edit | edit source]
The Anatolian Republic has been a federal republic since 1927. The country ratified its constitution in 1929. The Republic is described as a politically active state. Anatolian politics and governance are characterised by an effort to achieve broad consensus on important issues, within both the political community and society as a whole. There is an incessant emphasis on morals of the society. There is a broadly conservative outlook in the local political mindset, irrespective of the political spectrum. The press has become increasingly free as each ideology demands public reach. However, there does exist an unwritten understanding on what is not to be put in the press.
The president is the head of the Republic, at present Nihad Cemil Mentesheli. Constitutionally, the position is elective and has vast access to power. By law, the Prime Minister, at the present Nikulay Papazoghlu has the right to be periodically briefed and consulted on government affairs. He is chosen by the party leader of the ruling party. The Prime Minister performs ceremonial duties and has not much real power.
Despite being a republic, the nation however has a titular monarch with the title of Shah Veled. The current Shah Veled, Osman VIII was elected on 19 January 2021. He performs the Presidential swearing-in ceremonies.
Executive power is exercised by the President, while the legislative power is vested in the unicameral parliament, called the Meclis-i Âlı.
Universal suffrage for both sexes has been applied throughout Anatolian Republic since 1927 (becoming the fourth country to do so) and before most countries, and every citizen who has turned 18 years of age has the right to vote.
Political culture[edit | edit source]
The citizens take part in the electoral process much more than other Western countries. In fact, not voting during the three elections (National Presidential, Gubernatorial and Mayoral) is punishable in some counties. Further, citizens' interest groups regularly meet and advise the government in matters of varying importance.
In the past few decades, there has been an increased anti-incumbency. It is of rare incidence that a single party obtains majority more than once. This puts the ministers to work more to in the end grab more votes. In 2019 Parliamentary elections, the difference of seats between the ruling party and the leading opposition party was just 20 seats.
Political parties[edit | edit source]
|Current Structure of the Meclis-i Âlı|
Since the formation of the Republic, Anatolian Republic has a multi-party system. The last Anatolian parliamentary election took place on 15 May 2019. The result was a victory for Tradition and Peace Party (SAF), recieving 40% threshold with Nihad Cemil Mentesheli elected as President. The current political landscape in the Republic is dominated by the conservative SAFs, socialist Socialist Party of Anatolia (İFA) and republican Accord and Progress Party (İTF).
Administrative divisions[edit | edit source]
The Republic has a federal structure and is considered to be a union of states (eyalet; pl. eyaletler), which are ruled by Chief governors (başmudîr; pl. başmudîrler), who are appointed by the Vice President.There are 3 constitutent states in the Republic.
These states are divided into provinces (vilayet; pl. vilayetler); there are 12 such provinces. Each province is ruled by a Provincial governor (vâli; pl. vâliler), who is chosen by the people in the Provincial elections.
The provinces are further divided into districts (sancak; pl. sancaklar) which is governed by the District officers (sancakdâr; pl. sancakdârlar), who are chosen by the Provincial governors. There are 43 districts in the Republic.
Each of these districts are further divided into cities (şehir; pl. şehirler), suburbs (nâhiye; pl. nâhiyeler), areas (mıntıka; pl. mıntıkalar) and localities (mahalle, pl. mahalleler).
Geography[edit | edit source]
Located in Southeastern Europe and Southwestern Asia, Anatolian Republic consists of a mountainous mainland speckled with islands in its maritime territory. The Republic is located at the crossroads of Africa, Asia and Europe. The country lies approximately between latitudes 35°N and 43°N, and longtitudes 25°E and 38°E. The Republic covers 546,883.64 square kilometers (211,152.95 sq mi). The Republic is the world’s 49th-largest country in the world; smaller than Kenya and larger than mainland France. The country is surrounded by three seas: Aegean Sea, Black Sea and Sea of Marmara. The coasts open up to the Mediterranean sea. The extreme points are:
- North: Kofçaz, Kirklareli sancak
- South: Cape Anamur, Seyhan sancak
- East: Uzunpınar, Kayseri sancak
- West: Babakale, Kale-i Sultani sancak
The Mount Erciyes (3,917 meters) is the highest mountain in the Republic.
Geology[edit | edit source]
Earthquake[edit | edit source]
Climate[edit | edit source]
According to the Köppen climate classification, the climate varies from Mediterranean climate (Csa) in the West to Cold semi-arid climates (BSk) in the middle to Humid continental climate (Dfb, Dsb) in the East.
Climate change[edit | edit source]
Biodiversity[edit | edit source]
The Republic includes portions of two biodiversity hotspots: the Mediterranean Basin and the Irano-Anatolian region. bout 1500 species of vertebrates have been recorded in the country and around 19,000 species of invertebrate. There are about 11,000 species of flowering plants; some of the world's staple crops were first cultivated in this area, and many of their wild relatives are still found here. Due to its location, the country is used by migratory birds as a resting point.
Nature[edit | edit source]
Islands[edit | edit source]
This is a list of islands of Anatolian Republic. In the parentheses following the name of the island is the other/official name of the island. There are around 98 officially recognised islands and islets in the country.
Government[edit | edit source]
Foreign relations[edit | edit source]
Anatolian Republic's foreign policy is conducted through the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and its head, the Minister for Foreign Affairs, currently İbrahim Çoban. Officially, the main aims of the Ministry are to represent Anatolian Republic before other states and international organizations; safeguard the interests of the state and of its citizens abroad; promote Anatolian culture; foster closer relations with its allies; and encourage international cooperation.
Additionally, due to its political and geographical proximity to Europe, Asia, the Middle East and Africa, Anatolian Republic is a country of significant geostrategic importance, which it has leveraged to develop a regional policy to help promote peace and stability in the Balkans, the Mediterranean, and the Middle East. This has accorded the country middle power status in global affairs.
Military[edit | edit source]
Law[edit | edit source]
Judiciary[edit | edit source]
A step towards modern judiciary was taken in 1927, when the coup introduced a triumvirate: the Sultan, the President and the Sheikh-ul-Islam.
The Sheikh was representative of the judiciary; the President was the representative of executive while the Sultan was the representative of legislative. The Sultan was removed from the triangle later on.
Later, the Judiciary was refined to a council of jurists: half of whom came from shariah schools and schools of constitutional law. This arrangement remains as such today.
Due to this assortment of judges, it is harder for the executive to have a considerable control over judiciary. Though, the judiciary is independent of has at times created political turmoil in cases of no consensus.
Today, each eyalet has its own version of the Supreme Court, the High court. Each vilayet has a provincial court. Each sancak has a district court. Some cities have a special Mayoral court for local matters.
Economy[edit | edit source]
Natural gas[edit | edit source]
Agriculture and natural resources[edit | edit source]
Demographics[edit | edit source]
Ethnic groups[edit | edit source]
The Turkish people form the majority of the country's population at 44.6 million people (68%). It is believed that many other ethnic groups have been labelled as Turkish, hence, the multitude.
The Greek people form the single largest minority group with 14 million people (22.4%).
The Kurdish people at 1.7 million people (2.6%) are mostly concentrated in the border areas.
Jews comprise almost half a million people (1%) of the population.
Functional urban areas[edit | edit source]
Language[edit | edit source]
Turkish and Greek are the official languages of the country. Turkish can be used as a language for daily life of the citizenry and is a lingua franca in the country. While, Greek is primarily used by Greeks concentrated in Thrace and Western portions of Anatolia.
Religion[edit | edit source]
Education[edit | edit source]
The history of education dates back to the Byzantine era, while concept of schooling arrived in the Seljuk period. Numerous schools were built to teach jurists. The modern process of education began in the Tanzimat period. Today, the Ministry of Education is responsible for the administration of the national education system. The Council for Education is responsible for setting the curriculum, having annual checking, regulating school-teacher-student-parent interactions and setting national standards & targets which are required to be met.
Healthcare[edit | edit source]
In 2012, there were 804 hospitals with 186,000 beds. However, as of 2016, there were 744 public hospitals, of which 636 general hospitals and 108 specialised hospitals with a total capacity of 180,000 beds.
Transport[edit | edit source]
Road transport[edit | edit source]
Public transport[edit | edit source]
Cycling[edit | edit source]
Water transport[edit | edit source]
Air transport[edit | edit source]
Communications[edit | edit source]
The oldest forms of communication in the Anatolian Republic is by sending letters. The Republic has several post offices (Postahane or Posta defteri).
Telegraph was popular in the 20th century and was written in a special code called Moritz code, created by Hans Moritz.
Telephones were invented by the Sierran inventor Alexander Bramble in TBD. Five years later, the Republic received it’s first telephone (now displayed at the Pera Museum). Mobile phones were introduced in TBD.
With the spread of social media, communication and global connectivity have increased, and so has increased risk of online frauds.
The famous worldwide search engine company Cüstücu! is based and was founded in the Anatolian Republic. It has since radiated to all parts of the world. The company still runs several hackathons and coding lessons to young programmers. A recently devised programme "U CODE, WE HIRE" is run annually which provides employment opportunities to the most outstanding coders in the Republic and abroad.
Culture[edit | edit source]
Art, architecture and philosophy[edit | edit source]
Visual Arts[edit | edit source]
The early Ottoman paintings survive to this day. Matrakçı Nasuh Efendi's paintings of Suleiman The Magnificient's campaign against Kingdom of Hungary. However, Osman Hamdi's paintings lay the base of the modern art.
Carpet weaving[edit | edit source]
Carpet weaving has been an ancient tradition in the country dating back to Old Turkic era. There has been a lot of Persian influence in this context. Carpets are also an important export for the country and a symbol of its culture.
Calligraphy[edit | edit source]
Calligraphy has also been a very crucial tradition in the country, dating back to the Seljuk rule. The famous Divani style of calligraphy was invented by the Ottomans. Hattathanes have been built in all major cities to facilitate education in this art.
Shadow plays[edit | edit source]
Anatolian value system[edit | edit source]
The Republic has been influenced by the Hanafi and Sufi doctrine in Sunni Islam. This reflects in the country's sufistic culture. There are Tekkes built for Sufi Orders amongst whom: Naqshbandis, Qadris and Shadhilis are the most practised. These were given preference by the Sultans and rose to prominence in their reigns. The most popular sufi remains Mevlana Rumi whose shrine in Konya is visited to this day by thousands of people. There are semas and mehfils that take place weekly or at times of religious importance. Zikir, Hamd and Neshids are performed in these semas.
The Anatolians are a value and moral-oriented people. They tend to place morals on a higher ground. Even smoking and swearing are seen in bad light by the locals. Lying is frowned upon and backbiting considered offensive.
Anatolians and ecology[edit | edit source]
Anatolian cuisine[edit | edit source]
Anatolian literature[edit | edit source]
Sports[edit | edit source]
In the modern times, Football has gained immense popularity, with the establishment of several clubs and local stadiums (Istadya pl. Istadyalar). The Anatolian Football Team (AAT) represents the country internationally.
The country was selected to host the 2020 Summer Olympics, which was its first.
Media[edit | edit source]
Cinema[edit | edit source]
Films[edit | edit source]
Programmes[edit | edit source]
Holidays[edit | edit source]
|Date||English name||Local name||Remarks|
|23 July||Republic Day||Yevm-i Cumhuriyet|
|5 March||Anatolia Day||Yevm-i Anadolu|
|20 December||Thrace Day||Yevm-i Rumeli|