Ancient Sillas

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Ancient Sillas encompasses Sillenic civilization from the Sinitian dynasty in 32X, to the Fall of Sillas under the Qeran dynasty in 145X. It was preceded by the Sillenic Dark Ages, and succeeded by the Three Empires period. Sillas began as a walled settlement at the confuence of the TBD and TBD Rivers, with archaeological sites pushing the date of the city's foundation as early as -300. Early Sillenes cultivated rice and tree crops such as abaca and coconut; by the dawn of the first millenia, the city had about 20,000 inhabitants - no doubt aided by the area's fertility. However, the city would later grow to become one of the largest city's in antiquity, having a million inhabitants in 1300. Sillas would eventually expand beyond the Sillenic plain, giving its name to the empire over which it administered, and the widespread civilization it had cultivated and disseminated. Ancient Sillas was known for its legendary wealth, and it status as one of the few unambiguous matriarches.

Ancient Sillas' government is considered to have elements of monarchy, republicanism, and ancient democracy. The Empress was theoretically an elected position, however elections - which were held every decade - were affirmatory. In practice, succession was hereditary, with the Empress bequeathing the throne to her daughter or niece. The Empress headed both government and military affairs (the latter as its Commander-in-Chief). However, the Empress' power was shared with the Six Ministers (among whom she was "first among equals") and the popularly-elected State Council. The Censorate was the supervisory branch of government, and was tasked with the oversight of local governments. Ancient Sillas was ruled by a class of professional bureaucrats known as the "scholarly-gentry". While membership in the scholarly-gentry was determined by civil service examinations, there was considerable overlap with the landed gentry and merchants - as they were the only ones wealthy enough to undertake years of intensive study. Another prominent institution was the Orthodox Anystessean Church, whose status as the state church being enshrined in the law.

According to tradition, Sillas was founded in -XXXX OM, after a woman named TBD was given the task of establishing civilization by the Sun Goddess Bathala. Sillas was a part of the Sillenic Mound-Builder civilization, which was known for the fortifications (rammed earth-walls and palisades) that surrounded its settlements. The Mound-Builder civilization would later be succeeded by the Sillenic Bronze Age civilization, which lasted from the earliest attestations of the Sillenic script in -150 to the last edition of the Bamboo Annals in 70. Sillas' cultural foundation is believed to have been established during this period. The Sillenic Bronze Age would be followed by the Sillenic Dark Age. The first Empress, Suncia, would unify the Sillenic plain - thus initiating the Sinitian dynasty. Suncia is credited with laying the basis of Sillas' administrative system, imperial examinations, and also its military. Suncia is also the author of the famous 'Art of War', an influential treatise that would influence Sillenic military tradition until the modern era. The Sinitian dynasty would generally be a period of rapid territorial and economic expansion. The Sinitian dynasty would be followed by the Holandesian dynasty, which was marked by the introduction of Western culture - including Ulm. Conflict between 'Orthodox' Ulm, and Oriental Ulm, as well as the pagan majority, would lead to the disastrous Cassanderian Revolt. The revolt would be suppressed thanks to a young woman named Anystesses, who would later be regarded as the Anointed One or "Cixi" in Anystessean tradition. The Romanian dynasty would reach its apogee under the Emperor Adriano, who succeeded in conquering Kaloma, Teninukal, and East Makuku, and established Sillas as the regional hegemon in the Treaty of Doulaba. After his death, Sillas would then be ruled by a succession of weak leaders until the reign of Dioklesa. Dioklesa would reform the government and military - though at the expense of republican institutions. Dioklesa would also launch the last and most intense of the Anystessean persecutions. She would bequeath the empire to three of her proteges, who would fight against each other. The winner, Kostantina, would become the first Anystessean Empress.

Kostantina and her descendants, would oversee the height of Ancient Sillas. In the 11th and 12th centuries, Sillas would become fully-Anystesseanized, with the only recognized minority religions being Ulm and Irrulmianism. Under Bria the Great, Sillas would expand to encompass the entirety of Adzea - which the non-Sillenic regions turned into "commanderies". Sillenic culture and the Anystessean region would be imposed into these regions...The TBD Crisis dealt a serious blow to the Sillenic Empire. Beggining with Theodora the Restorer, Sillas underwent a sustained but ultimately incomplete recovery. The "Late Sillenic Empire" was marked by economic decline, population pressures, the deterioration of republican institutions, increased religious fervor - including the persecution of non-Anystesseans, and moral panic. The TBD Plague in the mid-15th century struck a final blow to a civilization already under a decline. The Capture of Sillas in 145X, by the TBD tribe, would result in the collapse of the Sillenic Empire. Some of Sillas' commanderies, such as the Beraba Commandery, would be able to fend off the nomadic invasions and would continue to be ruled by a Sillenic minority. Sillas proper itself would fracture into numerous states, with the most prominent being Kaloma, Cypretzija, and the Amputian-ruled North Sillas. The following era, the Three Empires era, would see endemic warfare among this "triarchy" of states.

History[edit]

Main article: History of Ancient Sillas

Prehistory[edit]

See also: Neolithic Sillas, Sillenic Mound-building civilization

Stone tools and fossils of butchered animal remains have determined that early hominins were present in Sillas as early as -1,000,000; a date consistent with the commonly accepted timeline of human migration. The oldest fossil remnant belonging to H. sapiens has been been dated, through the process of urarinum-series dating, to between -250,000 and -200,000; thus marking Sillas to be one of the earliest places to be settled by anatomically modern humans. However, these populations did not give rise to the current-day Sillenic population – rather, the modern scientific consensus is that the population is descended from three distinct waves of human settlement between the years -25,000 and -5,000.

Neolithic settlements were established as early as -10,000. Artifacts from the Neolithic were characterized by limited artistic complexity, as well as a seemingly-low degree of social stratification. Abaca seemed to be the sole fiber used in the weaving of garments until the discovery of sericulture in -3000 (based on discovered textile fragments), and the introduction of cotton from Qaryaat in ~500. During the Chalcolithic period, there was a clear increase in the level of social stratification, with the growth of the upper class stimulating the production of garments and ceramics. The first porcellaneous wares could be dated from this period. Large-scale overseas trade, as suggested by the introduction of certain crops not native tot he region, seemed to have also first precipitated during this period. However, native crops such as rice, plantains, taro, millet, and breadfruit remained the staples. Due to the extensification of agriculture, four kinds of proto-states emerged: semi-nomadic pastoralists, warrior societies, highland plutocracies, and port principalities. The latter three are characterized under the broadly-defined "Sillenic Mound-building culture" due to their practice of constructing settlements surrounded by palisades placed on top of raised earthworks.

Archaic period[edit]

Main article: Sillas during the Archaic period

The "Bamboo Annals" was discovered in 2820. It is a compilation of records spanning over ~250 years starting in -150, and ending in 100. The civilization it records is generally considered to be a direct continuation of the earlier cultures. The characteristics that defined Classical Sillas seemed to have already developed by this time. For example, the city had a council comprised of five ministers, with each presiding over different aspects of the state. The role they place depends on the number of votes they acquire; for example, one that received the most votes presides over military affairs, the second-most over foreign affairs, and so forth. By the start of the Classical period, this system eventually matured into the "Six Ministries" system. In addition, was a system of civil service centered around competitive examinations, with appointments at least nominally based on merit rather than birth right. The material culture also indicated continuity with both the preceding civilization, and the civilization which succeeded it (which lays the basis of modern-day Sillan culture). Major principles of Sillan architectural tradition, with its emphasis on horizontal (rather than vertical) construction, usage of beams rather than arches, and urban planning could be traced from this period. However, unlike the Classical period, social stratification was codified, with Archaic Sillenic society sharing many traits characteristic of feudalism. For example, while an aristocracy comprised of wealthy land-owners also existed, the primary form of land tenure was the feudal contract. In this system, peasants would be alloted a sub-quality plot of land (usually being forced to cultivate root crops) in-exchange for also working on their respective lord's estate. As a result, the majority (~60–80%) of the population were serfs. While chattel slavery did not exist (and never existed formally in Sillenic history), debt bondage – a form of slavery – was a common occurence.

During this time period, there was seemingly limited territorial expansion. However, ten new major settlements were founded (Ermita, Benonda, Cezon, Macachi, Bizhisi, Sanuan, Malabon, Sumagna, Betania, and Elanoria) within the vicinity of the capital, which collectively correspond to eleven of the sixteen constituent districts of modern-day Sillas province. The growing needs of these settlements led to economic specialization, as well as the increased exploitation of the frontier (and its inhabitants) for the purposes of fulfilling these cities's needs; this was especially crucial due to the relatively low level of productivity, as the main form of agriculture is slash-and-burn (or fire-fallow) cultivation. Each of these "colonies" were built surrounded by a wall of raised earthworks topped by a wooden palisade; though over time, these were replaced by a core of rammed earth which was then reinforced with brick. The navigability of the Paciquus and the Mariquina Rivers facilitated communication between the sixteen settlements, as well as allowed increased access to foreign trade, as records from the ancient Qeran civilization suggested small-scale trade between it and Archaic Sillas.

In 100, the Bamboo Annals suddenly ceased writing records; an anomaly given the fact that it had consistently done so for the previous two and a half centuries, and due to the high degree of literacy (especially during the time). This is often considered by modern scholars as the start of the "Sillenic Dark Ages". Leading hypotheses include foreign invasion, a serf revolt, or a drought – though the last is often countered by the fact that there were no geological anomalies in the soil of the time. The other two could not be supported nor discredited due to the lack of any literary (or oral) records. However, some scholars believe that pre-Classical Sillenic civilization was already in a state of decline prior to 100, or that the Bamboo Annals themselves were written by foreign observers. The succeeding period is characterized by decentralization as contact between sixteen cities was minimal, while economic decline (as indicated by a notable decline in excavated luxury goods dating to the period) was seemignly apparent. The only record in the intervening years between the start of the Dark Ages and start of the Classical period was the "Imperial Decree of Year 379", which was promulgated by a certain "Lin Catrina, Empress of Sillas" in Year 229. The document was very extensive, encompassing numerous reforms including: the restriction of suffrage to aristocratic households (which was rescinded by the start of Classical period), the extension of term length, the establishment of a three-tier administrative system, and the expansion of the criminal code. However, the most important were its references to men, as the transition to an unambigous matriarchy during this period resulted in the deterioration of their status. Men became barred from civil service, and only men of aristocratic descent (up to the third generation) are qualified to enter military examinations and become military officers; thus effectively establishing systematic sexism and further entrenching misandry into Sillenic society.

Early Republic[edit]

The Five Good Empresses[edit]

Olanda dynasty[edit]

Sillenic Wars[edit]

Late Republic[edit]

Romana dynasty[edit]

Araba dynasty[edit]

First Triumvirate[edit]

Second Triumvirate[edit]

Imperial period[edit]

Costantina the Great and Anystesseanism[edit]

Society and politics[edit]

Main article: Society and culture of Ancient Sillas

Class structure[edit]

See also: Citizenship in Ancient Sillas, Serfdom in Ancient Sillas

Government[edit]

EMPRESS – head of government & state
  • affirmed by the people in "elections"
  • head of government
  • considered primus inter pares ("first between equals") as the chief executive
  • also commander-in-chief of the sillenic army
SIX SECRETARIES – executive, legislative & judicial
  • appointed on the basis of merit
  • edict review
SIX BOARDS – executive
  • edict execution
  • headed by the six secretaries

BOARD OF PERSONNEL

  • oversees civil service:
    • appointments
    • merit ratings
    • promotions/demotions

BOARD OF RITES

  • receives foreign missions
  • presides over government academies
  • administers annual civil service exams
  • presides over public health system

BOARD OF JUSTICE

  • in charge of judicial & penal processes
    • incl. turning people into penal laborers
  • may single out cases for retrial

BOARD OF FINANCE

  • conducts census
  • collects tax
  • mints coins
  • oversees government monopolies
  • administers dole

BOARD OF PUBLIC WORKS

  • hires artisans & laborers for temporary service
  • maintains of roads & canals
  • maintains public facilities

BOARD OF DEFENSE

  • presides over military affairs
  • responsible for law enforcement through military police
POPULAR ASSEMBLY (TRIBUTES) – legislative
  • elected
    • directly in Sillas
    • indirectly in provinces (pyramidal system)
  • only members of the magisterial class can be elected to public office
  • edict formulation (initiation & deliberation)
  • may petition edicts
  • viewed as representative of public will, as they are viewed as intermediaries between government and the masses
  • ambassadors are expected to be accessible to normal, everyday citizens
CENSORATE – supervisory
  • supervises government officials
    • incl. local governments
  • reviews complaints over corrupt officials, submits them to board of personnel
COURT OF AUDIT – auditory
  • assesses government’s performance
  • reviews complaints over government policies, submits them to the six secretaries

Law[edit]

  • inquisitorial system
lower level
  • head judge = commissioner of justice; may be interceded by the governor
  • other judges = district magistrate(s) involved in case
  • no jury
highest level
  • head judge = minister of justice; may be interceded by the empress
  • other judges = district magistrate(s) involved in case
  • popular assembly = jury

Administrative regions[edit]

  • four levels of administration:
    • national
    • provincial
    • municipal
    • district
  • province
    • led by a governor
    • four boards (personnel, taxation, public works, justice)
    • provincial assembly – no set allocations
  • municipality
    • led by a mayor
    • three commissions (personnel, taxation & public works, justice)
    • municipal council – one seat per district
  • district
    • ruled by a council of resident district magistrates, who divide their collective duties amongst each other
    • most experienced district magistrate usually assumes position of primus inter pares (first among equals)
    • helped by privately-hired aides (clerks & attendants)
    • impermanent "district assemblies" may be convened

Education[edit]

  • the church had an important role in educating the masses
  • masses were required to send their kids to parochial schools (while they were the property of the church, they received financial support from the government)
    • they received religious education but were also taught basic literacy and arithmetic
    • as a result, much of the population was able to read (but not write)
    • attendance was irregular (since many were farmers, and had to help their parents); they were no longer compelled to attend classes once they are sufficiently literate and numerate (as deemed by the district magistrate)
  • there were also monastic schools (intended to teach future clerics), which taught:
    • religious law
    • ecclesiastical law
    • theology
    • metaphysics
    • scriptural analysis
  • both parochial and monastic schools were staffed by clerics (nuns and monks)
  • middle and upper-class children enrolled into government academies, often starting at age of 7
    • many also hired tutors to help them gain a competitive edge
  • preparatory course
    • reading & writing
    • grammar
    • literature
    • arithmetic
    • geometry
  • while completing the preparatory course did not entitle one to a government post, it taught practical skills and carried a decent level of prestige
    • ultimately, over 90% of students would not pursue higher education (the 10% that do were often aspiring government officials, and were of aristocratic background)
  • after completing the preparatory course, students would pick between three courses (see below)
  • legal course (most common)
    • oratory skills of logic & rhetoric
    • law
    • philosophy
    • politics
  • martial course (only one open to males, least prestigious)
    • strategy
    • equestrianism
    • archery
  • medical course (least common, most prestigious)
    • medicine
    • astronomy
  • three tests (provincial, metropolitan, and then national)
    • held triennially
    • only top 10% advanced to next tier
    • these tiers corresponded to the three degrees (primary, secondary, and tertiary)
  • as civil servants often started their careers as clerks and attendants, they often were overskilled

Military[edit]

Main article: Military of Ancient Sillas

Cavalry[edit]

  • origins
    • consciously developed from earlier equestrian and archery traditions
    • before, cavalry or even chariots was rarely used in warfare apart from scouting
  • horse–archers
    • equipment
  • lancers
    • equipment

Infantry[edit]

Auxiliaries[edit]

Siege technology[edit]

Tactics[edit]

Archaic
  • ritualistic
  • brief + tactical; little casualties
  • based on heavy infantry fighting on a phalanx
Classical
  • still largely still small-scale
  • emphasized swift battle victories
    • as such, fortifications were deliberately avoided
    • early retreat was common to avoid bloodshed
    • wars were done in numerous successive battle waves
  • tactics are highly codified, based on "Art of War", which emphasized:
    • speed & mobility
    • usage of ranged weaponry
    • pscyhological warfare
  • pscyhological warfare examples:
    • buildings were burnt
    • deception (faked lesser or more numbers)
    • embargo to starve opposition
  • based on light cavalry (horse–archer)
    • mainly called aristocratic women; aristocratic men sometimes fulfilled heavy cavalry roles
    • peasant men were sometimes levied as pikemen (rare)
  • later, as siege engine technology matured + professional army was established, tactics changed
Imperial
  • was capable of waging protracted warfare
  • emphasized shock and large-scale decisive battles
  • more flexible tactics
  • heavy cavalry (lancers) was given more importance
  • horse–archers evolved into a mounted infantry role (they can serve as both mounted and foot troops) and fulfilled more secondary roles (only called on the front-line during specific enemy positions)
  • infantry was given more emphasis
    • constituted of pikemen
    • flanks were protected by crossbowmen + light cavalry
  • maturation of siege engine + projectile technology

Economy[edit]

Main article: Economy of Ancient Sillas

In its peak in 1300, the entire Sillenistic Empire is estimated to have had a GDP (PPP) per capita of between $640 to $720 in 1990 prices. However, the Sillenic core itself was substansially wealthier and was exceedingly well-developed, with the corresponding figure being ~$960 ($1,842 in 2019 prices) – more than twice the levels needed for subsistence. This could be attributed to a high level of human capital (by pre-industrial standards), and tremendous natural and human resources within Sillenic control. An Azourian noted in his visit to Sillas that he witnessed, "four months of dust, four months of mud, and four months of everything" – a statement that testifies to the predictable climate, and the fertility of the land. These factors led to a very productive agricultural sector that produced both staples and cash crops, and served as the backbone of the Sillenic economy. Meanwhile, Sillas was also highly populous and was able to mobilize massive amount of labor through its imposition of corvée. At the start of the Sillenistic period in 1000 had 6.9 million people – in 1300, this figure was 17.5 million, with the 3.5 million settlers in the frontier and even more individuals of mixed ancestry. In comparison, the residents of Syres proper was less than a fifth of the figure in 1300. In addition, all Sillenes displayed a high numeracy rate and wielded the ability to read (but not to write) due to the concentrated effort of the church and scholar–gentry to provide basic education to the citizenry. While an overwhemingly agrarian society, Ancient Sillas achieved a high degree of urbanization (15–20% lived in urban areas using a threshold of ~10,000) and industrialization; the latter phenomenon was centered around the city of Sillas itself and the surrounding satellite cities and could be described as the first instance of "proto-industrialization". A combination of all of these factors meant Sillas was highly commercialized and displayed high labor specialization – stimulating a true "market economy" and increasing the power of the urban merchantile and artisan classes.

Although barter was used in Ancient Sillas, iron bars – due to their abundance, intrinsic value, and government monopolization of ferrous metallurgy – was the main commercial of financial exchange. Coinage (barilla – from the word meaning "saltmarsh plant") was not made until the Occidentalizing period, under the reign of Vandena. It would take a few centuries until coinage became widely-accepted, however. Despite the extensive minting of coinage, most transactions were nevertheless measured by weight and not by the number of coins. By the ante-Anystessean period, the main legal tender asides from grain (which was measured in bala "bales", or ~60kg) was copper coinage. Copper coins individually had low purchasing power (one-sixth of a silver tael, and nearly one-thousandth of a gold tael) since they were unverifiable without denting them. The solution to this problem was the creation of holes in the middle which would allow the person to tie them together in massive quantities. Gold became ubiquitous after the acquisition of mountain provinces of Punauia and Nakaroa, and even more under trade with the Yannian states starting in the reign of Bria the Magnificent. This, and the rapid monetization of the economy during the ante-Anystessean period – especially following the Sillenic Wars and the total conquest of Makuku, Teninukal, and Kaloma. This coincided with the rapid monetization of the economy during the ante-Anystessean period, which raised the issue of potential inflation, which would disrupt the burgeoning commercial economy. As a result, both Empress Traiana and Emperor regnant Adrianos instituted fixed conversion rates between gold and silver taels, copper coins, and bales of grain. A gold tael was equivalent to 14,000 coins, a silver tael ~140, and finally, a bale of grain was equivalent to ~600.

Ancient Sillas relied heavily on commerce for its economic well-being as it profited heavily from both internal and external trade. The customs tax (which amounted to ~5%) was one of the sources of tax revenue apart from the land and poll taxes, and from government monopolies on iron and salt. Tolls were stationed in major trading hubs – including maritime ports – to enforce its collection. The main port with the West was Exhulapolis in Kaloma, while to the East, it was Agrandisopolis in Beraba. A sizeable portion of Sillenes lived well above subsistence, with around maybe one-fourth to one-third having an household income 2.4-times higher than subsistence levels – amounting to $960 per person in 1990 prices; 18,240 barilla. This contributed to a very large consumer market – by the standards of pre-industrial society. Due to a fairly low tax rate, many of these "middling individuals" were able to participate in the consumer market. They often purchased excess foodstuffs such as the Sillenic triad of rice, palm-wine, and copra oil; but also non-alimentary goods such as sugar, abaca, porcelain, and even luxury items such as jewelry, cosmetics, and fragrances. All of these were traded in large quantities – the latter to where exported overseas. Other important goods in the domestic market were iron and steel, salt, fish sauce, gold, indigo and dyewoods, and wax. Indeed, Sillas is unique among the major cities of antiquity in being classified as a "producer" city, rather than a "consumer" city. Instead of deriving the majority of its wealth from tax transfers or non-financial transactions (tribute) in-exchange for services or military protection, Sillas derived its wealth from the production of manufactures as the most industrialized portion of the empire. Specifically, the city of Sillas imported raw material from its hinterlands (initially, its provinces – later its protectorates and fiefdoms); these were then turned into manufactured products that were then exported to the hinterlands. The high added value (to pay for the worker's wages, and due to the added products) resulted in a high profit. Due to this fundamental economic relationship between the city and the periphery, the acquisition of new territories inevitably changed the Sillenic economy. The core always engaged in the cultivation of rice, abaca, and coconuts. The periphery was often developed into highly-specialized plantation economies. For example, Upper Makuku cultivated sugarcane, indigo, and other dyewoods while Lower Makuku – owing to its mountainous geography – engaged in forestry or mining, or acquired products such as civet and resin.

The majority of land was either owned by the church, or by the landed gentry (which larger interlapped with the ruling scholar-gentry). The Code of Sanzua expanded regulations on the relationship between the landlady and the farmer. For example, the level of rent was capped at ~25% of the total produce in regions with one crop – and twice that in regions with two crops or more. Later on, the abolition of serfdom ensured that farmers were guaranteed the right of mobility. Similarly, numerous elaborations of citizen law allowed them to exercise their right to form legally-binding contracts with the landlords on an equal basis – often with the aid and supervision of government scribes and jurists. About half of peasants owned their land, though this did not necessarily equate to a difference in living standards. Most plots of land were small, since they cultivated rice or tree crops. In line with pre-industrial societies, agricultural productivity was low (with a grain yield of 1,000–1,700kg per hectare depending on the province). As a result, agriculture was labor-intensive and the bulk of farms employ familial labor. However, in the provinces or the frontier, large plantations existed. An aforementioned example of this is the plantations of the Makuku region. Another example would be in Qaryaat, where there was an important industry involving the export of millet and barley to Sillas to meet both national demand for grain and dole requirements (~15kg of grain per person, per month). Other non-agricultural estates – most prominently mines – also existed. In Beraba, there were mines that extracted gold, iron, and gemstones for Sillenic use. All of these would often hire wage laborers, or farmers in the off-season, as slavery was explicitly prohibited among Sillenes and even non-Sillenes. Monasteries that owned frontier land often cultivated the Sillenic triad as part of the state policy of Sillenization – liquor and oil were especially profitable. Most plantations were owned by the aristocracy – both indigenes, and settler families. Sometimes, Sillenic landladies would be absent and would hire an overseer.

Agriculture[edit]

Foreign trade[edit]

Taxation[edit]

  • disposable income tax (10%–15% of income over 400kg of grain or its equivalent in bullion)
  • tariffs
  • sales tax*
  • voting tax
  • almsgiving tax

Other major sources of wealth were the monopoly on the trade of liquor and grain, ferrous metallurgy, and mining.

Culture[edit]

Main article: Society and culture of Ancient Sillas

Language[edit]

The official language of the Empire was Sillenic, thus all official documents and records were written exclusively in Sillenic. It was also the language of the law courts, and of the military. However, the usage of languages other than Sillenic and Qeran continued – even within Sillas proper. These included related languages such as Makuku, Olmac, Sayaleni, and Exhulan (including the Kaloman variety). However, also included were unrelated languages such as Beraban, Mohejarian, Gharenese, and Drakian. Indeed, Sillenic did not displace the local languages of conquered regions, with the exception of the sparsely-populated Protectorate of the South (which encompassed Avsylann, Jauvuk, and Zasana). While law courts were conducted in Sillenic, the legal code was often written in both Sillenic and the local language (or languages) to ensure the correct understanding and application of law. In the Qeran West, the use of Sillenic was far more limited. Sillenic identity continued to be tied to fluency in Sillenic (and adherence to the Orthodox Church), the Qeran elite spoke it as a second or third language. Sillenic was also spoken by the clergy, and as Anystesseanism's liturgical language, mass was conducted in Sillenic (as to preserve the meaning of scripture). Qeran continued to be the main literary and vernacular language; thus the West's non-Qeran subjects felt more compelled to speak Qeran than Sillenic.

During the early Imperial era, Sillenic empresses placed legal restrictions on the use of non-Sillenic languages in the East (this even encompassed the use of Qeran and Exhulan). As they did not care to learn any language other than Sillenic, they also often pressured their Qeran co-monarchs and delegates to refrain from speaking Qeran (or using an interpreter) during their annual deliberative meetings. This policy changed during the late Imperial era, which saw the East and West united under a single monarch (who was of Qeran descent) – in fact, historian TBD quotes TBD as referring to Sillenic and Qeran as "our two languages". Over time, most of the West spoke Qeran as either one's native language, or one's second language; this situation is paralleled in Sillas proper, which saw the extinction of the Olmac and Makuku languages, and the decline of Sayaleni and Kaloman, due to the dominance of Sillenic. Commonalities in syntax, vocabulary, and phonology facilitated the adoption of Sillenic. Outside of Sillas proper, many Sillenes migrated to cities where they eventually constituted the majority or plurality – thus, many locals especially those involved in commerce, learned Sillenic out of necessity. Furthermore, non-Sillenes who converted to Anystesseanism were also exposed to the language during mass.

Religion[edit]

Sillenic polytheism[edit]

Ulm[edit]

Anystesseanism[edit]

Main article: Anystesseanism
Further reading: Sillenic Universalist Church, Anystessean clergy

Ethics and morality[edit]

Art, music, literature[edit]

Cuisine[edit]

Games and recreation[edit]

Science and technology[edit]

Legacy[edit]

See also[edit]