Annexation of Rehe Province by the Republic of China

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Annexation of Rehe Province by the Republic of China
October 10 2011 ROCA Specops 01.jpg
Chinese troops of the ROC Army Special Operations Forces on the streets of Chaoyang, Rehe.
Date25 February – 21 March 2014
LocationRehe Province, Manchuria
Result
  • Chinese troops invade and occupy key locations in Rehe, including military bases and airports, on Ren Longyun's orders.
  • Much of the Manchurian Army and Navy forces in Rehe defect to China, including the deputy commander of the Manchurian Navy.
  • The provincial government is dissolved and a pro-Chinese governor is installed after government buildings are seized by ROC troops.
  • The government declares Rehe a province of the Republic of China, and a Treaty is signed between it and China to formally annex it on 16 March.
  • Remaining Manchurian Armed Forces are evicted from their bases and Manchuria abandons Rehe.
  • International sanctions are introduced on China.
Belligerents
 China  Manchuria
Strength

Protestors

  • 40,000

Armed militia

  • 5,700

Chinese military forces

  • 35,000 troops

Protestors

  • 10,000

Manchurian military forces

  • 22,000
Casualties and losses
18 protestors killed 29 soldiers killed
1,400 soldiers detained

The Rehe Province, the southernmost region of Manchuria, was annexed by the Republic of China between February and March 2014 and has since been administered as the 24th province of China. The region was previously governed as two separate provinces, Chaoyang and Huludao, in Manchuria. The annexation from Manchuria followed protests in the region against the government by some of the ethnic Han Chinese population, as the Manchurian government took measures to join the Indo-Pacific Treaty Organization (IPTO) and invited a Sierran military presence onto its territory, seen as a move directed against China. The Chinese government used the violence that broke out in the protests as a justification to intervene, and sent military forces across the Manchurian border into Rehe Province.

On the night of 25 February 2014, Chinese President Ren Longyun and Premier Wu Kaiping had a meeting with the National Security Council to discuss the protests and anti-Chinese violence in the Rehe Province. At the end of the meeting, Ren remarked that "we must start working on returning Manchuria." On 26 February, pro-Chinese demonstrations were held in Chaoyang, the largest city in the region. On 27 February, armed Chinese troops crossed the Manchurian border from several directions and began seizing towns, reaching the capital on 28 February where they took over provincial government buildings. There was almost no resistance from the Manchurian Army, which was completely unprepared for a Chinese invasion. China formally incorporated the region as the Rehe Province into the Republic of China on 16 March 2014, after the new provincial government declared its secession from Manchuria. Manchuria declared a full mobilization of its Armed Forces on 3 March 2014, preventing Chinese troops from entering further into the country.

Manchuria and many other countries consider it to be a violation of international law, and that China signed multiple treaties safeguarding Manchurian sovereignty, including the 2003 Treaty of friendship and cooperation between the Republic of China and the Republic of Manchuria. The League of Nations General Assembly rejected the annexation, adopting a resolution supporting "the territorial integrity of Manchuria within its internationally recognized borders." The LN resolution also rejects the use of military force to change borders and calls on all countries to not recognize Rehe as part of China. In 2016, the LN reaffirmed its condemnation of the annexation and labelled the Rehe Province as a "temporarily occupied region of the Republic of Manchuria". The Republic of China opposes the "annexation" label, considering the local protests by the Han Chinese population to be self-determination of the region to rejoin China.

The extent of the sanctions on China has been limited due to the importance of trade with China for the global economy as a whole.

Background[edit]

History[edit]

Transition[edit]

Manchurian response[edit]

Jin Pai Nai had been president at the time of the annexation and faced widespread protests and backlash over the crisis and was accused of being inable to protect Manchuria's territorial integrity. On March 4, he gave a speech where he officially apologized for being unable to "withstand the full force of the Chinese military dragon" and announced his formal resignation as President of Manchuria and pushed for an early presidential election and schedueled it for April as his last act as president. By April 28, Liu Zhou had won the election and became Manchuria's new president.

On March 22, the Supreme National Assembly signed a resolution condemning the annexation of Rehe Province as illegal and officially designated it as a Manchurian province under Chinese military occupation. The assembly also voted to impose sanctions on China as well as lay out plans for potential boycotts of China as well as for pushing for new trade deals between Manchuria and the states of Anglo-America.

International response[edit]

  •  Astoria – On February 28, President Quinn Foster gave a speech a day after the deployment of Chinese troops to Rehe Province where he condemned the it as an invasion and accused the Republic of China of engaging in an illegal invasion and occupation of Manchu territory and accused China of threateneing Manchuria's sovereignty. First Minister Chase Foley was present at the speech and stated his plan to submit a resolution through the House of Commons which would impose sanctions on Chinese officials and businesses and lay out Astoria's stance on the annexation.
On March 2, the resolution passed and was later enforced as the Manchu Independence Protecton Act of 2014 which layed out new sanctions against the Chinese republic, businesses affiliated with and supportive of the Nationalist government, and also gave Foster permission to deploy 1,000 Astorian troops to Manchuria as part of the CAS Forces – Manchuria to protect the nation from future Chinese aggression.
  •  Sierra – On 26 February, Prime Minister Steven Hong released a statement warning China not to intervene militarily or politically in Manchuria, including the Rehe Province. He expressed "sincere concern for the stability of the region" and urged China to "respect international law and the national sovereignty of Manchuria". Hong encouraged China to be a "good neighbor" and stated "any disruption to the territorial integrity of Manchuria will be destabilizing and detrimental to all parties involved".
On 28 February, Prime Minister Hong had a phone call with President Ren and warned that "there will be serious political and economic repercussions" in response to the Chinese invasion of Manchurian soil. He threatened to withdraw Sierra from upcoming bilateral talks with China and to impose economic sanctions.
On 14 March, Hong issued an executive order authorizing the sanction against certain Chinese nationals who were deemed to have an immediate, direct connection to the Chinese annexation of the Rehe Province. It also froze the assets of certain Chinese officials in Sierra. Parliament also passed a joint resolution formally condemning and disavowing China's actions in Manchuria. Lawmakers vowed to increase military aid and assistance to Manchuria.
  •  Spain: The Government of Spain had issued a statement of neutrality during the beginning of the crisis, with President Felipe Fernando saying: "What China does should be of no concern to Spain nor the rest of the world." going on to say "We do not want to escalate a simple dispute between nations into a fully-fledged war. History must not repeat itself."

See also[edit]