|United Commonwealth of America|
and largest city
|Recognised regional languages||
Spanish · French |
Creole · Taino
|Ethnic groups (2020)||
|Government||Federal single-party military dictatorship|
|August 13, 1898|
|July 24, 1920|
|85,795 km2 (33,126 sq mi)|
• 2020 census
|525.5/km2 (1,361.0/sq mi) (13th)|
|GDP (PPP)||2020 estimate|
|$2.1 trillion (15th)|
• Per capita
|GDP (nominal)||2020 estimate|
|$2.1 trillion (7th)|
• Per capita
medium · medium
very high · very high
|Currency||Antillean dollar (HD)|
|Drives on the||right|
The Antilles (Spanish: Antillas; French: Antilles; Haitian Creole: Zantiyalso) officially known as the United Commonwealth of America is an island nation in the Caribbean archipelago occupying two of the Greater Antilles islands. Its territories encompass the entirety of Hispaniola, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. It shares a maritime border with the Cuban CSR, a socialist commonwealth of the Continental States (UCCS). The main island of Hispaniola spans a total of 76,192-square-kilometre (29,418 sq mi), possessing five mountain ranges and a wide variety of climate and flora fauna. Columbia is the capitol and largest metropolitan area. Other major cities include Davis, Montgomery, New Decatur, Saint Dominic and Whiteport. With 45.2 million inhabitants, the Antillean island of Hispaniola is among the most densely population nations and is the sixth largest economy in North America and is the largest economy in the Caribbean.
The Taíno and Arawak settled the island around 1200 CE, with both being hypothesized to have originated from South America. Christopher Columbus landed on the island on December 6, 1492 at Môle-Saint-Nicolas marking the first European landing in the Americas. Spanish colonizers settled Saint Dominic (established as Santo Domingo) in 1946 and is the oldest permanent European settlement in the Americas. During Spanish colonial rule hundreds of thousands of Tainos were enslaved to work in gold mines with many dying from disease, famine and mass killings. In 1503 the Spanish began importing African through the Atlantic slave trade, displacing much of the islands remaining native populace.Enriquillo lead an unsuccessful uprising which was put down by Columbus. The first successful revolution occurred on the island in 1791 when the Haitian Revolution was successful in the removal of the French colonial government. After the revolution the native Haitians lead a genocide of the French in the 1804 Haitian massacre, which significantly strained Haitian relations with global powers. After a period of independence the Spanish reoccupied the island. American control was established as a concession for the Spanish-American War.
The Continental Revolutionary War in 1917 forced the expulsion of the Federalists from the American mainland, known as the "Great Retreat". in which several millions of Southern European-Americans fled to the island. During the resettlement of nearly 2.8 million Americans the government began a process of Southernization. In the 1960s the Antilles entered into a period of rapid economic growth and industrialization that continued until the 2010s. Since the Federalist flight to the Antilles the Federalists have maintained a single-party military dictatorship.
Classified as a laissez-faire free-market economy, the Antilles maintains the largest free port in North America. With a considerable presence in financial services, manufacturing and creative industries is a diversified economy, having transitioned away from its dependence on the primary sector. It is the 7th largest economy owning its success from the capital flight during the revolution. It is one of the two developed countries in the Caribbean, ranking 16th in GDP per capita and has a GDP total of $2.1 trillion. The nation has consistently ranked highly in ease of doing business index and has one of the lowest corporate taxes in the world. Columbia City is a major site of tourism, gambling, it also serves as a major port for cruise lines. Because of the nations low regulations and lack of safety standards it is a popular flag of convenience which has been a contentious point with the global community. It status as a tax haven has also drawn criticism as the nation is a popular site for the illicit practice of money laundering
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 2.1 Pre-Columbian era (1200-1493)
- 2.2 Colonization of the Antilles (1493–1865)
- 2.3 United Commonwealth early history (1865–1898)
- 2.4 American occupation of the Antilles (1898–1917)
- 2.5 Continental revolution (1917–1921)
- 2.6 Federalist exodus (1921–1923)
- 2.7 Presidential absolutism, Continental invasion (1923–1947)
- 2.8 War of Eradication (1947–1950)
- 2.9 Executive council, military junta (1984–present)
- 3 Geography
- 4 Climate
- 5 Geology
- 6 Government and politics
- 7 Military
- 8 Economy
- 9 Education
- 10 Demographics
- 11 Culture
Pre-Columbian era (1200-1493)
Colonization of the Antilles (1493–1865)
United Commonwealth early history (1865–1898)
American occupation of the Antilles (1898–1917)
Continental revolution (1917–1921)
Federalist exodus (1921–1923)
On May 1, 1921 Anthony Warren declared the establishment of the Continental States, proclaiming the new Continentalist state as the successor of the United Commonwealth and the United States. Fearing retribution from southern blacks and economically disadvantaged southern whites hundreds of thousands of southerners fled in mass towards ports still controlled by the United Commonwealth Navy. Although Warren and the Continentalist Party had declared a victory on the mainland, several key ports and pockets of the South remained in the control of the Federalists. Florida, Georgia and South Carolina were still undergoing a brutal siege from Continentalist forces who were employing total war tactics reminiscent of Sherman's Savannah Campaign. By May 20th nearly 400,000 Americans had relocated to Hispaniola and Puerto Rico, showing signs that the exodus was accelerating as the Continentalists began land reforms and seizing the means of production.
Although the Federalists had previously held an aggressive stance towards the Ku Klux Klan the remaining Federalists on the mainland aligned themselves with the organization in a last effort to fuel the exodus to the Antilles. President Abarough initially rejected the alliance and later in her life grieved for cooperating with the Klan. Federalist officals were hesitant on the proposal as the Klan demanded the exclusion of Roman Catholics and black Americans. Because of the nature of the revolutionary war many of the Catholics in the Northeast and the Midwest were already behind Continental lines and thus were considered a lost cause. Party leaders were prepared to abandon blacks as they were resentful of their alignment with the Continentals as the Federalists had long fought to depict itself as the party of Lincoln. Attenborough met with William Joseph Simmons, the Imperial Wizard of the Klan, to establish an agreement in utilizing Klan members as a front line force against the Continental Revolutionary Army. She agreed to provide concessions to the paramilitary force once the exodus was complete and allowed for several Klan leaders to join her cabinet. It was estimated before the the revolution that there around 4.5 million members, with a third of its membership in the South. Simmons was able to call up around 300,000 men to rise up to bolster the Federalist line.
Klan members and their families slowly began to immigrate in mass to the Antilles as the efforts to portray the conflict as a war between blacks and whites heightened Southern fears. Although black Continentals were recorded to have murdered their former landowners, many poor white sharecroppers were often than not assisting in the bloodshed. Federalist propaganda became so effective that Warren ordered that extrajudicial executions conducted by non-party officials would punishable by death. Anti-continental blacks, Catholics and Jews were refused entry onto departing ships to the Antilles. White men and women were obligated to sign a oath of allegiance to the Federalists, with white women swearing bare at minimum of 4 children (with stipulations in relation to age) and men would join the mass conscription force. During the evacuation the Continental Navy sunk the UCS Endurance which greatly shifted the international community's opinion of the ongoing war and calmed many outcries against Attenborough's alliance with the Klan. In 1998 journalists from Britain revealed that the UCS Endurance was purposefully sent adrift towards the north to be sunk in an effort to sway international and public opinion in favor of the Federalists. By the end of 1921 nearly 800,000 citizens had successfully escaped from the mainland, settling in makeshift refugee camps in Hispaniola, Puerto Rico and Cuba. Material, both economically and culturally important, was transferred to the Commonwealth islands in a lengthy campaign operated since the start of the war. In a coordinated effort with industrial leaders, the Federalist Party dismantled factories and machinery to be sent to Cuba and Hispaniola. Artifacts important to the Federalist Party; Plymouth Rock, the United States Constitution, the Declaration of Independence and the Apotheosis of St. Louis were successfully transferred from Norfolk to Santo Domingo after nearly being lost to the Continental Army in July of 1921.
Presidential absolutism, Continental invasion (1923–1947)
President Attenborough and the 10th Assembly of the United Commonwealth had declared martial law at the beginning of the conflict and mandated that its legal status would stay in effect until restoration of democracy in America. Martial law has been maintained through judicial means on the island for more than a century. Citizens from the mainland viewed the law necessary and widely supported its continuation. From 1923 to 1949 a period known as the Caribbean Culling (apart of the wider Federal Culling which began prior to the Continental Revolution) saw the imprisonment and execution of individuals suspected as being socialists, communists or anti-American. Attenborough signed the 1924 Sedition and Treason Decree, an executive order that allowed for the detention and execution of suspected Continentalists. The act has allowed for the military to have nearly unlimited judicial power since its signing. During the Culling the secret police used the president's decree to terrorize and expel the islands black and mulatto population.
Attenborough, having fallen into a depressed state due to home sickness, secluded herself from governance and the general populace. Military officials slowly overtook much of the administrative duties and began the process of establishing necessary facilities on the northern shore of the island of Hispaniola, fearing that Santo Domingo's southern position made the island vulnerable to attack. On December 1, 1925 the Department of Urban Organization and Planning was established for the purpose of building temporary communities across the island. Tts first act was to level the city of Cap-Haitien to make way for the nation's new capitol; Columbia City. Urban developers fearing the islands limited land area focused heavily on promoting density. In 1926 the government sold significant portions of land to speculators and mineral surveyors which spurred an era of economic development. Remnants of Peabody Coal were reformed into Conway Energy and the company was the first to start mining low-quality lignite, essential to the development of heavy industries and electrical power stations. Many poor white sharecroppers now living in destitute on the island were forced into the mines for work and their conditions significantly worsened overtime. While most American capital fled to Europe many began to see the potential to utilize the cheap labor of the island. Without little worry of labor unions, regulations or public disobedience, various industrial tycoons . European and American banks invested $5.6 billion ($81 billion in 2020 dollars) into mineral extraction activities on the island establish several competing ore companies. From 1926 until 1932 the Antilles rose as a major exporter of bauxite, nickel, copper, silver and gold.
The government focused entirely on the development of infrastructure, utilizing the revenue from land sales to build transit corridors across the island. Railroads were developed to access the interior regions were valuable resources are located. Commonwealth Rail, the state-owned enterprise operated by the military grew extensively and was commercially a success and its revenue was spent entirely on the repayment of debts of the government. In 1929 the railway was sold to various investors, most former railroad barons on the mainland, demanding repayment for the usage of their lines during the war. Attenborough openly came out in support of establishing a state university and in 1932 established the University of the Antilles, which would later be be renamed in her honor in 1980. Attenborough slowly regained control of the government and began to utilize the government expenditure to benefit the general public, creating a slip within the Federalist Party. Attenborough lead the centrist element of the party while Cameron Harrison arose as the leader of the far-right.
War of Eradication (1947–1950)
Executive council, military junta (1984–present)
Government and politics
(Secretary of the Army)
(Secretary of the Air Force)
Secretary of State
(Secretary of the Navy)
The government of the United Commonwealth of America is founded on the premise of a more centralized alteration to the United States, which it see itself as the successor to. Guided by the Federalist Principles, the Constitution of the United Commonwealth states that the republic shall be established on the premise of "liberty, prosperity and protection". Although officially a representative democracy organized as a federal government with 18 semi-autonomous states, all the regions it claims to represent are currently under the control of the Continental States. The government is divided into three branches, the National Assembly, the Executive Council of the United Commonwealth (a modified presidency with an assisting military junta), and the Supreme Court of the United Commonwealth. Currently the National Assembly sits vacant and the Supreme Court and its various judicial appointments have been selected and confirmed by the Executive Council.
The islands of Hispaniola, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands are not considered part of any state within the union but is rather a special territory subject to the absolute legal authority of the federal government. In 1935 various parts of the island were divided into "special townships" which have acted as the local government and in 1998 were transformed in provisional commonwealths and are currently the only aspects of the nation with allow for voter participation. The legal apparatus of the United Commonwealth has justified the prolonged military dictatorship in part because citizen within the eighteen states have not selected candidates for the next Congress to end martial law enacted in 1910s. From 1920 to 1935 Amelia Abarough ruled the islands without interruption until the June 19th Incident, forcing the revitalized the Federalist political machine to establish various new local polities. Abarough utilized the party to establish three separate governments for the islands that would act as provisional governments without any constitutional sovereignty.
The executive is designated by the constitution as the commander-in-chief of the armed forces, however without any federal elections since 1920 the government has operated without an elected president since the death of Abarough in 1983. The Supreme Court ruled against federal elections being held in 1984 stating that the islands were never been admitted by delegates of the union and thus could not participate in the selection of the President. Secretaries of the Army, Navy and Air Force were the only available officials in the line succession and have since rotated every four years for the positions of President, Vice President and Secretary of State.
The legislative body is a bicameral Assembly with 236 seats, with the Senate designated 36 and the House of Representatives 200. Currently the legislature is vacant and is unable to preform its duties designated by the constitution. The last Assembly to operate in its full legal capacity, the 10th Assembly, was captured by the Continentalists and executed on June 4, 1920. In an effort to provide some type of general input the Executive Council created three separate Advisory Councils for the special territories of the three islands. Although elected through popular vote these councils are without any constitutional mandate and any ordinances passed by them may be voided by the Executive Council. Since their creation in 1936 the federal government has allowed for multiparty elections although the government has repeatedly invalidated all mandates passed by non-Federalist officials.
The judicial organ has been historically the more institutionally powerful arm of the government, effectively interpreting the constitution through several cases denying the special territories the ability to vote in federal elections. Interpreting laws established in prior to the revolution to validate the actions of the Executive Council. Currently eleven judges sit on the Supreme Court which judges administrative suits and disciplines public functionaries. Justices are selected by the Executive Council although since the death of President Abarough, the courts have been provided autonomy in selecting their successors in an attempt to maintain a judicial lineage with strong adherence to restraint. Lower courts are rarely used in criminal cases as citizens are still subject to a special court system that is ran by a federal government, utilizing military tribunals in accordance with the 1918 Martial Act.
The Antilles is divided into three subnational divisions known as the provisional commonwealths, which include the Hispaniola, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Originally founded as townships, the government expanded their powers in the 1990s granting them the title of commonwealth without the sovereignty provided to mainland commonwealths. Duties of the commonwealths include regional urban planning, maintaining highways, funding universities and modifying regional tax and legal codes. The provisional commonwealths do not hold judicial power and lack any element of original jurisdiction.
Within the three commonwealths there are a total of 36 county-municipal division known as parishes, 16 of which are categorized as parish cities while the remainder are known as county parishes. Each division has a semi-autonomous elected body and an elected executive head. Within the parish cities executives are known as mayors and in the county parishes they are referred to as county judges. The duties of the local parishes include providing access to clean water, trash collection, education and other duties such as public construction, urban planning and ensuring public safety. Parish municipalities and counties are devoid of any local circuit courts and are instead supplemented by the federal tribunal system.
Parishes are further divided into villages and neighborhoods which focus on specific locale issues and are considerably the most powerful civil divisions of government within the country in part to the nation's affection with the ideals of small government. These divisions share some powers with the county and municipal parishes but in some specific situations, neighborhoods and villages have the ability to appeal to the federal government to exempt them from county taxes and duties.
Largest cities or towns in Hispaniola
2020 Hispaniola Census
|7||Saint Dominic||Madison||908,982||17||Fort Hood||Hood||798,364|
|8||New Richmond||Lee||901,092||18||New Montpelier||Clemenceau||759,516|