|People's Unified Republic of Berima|
República Popular Unificada de Bérima
Motto: "¡Pueden Dios nos vigilan!" (Spanish)
"May God watch over us!"
'Anthem: ''O Bérima es Ubérrima'
'O Berima is Bountiful'
14° 55'N 83° 35'W
|Recognised regional languages||Garifuna|
|Ethnic groups (2012)|
|Government||Unitary presidential republic|
|Manuel Ramon Barbosa Jr.|
|Cámara de los Custodios|
• Declared from Spain
|15 September 1821|
• Declared from the First Mexican Empire
|1 July 1823|
• Declared from the Federal Republic of Central America
|6 October 1838|
• Internationally recognized
|13 March 1842|
• Current constitution
|28 April 1987|
|29,033 km2 (11,210 sq mi) (143)|
• Water (%)
• 2011 census
|129/km2 (334.1/sq mi) (89)|
• Per capita
|Currency||Berriman Peso (BRP)|
|Time zone||CST (UTC-6)|
|Drives on the||right|
|ISO 3166 code||BR|
Berima (/'bɛrɪmɑː/), officially the People's Unified Republic of Berima, (Spanish: República Popular Unificada de Bérima, pronounced: [reˈpuβlika popuˈla uniˈfika ðe Bérima) or simply the Republic of Berima, is a country on the Central American ithsmus mainly situated on the Mosquito Coast bordered by Nicaragua to the south, Honduras to the west, and by the Carribbean Sea along its eastern coastline. The country's legislative and judicial capital is Miraña while the executive capital is the southern port city of Cibia. The largest city is Cortez which is the fourth-largest city in Central America behind Guatemala City and in front of San Pedro Sula. The majority mestizo population of 3.75 million is very ethnically diverse in background and a substantially large minority population of indigenous native people live in the region of La Mosquitia in the areas surrounding the Mosquito Coast. The official state language of Berima is Spanish but a large number of regional native languages are spoken as well.
Berima has been inhabited since precolonial times by several preeminent Mesoamerican cultures such as the Maya and the progenitors of the Miskito people who thrived for hundreds if not thousands of years before Spanish arrival in the sixteenth century. Christopher Columbus landed on Berima during his fourth voyage in 1504 marking the first time a westerner had stepped foot on Berriman soil. Spanish missionaries subsequently arrived in Berima in the late sixteenth century bringing with them Roman Catholicism and the Spanish language which are today the main religion and official language of the nation.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 2.1 Pre-Columbus
- 2.2 First discovery
- 2.3 Spanish arrival
- 2.4 British intervention and the Miskito Kingdom
- 2.5 Spanish return and annexation
- 2.6 Miskito Revolt of 1800 and end of Spanish rule
- 2.7 Renewed British Interests
- 2.8 First Mexican Empire
- 2.9 Federal Republic of Central America
- 2.10 Independence
- 2.11 Coup d'etat of 1842 and Free Berriman State
- 2.12 Los Tiempos Anárquicos
- 2.13 New Berriman Republic
- 2.14 Civil War
- 2.15 Communist Berriman Republic
- 2.16 End of communist rule
- 2.17 Republic of Berima
- 3 Geography
- 4 Government
- 4.1 Political System
- 4.2 Major Political Parties
- 4.2.1 Alianza Populista Socialista Democrática (APSD)
- 4.2.2 Grupo Nueva Circunscripción (GNC)
- 4.2.3 Nuevo Partido de los Trabajadores de Berima (NPTB)
- 4.3 Foreign Relations
- 4.4 Military
- 4.5 Law Enforcement
- 5 Economy
- 6 Demographics
- 7 Culture
- 8 Education
Berima, the anglicized version of Bérima, is the generally accepted short form of the republic's full name. Bérima is derived from the Spanish word Ubérrima, meaning bountiful or plentiful. The exact origin of the name is disputed with one claim being that Christopher Columbus bestowed the region with the title during his fourth journey in 1504 which was an expedition to Nicaragua and the Mosquito Coast in which he stepped foot on Berriman soil, although the veracity of this fact is debated. It is generally accepted that the name was adopted over time by early Spanish settlers as its first mention on a map was in 1551, over 45 years after Columbus made landfall on the northern coast. Various native names existed for Berima for hundreds of years before Spanish settlement, some of which are still used by indigenous populations to describe the nation. A referendum to change the country's name to Cabo Miskito after its independence in 1821 in an effort to sever ties with their former colonial rulers was unilaterally opposed and the name Berima has been used to describe the region and nation ever since.
Berima has been inhabited since precolonial times by several preeminent Mesoamerican cultures such as the Maya and the progenitors of the Miskito people who thrived for hundreds if not thousands of years before Spanish arrival in the sixteenth century.
Spanish missionaries subsequently arrived in Berima in the late sixteenth century bringing with them Roman Catholicism and the Spanish language which are today the main religion and official language of the nation.
British intervention and the Miskito Kingdom
The Spanish attempted to colonize the region of Berima in the late sixteenth century until well into the early seventeenth century to no avail due to heavy resistance by the local indigenous population. Starting in the 1630s Berima entered into an agreement with Great Britain to become a British protectorate state then known as the "Miskito Kingdom", remaining this way well into the 1700s. During this time native Miskito people would carry out raids on Spanish settlers much to the delight of the British, who subsequently began settling in the region after the 1740 Treaty of Friendship and Alliance with Miskito leader King Edward I.
Spanish return and annexation
However, as a result of backlash from the American Revolutionary War Great Britain was forced to cede the entirety of its claim on the Miskito Kingdom (including Berima) to the Spanish. Berima was thusly ruled by the Spanish, who went about trying to convert natives to Catholicism and offering gifts in order to placate the unhappy locals who had grown used to the British.
Miskito Revolt of 1800 and end of Spanish rule
Unsatisfied with Spanish rule the Miskito people in the area banded together for the successful Miskito Revolt of 1800 which effectively removed Spanish presence from the area and allowed the British to regain much of their sociopolitical power in the region.
Renewed British Interests
The region remained under British control for years, growing exponentially economically and developing enough infrastructure to support bustling port cities such as San Eduardo and Cibia. Although the British were the ruling power in Berima, the language mainly remained a creole mix of Spanish and various Miskito dialects. The Mosquito Coast was and its harbors were an important point of commerce in the nineteenth century especially in relation to the transatlantic slave trade, serving as a refueling stop to ships traveling up the coast of the Americas.
First Mexican Empire
The First Mexican Empire technically absorbed the Berriman territory in 1821 as part of the Treaty of Córdoba but English interests remained heavily vested in the region and the Empire collapsed in 1823 during which time Berima never lost its British protectorate status.
Federal Republic of Central America
After 1823 Berrima became a de facto member of the Federal Republic of South Americaalong with 5 other Central American countries (Nicaragua, El Salvador, Honduras, Guatemala and Costa Rica) which marked the first time the nation was demarcated as the Republic of Berima.
Following the collapse of the Federal Republic of Central America Berima declared itself an independent country, incorporating the Mosquito Coast region and areas inland along the Coco and Ulang Rivers as the newly incorporated Berriman Republic. During this time there were several border disputes between Berima and the newly formed states of Nicaragua and Honduras as well as the British who maintained a presence on the Mosquito Coast throughout the nineteenth century. The British controlled a protectorate state known as the Mosquito Coast Territory until 1842 when they ceded the territory to Berima, who they'd always maintained a beneficial relationship with, which resulted in the borders that make up Berima today.
Following independence the government of the Berriman Republic floundered due to a weak governmental structure and a lack of central power, with various Miskito ethnic groups and communities effectively governing themselves as autonomous regions. The first president Enrique Lupe Esteves was seen as weak, unpopular, and ineffective and won an abysmal and controversial 33% majority of the vote in the first democratic Berriman election in 1842. Following Esteves' six year tenure as President he ran for reelection virtually unopposed, with many accusing him of buying off political opponents in order to remain in power.
In response a military coup d'etat initiated by the head of the military police Antonio Olivar Betences turned on Esteves and was able to depose him, forcing the disgraced first Berriman President to flee to Cuba to live out the rest of his life in political exile. Immediately following the coup Betences seized executive power and Berima came to be ruled by a single party oligarchical despotic regime with Betences and his inner circle holding all the power of government, known at the time as the Free Berriman State. During this time many atrocities were committed by Betences and his regime and free speech was brutally suppressed. From 1848 until his death in 1872 Betences ruled over the country with an iron fist, becoming more paranoid and isolationist as time went on. Betences was convinced that Honduras and Nicaragua were obsessed with overthrowing the Berriman government and as such various border skirmishes occurred regularly and xenophobia ran rampant. Due to the negligence of Betences' corrupt government the Berriman economy plummeted with much of the population falling into abject poverty. The class disparity in Berima was startling as the top 1% lived in extreme luxury while many Berrimans lived oppressed in slums and shantytowns.
After the death of Betences, control of the government was passed to his right hand man and four-star general in the Berriman Army Juan Linares Junior whose role was to be transitional as Betences had intended for his son Gustavo to be put into power following his death but the boy was just fifteen years old at the time. Soon after this transition of power Gustavo Betences disappeared under suspicious circumstances in 1873, with Linares Junior stepping in as the new de facto leader of Berima.
This catalyzed a period of political and economic instability in Berima and intense infighting between former members of the Betences regime and meant that much of Berima was at war for years on end. This became known as Los Tiempos Anárquicos, a period of roughly 40 years in which small warring factions ruled by despotic formerly Betences-allied generalissimos carried out guerrilla style attacks against one another in the streets of Berima, often at the expense of civilian lives.
Control of territory varied wildly from year to year with no faction gaining a clear upper hand until 1902 when a joint US/UK peacekeeping force was deployed to the area to quell the ever increasing tensions in the region. The force defeated the various generalissimos and instituted a federal constitutional democratic republican government modeled off of that of America's, dubbed the New Berriman Republic. Democratic elections were held for the first time in nearly a century and President Giraldo Espinoisa was elected in a landslide victory. This was popular at first among Berriman citizens who had longed for stability for decades but this good will quickly soured when it was revealed in 1930 that the Berriman government was effectively serving as a banana republic for the US, with much of the country's wealth and raw exports being sent abroad to foreign interests with little to none entering the Berriman economy, causing a brutal economic depression that coincided with that of America and the rest of the world.
Berima then experienced a brief Civil War in 1933 in which the US installed government and their foreign diplomats were forcibly ejected from the country by a military junta and Berriman rebels. This led to a general mistrust between the two nations and a disdain of the US that still lingers in modern Berriman politics, and may have even pushed Berima towards Soviet sponsored communism.
Following the war Berima once again entered into a period of political instability with various factions holding power throughout the 1930s until 1938 when exiled Russian national Fyodor Belkanov led a popular revolution against the de facto military government and instituted the single party Berriman Communist State (formally known as the Berriman Unified Collective Worker's Party) making it one of the first communist states outside of Europe and the first in the New World. Supported monetarily by the Soviet Union, the communist government of Berima struggled at first but within several years had adapted considerably well to the new economic philosophy.
World War II
Berima declared war on Nazi Germany following their invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941 and sent troops and supplies in support of their communist ally. Berima officially joined the Allied Nations following the Pearl Harbor attacks in 1942. Following Belkanov's death in 1943, power was peacefully transferred to his protege Leonid Marquez, with each successor being chosen by a committee of politically educated party members.
After World War II Berima's already tense relations with America were further tested during the escalation of the Cold War. Allying with Soviet Russia, Berima became a point of contention in the Cold War as a proxy state for the Soviet Union and was even considered as a candidate for the Soviet missile launch site that would eventually come to be built in Cuba.
End of communist rule
The Berriman Communist State was one of the longest lasting collectivist republics, continuing until its dissolution in December of 1986 shortly before the fall of communism, and was noted for having one of the most efficient implementations of communism in history, which caused the country to experience an economic boom in the mid-twentieth century. Several attempts at coup d'etats to overthrow the communist government funded by the the United States failed during the Central American crisis, further alienating Berima from capitalism and Western thought.
Republic of Berima
After the end of single party communist rule in Berima elections were once again held in 1988 after the New Berriman Constitution was written and ratified on April 28, 1987, declaring the People's Unified Republic of Berima as a democratic unitary presidential republic with an upper and lower house of the legislative branch for the first time in Berriman history. Social democrat and APSD founder Floyd Manuel Perez was elected in 1988 and served three terms as president and has grown to be viewed as a founding icon of modern Berima. His leadership led Berima out of the economic downturn of the 1980s and allowed the nation to modernize and unify during the 1990s, a period which is seen as a proverbial golden age for Berima.
Situated on the tip Mosquito Coast between Nicaragua and Honduras, the geography of Berima mainly consists of dense lowland rainforest and jungle intermixed with arable valley grassland. The regions on the Mosquito coastline are mainly marshy and many small islets and cays dot the expansive shoreline, some of which are protected marine nature reserves (the most notable of which being the Miskito Cays and Isla Chafarote.) Some islands are permanently settled such as Tierra la Sul and Tucareña which both lie off the northeastern coast of La Mosquitia. Several settlements such as Puerto Lempira are situated on the Caratasca Lagoon which separates the country from Honduras to the north. Several small archipelagos and reefs lay off the Caribbean coast including several which are territorially disputed by neighboring nations such as Bajo Nueva Bank and the Seranilla Bank. Berima is mainly situated on the Cabo Gracios a Dios and is bisected by the Coco River. Most of the heavily populated areas are in the La Mosquitia region on the Mosquito coastline while areas farther inland are generally more rural and consist mainly of sparsely populated farmland and dense jungle. The Patuca River provides a border to Honduras to the west and to the southeast the Rio Ulang roughly marks the border between Berima and Nicaragua (although the exact specifications of the territory are a hotly disputed topic between the two nations.)
Berima utilizes a multi-party democratic election process. Berima is typially referred to as having three main parties: the APSD, the GNC and the NPTB (although the NPTB is decisively the least prevalent of the three). Each party has their own unique stances on Berriman politics and tactics on how to obtain the rank of President or to control seats in the Berriman Senate and Berriman National Assembly.
Major Political Parties
A left leaning social democratic institution that emerged from the end of Communist rule in Berima and has been in majority power ever since. Issues include gun reform, legalizing gay marriage (which was accomplished in 2012), criminal justice and prison reform as well as marijuana legalization among other things. Current incumbent president Carlos Riviero is a member of the APSD and they currently hold more seats in the Berriman Senate than any other party.
Grupo Nueva Circunscripción (GNC) 
Relatively newly formed after the collapse of the Partido Conservador Constitucional the GNC is a right leaning socially and fiscally conservative political party. They are known for their opposition of gay rights and promotion of traditional Christian family values as well as frequent climate change denial. The GNC has gained traction in recent years with the global rise of far-right candidates and former senator and party founder Manuel Nemanja is making his first presidential bid in 2022.
The remnants of the original PTB that have reorganized and actively campaign for the reintroduction of communism into Berriman society. They are often seen as a weaker third party but have strong local support in some communities allowing them representation in the National Assembly. They are spearheaded by Paco Escalante Jr., son of the late guerilla fighter, activist and PTB founder Paco Escalante.
A Berriman nationalist movement centered in Facile, the FPLB is considered a radical and xenophobic movement and oftentimes labelled as a hate group. Their ideology centers around Berriman supremacy which often includes racism towards native Misquito people and xenophobia towards Hondurans, Nicaraguans and immigrants in general.
Contingencia Verde (CV)
An environmental group that often protests peacefully but has engaged in violent discourse before. The CV plans and executes demonstrations and media stunts in public on a regular basis for the "betterment of the environment in Berrima and subsequently around the world."
Categorized as a white supremacist hate group, the BNP is a branch of Neo-Nazis who were formed when escaped Nazi defectors immigrated from Argentina in the mid 20th century. Though small and less active than they were in the last century, they are considered a nuisance by many and deplored by the general Berriman public.
The CPM is a Misquito Rights activist group focused on the promotion and protection of civil rights for natives (those with heritage dating back before Columbus). Founded in the 1800s and still active today, it is run by Annibal de los Santos Miron.
The M*A is a radical left decentralized anarcho-syndaclist resistance movement that often uses lawful dissent and cyber attacks to harass what they perceive as the ruling class. They made headlines when they hacked the jumbotron at the 2008 Berriman Cup Final to play a message about