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California Republic

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 This article is part of Altverse II.
California Republic

República de California
Flag of California
Motto: "Forever free and independent"
Anthem: None
Territory seized by the Bear Flaggers after the war in the borders of the Centralist Mexican Republic.
Territory seized by the Bear Flaggers after the war in the borders of the Centralist Mexican Republic.
Capital San Francisco City
Common languages English, Spanish
Government Federal constitutional republic
• 1848 - 1856
William B. Ide
• 1856 - 1858
John D. Sloat
Vice President  
• 1848 - 1856
John D. Sloat
• 1856 - 1858
Robert F. Stockton
Legislature Congress
• Upper House
• Lower House
House of Representatives
Historical era Late modern - Industrialization
• Established
• Bear Flag Revolt
June 14, 1846
February 2, 1848
November 27, 1858
• Disestablished
Currency California dollar ($)
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Centralist Republic of Mexico
Provisional Republic of California
The California Republic, commonly referred to as California or the Republic, and sometimes known as the First California Republic, was a country consisting of 10 states existing from 1848 to 1858. It originally constituted a part of Alta California, territory under the control of Mexico, which had gained the land from Spain following its independence in 1821.

The Republic was declared on June 14, 1846 during the outbreak of the Mexican-American War when several American and Californio citizens seized government property in Sonoma and established the Sonoma Barracks as its headquarters. With the assistance of the Americans and Texans, California gained its independence officially through the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo on February 2, 1848 after Mexico formally surrendered. The Republic lasted for a mere decade, riddled with corruption, debt, and lack of enforcement, coupled with poor resources, infrastructure, and organization. The Californian Congress established a constitutional convention in 1857, responding to public demand for a stronger, more competent government. In 1858, the Constitution of 1858 was drafted, ratified, and promulgated, thereby establishing the Kingdom of Sierra and ending the Republic.

Attempts to reestablish the Republic were nearly realized during the Sierran Civil War as the Second California Republic, but were ultimately defeated. In contemporary times, the Republic has been viewed as an experimental and critical stage in Sierran history as its people enjoyed independence and freedom, and managed to avoid becoming absorbed into the United States.


The name California is commonly attributed to the fictional peoples of black Amazons depicted in The Adventures of Esplandián by Spanish writer Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo. The name became so popular, Spaniards began to refer all lands west of the Americas known at the time to be California. The name would later be applied to the southern tip of Baja California by Spanish explorer Diego de Becerra in 1533 who believed the peninsula was in fact, an island. In a 1540 expedition, Hernando de Alarcón explored the peninsular inland and referred to the inhospitable lands as California.

When the Spaniards established their presence in present-day Sierra, they referred to all the lands spanning from the Pacific to as far east into the Great Basin as "California". The territory would later become known as "Las Californias", and this name would continued to be used under Mexican rule with a distinction between "Alta California" (Upper California) and "Baja California" (Lower California).


Part of a series on the
History of the
Kingdom of Sierra
Early Native Sierrans
European exploration
Portolà expedition
Spanish mission system
Las Californias
Mexican War of Independence
California Trail
Mexican-American War
California Republic
Gold Rush
1858 Constitution
War of Contingency
Sierran Civil War
Second Industrial Revolution
Progressive Era
Sierran Cultural Revolution
World War I
Great Depression
World War II
1950 Charter
Great Basin controversy/Cross-Pacific affair
Cold War
The Disturbances
Contemporary era
Global War on Terrorism
Baja California crisis
Second Cold War
Abdication of Charles II
Assassination of Steven Hong
2017 Pawnee earthquake
Red Rock Castle crisis

Mexican–American War

The California Republic first began during the Bear Flag Revolt of 1846 when from June–July of that year, rebels rose up against Mexico with the support of the United States during the Mexican–American War. The rebels were lead by William B. Ide and continued to fight alongside the United States Army during the California campaign. On August 16, 1846, the Provisional Republic of California was established with William Ide as its head and was recognized by the United States as a sovereign independent state. The California Army would be formed and continued fighting alongside the American forces, though following the end of the California campaign, they largely served in support and auxiliary positions.

When the war had ended on February 3, 1848, all of Atla California was handed over to the California Republic and it was recognized as an independent state and gained foreign recognition from other countries such as Canada and later the Russian Empire. The provisional government would eventually plan and hold a nationwide presidential election in order to transition into a proper sovereign state with a functioning national government and held the country's first presidential election on September 18, 1848, with Ide being the only candidate and winning in a landslide vicotry as the candidate for the newly formed California National Party.

Reconstruction and Gold Rush

Political infighting and instability

Constitution Convention of 1858


Government and politics






See also