Catholic Church – Avignon
|Latin: Ecclesia Catholica|
Papal Palace, Avignon
|Latin Church, and 9 Eastern Catholic Churches|
|Language||Ecclesiastical Latin and native languages|
|Liturgy||Western and Eastern|
|Headquarters||Papal Palace, Avignon|
Jesus, according to|
1st century |
Holy Land, Roman Empire
|Members||760.85 million (2020) (baptized)|
The Catholic Church – Avignon or CCA, sometimes referred to as the Roman Catholic Church – Avignon or the Avignon Catholic Church, and officially known as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church in the world with 760.85 million baptized members as of 2019. Based in Avignon, France, it claims to continue the history of the Catholic Church, specifically the tradition of the first thousand years of the Church, which is the longest continuously operating international institution and has played an instrumental role in the development and history of Western civilization. While the bishop of Rome or the pope is recognized as the de jure head of the Church, since 1934 the Church of Avignon declared that the See of Peter in Rome is occupied by heretics and the bishop of Avignon is the pope. As a result, since the Second Western Schism or Avignon–Rome schism of 1934 the Catholic Church's leadership has been contested between the two bishops, and the two both have partial international recognition and from individual Catholics.
As with the Roman Catholic Church, the Avignon Catholic Church professes the Nicene Creed and that it is the continuation of the one, holy, catholic, and apostolic church founded by Jesus Christ in his Great Commission. It teaches belief in the apostolic succession of its bishops and that the pope himself is the successor to Saint Peter, of whom primacy was conferred by Jesus. It holds that it remains the original, infallible Christian faith, which has preserved through sacred teaching. The Catholic Church teaches the existence of seven sacraments, of which the Eucharist is the most prominent and liturgically celebrated in the Mass. The church teaches that when sacrificial bread and wine has been consecrated, it becomes the literal body and blood of Jesus. It also venerates Virgin Mary as the Mother of God and Queen of Heaven, and the saints, and holds that the saints can intercede prayers between a living believer and God.
The schism between Rome and Avignon arose after an agreement made between the papacy and the Landonist Italian government in 1933, as well as measures enacted from the Second Vatican Council in 1949, which was seen by many Catholics including some cardinals as illegitimate. They claimed that the infallible Magisterium of the Catholic Church could not have decreed the changes made in the name of the Second Vatican Council, and concluded that those who issued these changes could not have been acting with the authority of the Catholic Church. Accordingly, the Council of Avignon in 1935 holds that Pope Pius XI and his successors left the true Catholic Church and thus lost legitimate authority in the Church. The Council cited Paul IV's 1559 bull, Cum ex apostolatus officio, stipulated that a heretic cannot be elected pope, and Canon 188.4 of the 1917 Code of Canon Law provides that a cleric who publicly defects from the Catholic faith automatically loses any office he had held in the Church.
Avignon, France, was also the site of the Avignon Papacy from 1309 to 1376 when several popes resided there instead of Rome due to a conflict between the papacy and the French crown. This separation ended in the 1417 Council of Constance when the two rival popes ended their opposition to Rome. Avignon again became the seat of the pope after the Second Western Schism in 1934, in which the archbishop of Avignon led the resistance of Catholic cardinals and bishops against the Italian Landonist influence in the Vatican, which had taken a number of measures that were considered illegitimate by traditional Catholics. The French arch-conservative Catholic government of King Jean III backed the separation and became the first to recognize the legitimacy of the new Avignon papacy. Since then the pope in Avignon has claimed to be the legitimate successor to Peter and the continuation of the Catholic Church.
Name[edit | edit source]
Officially, the Avignon Catholic Church refers to itself as the Catholic Church, claiming ownership and legitimacy over the disputed Papacy and views itself to be the legitimate Catholic Church. The term is also used by adherents to the church as well to showcase the view that they are the legitimate Catholic Church than the one in Rome. The term Catholic Church – Avignon is used to distinguish the Avignon Church from the Rome Church as both ultimately call themsleves the Catholic Church and claim to be the true representatives of the Papacy and the true Catholic Church. Due to it being located in Avignon, France, the denomination is refered to as the Avignon Catholic Church or the Avignon Church. Adherents are known as Avignonese Catholics and/or Avignonese Roman Catholics.
Organization[edit | edit source]
Doctrine[edit | edit source]
Sacraments[edit | edit source]
Liturgy[edit | edit source]
Social and cultural issues[edit | edit source]
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|Avignonese social teaching|
The Avignonese Catholic Church adheres to its own version of Catholic social teaching based on its own vision for human good and dignity in modern society. The Avignonese doctrine concerns itself with reflecting the concern that Jesus had for the poor and places a heavy emphasis on both corporal and spiritual works of mercy, namely showing support for the poor, the sick, and the afflicted. The Avignonese variant of Catholic social teaching is based off of the church's interpretaton of it from the Second Schism in 1934 and sought to create a version that was not based off of the version of Catholic social teaching that was adopted by Vatican II with the Avignonese variant opposing all influences from modernism and postmodernism viewing both as political radicalism.
Avignonese social teaching calls for strict chasity in regards to sexuality until marriage and views the latter as a sacred and valued institution in human society. The Avignonese Church focuses on preserving the spiritual and bodily integrity of all human beings and views marriage as the only appropriate context for sexual activity. The church is opposed sex outside of marriage and has retained its conservative stance in the wake of the sexual revolution, having viewed the issue of marriage and sexual activity as increasingly urgent issues in the Western world, especially in the wake of the spread of social liberalism and progressivism in the modern era.
The Avignonese Catholic Church ardently rejects political radicalism, in particular Landonism and other forms of communism along with socialism and other forms of political extremism on both the left and the right. The church's anti-radical stance stems from the Second Schism and the embracement of Christian socialism and Landonism by the Roman Catholic Church in the 1930s and its agreement with the requests of the Landonist government in the former Democratic Republic of Italy. This has lead to the complex and often strained relations between the Avignonese and Roman churches due to the latter's lack of total rejection over its left-wing past inspite of its political modernization since the end of the Cold War. Inspite of these differences, both churches have found common ground as seen in their own version of CST with the Avignonese Church viewing environmental preservation and concern as a major issue, especially in the wake of climate change and the climate crisis calling both the biggest issues of the 21st century.