China–Sierra relations

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China–Sierra relations
Map indicating locations of China and Sierra


Diplomatic mission
Imperial Chinese Embassy, Porciúncula Sierran Embassy, Beijing
Zhong Lu
Mark Posner

China—Sierra relations refers to the international bilateral relationship between the Chinese Empire and the Kingdom of Sierra. In the 21st century, their relations have been primarily economic in nature and characterised by the large volume of trade between them. Historically they have also been close allies, militarily during the Second Sino-Japanese War, and since the 19th century China has had a significant cultural influence on Sierran society due to the large Chinese diaspora in Sierra (about nine million). The royal houses of China and Sierra, the Aisin Gioro clan and the House of Columbia, also have close political ties. In more recent years relations have cooled since geopolitical disputes, such as over the Hainan and Taiwan issue and the Spratly Islands dispute, have caused increasing disagreements.

Diplomatic relations between China and Sierra were formally established in 1860, with the appointment of the first Sierran minister-plenipotentiary in Peking and a Chinese resident minister in Porciúncula. Sierra did not sign unequal treaties with China like the European powers did and did not send troops to participate in quelling the Boxer Rebellion of 1900, so the Qing Empire had a more positive view of the Anglo-American states than it did of leading European countries. Millions of Chinese migrated to Sierra during the late 19th century and have had a large influence on Sierran culture. In 1935 the diplomatic missions were upgraded from the ministerial to the ambassadorial level. Sierra provided the most military support to China during the Second Sino-Japanese War out of all the American states. The alliance between Sierra and the Qing Empire would last after World War II through the Cold War, when China aligned itself with the West against the Soviet Union and the threat of communism. Since the early 1990s, while trade between the two countries increased with the massive growth of the Chinese economy, Sino-Sierran relations have deteriorated due to political disputes. In particular, China takes issue with Sierran support for Hainan and Taiwan, which it considers part of the Qing Empire, and the presence of Sierran military forces in Japan and Ryukyu. China has also increasingly rivalled Sierra and the CAS countries for geopolitical influence in the East Asia region and other parts of the world since the turn of the century.

China maintains an embassy in Porciúncula and consulates in San Francisco City, San Diego, Las Vegas, Honolulu, Phoenix, and Salt Lake City, while Sierra maintains an embassy in Beijing and consulates in Chengdu, Guangzhou, Shanghai, Wuhan, Xian, and Uliastai.

Country comparison[edit]

China Kingdom of Sierra
Coat of Arms Twelve Symbols national emblem of China.svg Coat of arms of Sierra.svg
Flag Flag of China (1889–1912).svg Flag of Sierra.svg
Demographics 1,886,012,084 (2018) 86,097,916 (2010)
Area 3,817,268 sq mi (9,886,678 km2) 569,037 sq mi (1,473,799 km2)
Population density 405.74/sq mi (156.66/km2) 151.30/sq mi (58.419/km2)
Capital Beijing Porciúncula
Largest cities Shanghai
San Diego
Government Federal semi-constitutional monarchy Asymmetric federal parliamentary
constitutional monarchy
Current head of state
Angelina II.jpg
Current head of government
LU Zhongwei.jpg
Nemesis Heartwell official Prime Minister portrait.png
Official languages Chinese (Mandarin), Manchu, Mongolian, Tibetan English, Spanish, French, Tondolese, Chinese, Vietnamese,
Korean, Japanese, German (federal); Hawaiian
(in Hawaii only)
Main religions 73% non-religious or Chinese folk religion
17% Buddhist
6% other religions
3% Christian
1% Muslim
82% Christian
4% Other Faith
12% Unaffiliated
3% Don't know/refused to answer
Human Development Index 0.752 (high) 0.934 (very high)
GDP (PPP) (2017 est.) 25.27 trillion ($19,520 per capita) $5.15 trillion ($61,725 per capita)
Expatriates and immigrants 237,181 Sierrans living in China 9.3 million Chinese living in Sierra
Military troops 14,600,000 (active and reserve) 1,000,781 (active and reserve)
Military expenditures $179 billion $101.83 billion
English speakers 75,300,000 (5.1% of the total population) 57,281,994 (Native: 77% of the total population)
Telecommunications 73,731,485

Economic ties[edit]

As the world's largest and the fifth largest economies, respectively, China and Sierra have extensive economic relations. China is Sierra's biggest import partner, accounting for about 16% of the country's imports, valued at about $83 billion. Sierra represents 5% of China's imports, the biggest share out of all Conference of American States countries and several times that of the next American state, the United Commonwealth.

Military ties[edit]

Cultural ties[edit]


State visits[edit]

The Hongxian Emperor visited the Kingdom of Sierra for the first time in March 1999, meeting with Queen Angelina I of Sierra, and again in September 2009, where he met with King Smith II and Prime Minister Steven Hong. It was the first time a Chinese monarch has visited Sierra since the Xuantong Emperor in 1979.

Imperial Chinese Embassy in Porciúncula[edit]

Embassy of Sierra in Beijing[edit]

See also[edit]