|Imperial Chinese Embassy, Porciúncula||Sierran Embassy, Beijing|
China—Sierra relations refers to the international bilateral relationship between the Chinese Empire and the Kingdom of Sierra. In the 21st century, their relations have been primarily economic in nature and characterised by the large volume of trade between them. Historically they have also been close allies, militarily during the Second Sino-Japanese War, and since the 19th century China has had a significant cultural influence on Sierran society due to the large Chinese diaspora in Sierra (about nine million). The royal houses of China and Sierra, the Aisin Gioro clan and the House of Columbia, also have close political ties. In more recent years relations have cooled since geopolitical disputes, such as over the Hainan and Taiwan issue and the Spratly Islands dispute, have caused increasing disagreements.
Diplomatic relations between China and Sierra were formally established in 1860, with the appointment of the first Sierran minister-plenipotentiary in Peking and a Chinese resident minister in Porciúncula. Sierra did not sign unequal treaties with China like the European powers did and did not send troops to participate in quelling the Boxer Rebellion of 1900, so the Qing Empire had a more positive view of the Anglo-American states than it did of leading European countries. Millions of Chinese migrated to Sierra during the late 19th century and have had a large influence on Sierran culture. In 1935 the diplomatic missions were upgraded from the ministerial to the ambassadorial level. Sierra provided the most military support to China during the Second Sino-Japanese War out of all the American states. The alliance between Sierra and the Qing Empire would last after World War II through the Cold War, when China aligned itself with the West against the Soviet Union and the threat of communism. Since the early 1990s, while trade between the two countries increased with the massive growth of the Chinese economy, Sino-Sierran relations have deteriorated due to political disputes. In particular, China takes issue with Sierran support for Hainan and Taiwan, which it considers part of the Qing Empire, and the presence of Sierran military forces in Japan and Ryukyu. China has also increasingly rivalled Sierra and the CAS countries for geopolitical influence in the East Asia region and other parts of the world since the turn of the century.
China maintains an embassy in Porciúncula and consulates in San Francisco City, San Diego, Las Vegas, Honolulu, Phoenix, and Salt Lake City, while Sierra maintains an embassy in Beijing and consulates in Chengdu, Guangzhou, Shanghai, Wuhan, Xian, and Uliastai.
|China||Kingdom of Sierra|
|Coat of Arms|
|Demographics||1,886,012,084 (2018)||86,097,916 (2010)|
|Area||3,817,268 sq mi (9,886,678 km2)||569,037 sq mi (1,473,799 km2)|
|Population density||405.74/sq mi (156.66/km2)||151.30/sq mi (58.419/km2)|
|Government||Federal semi-constitutional monarchy||Asymmetric federal parliamentary|
|Current head of state|
|Current head of government|
|Official languages||Chinese (Mandarin), Manchu, Mongolian, Tibetan||English, Spanish, French, Tondolese, Chinese, Vietnamese,|
Korean, Japanese, German (federal); Hawaiian
(in Hawaii only)
|Main religions||73% non-religious or Chinese folk religion
6% other religions
4% Other Faith
3% Don't know/refused to answer
|Human Development Index||0.752 (high)||0.934 (very high)|
|GDP (PPP) (2017 est.)||25.27 trillion ($19,520 per capita)||$5.15 trillion ($61,725 per capita)|
|Expatriates and immigrants||237,181 Sierrans living in China||9.3 million Chinese living in Sierra|
|Military troops||14,600,000 (active and reserve)||1,000,781 (active and reserve)|
|Military expenditures||$179 billion||$101.83 billion|
|English speakers||75,300,000 (5.1% of the total population)||57,281,994 (Native: 77% of the total population)|
As the world's largest and the fifth largest economies, respectively, China and Sierra have extensive economic relations. China is Sierra's biggest import partner, accounting for about 16% of the country's imports, valued at about $83 billion. Sierra represents 5% of China's imports, the biggest share out of all Conference of American States countries and several times that of the next American state, the United Commonwealth.
The Hongxian Emperor visited the Kingdom of Sierra for the first time in March 1999, meeting with Queen Angelina I of Sierra, and again in September 2009, where he met with King Smith II and Prime Minister Steven Hong. It was the first time a Chinese monarch has visited Sierra since the Xuantong Emperor in 1979.