|Chinese Embassy, Christiania||Skandinavian Embassy, Beijing|
China–Skandinavia relations refers to the bilateral relationship between the Great Qing and the Kingdom of Skandinavia. Prior to the formation of Skandinavia in 1951 as a single state, China established formal diplomatic relations with the individual states members of the Second Kalmar Union (Denmark, Norway and Sweden in personal union from 1839 to 1951). Trade relations between China and the Northern European countries began in the early 19th century. The first Qing government officials visited the Northern European countries in the 1900s, members of the Chinese Imperial Court's Cultural Department. Since the establishment of the Kingdom of Skandinavia in 1951 the Chinese Empire has maintained an embassy in Christiania while the Skandinavians maintain an embassy in Beijing and the two countries have extensive economic trade.
|Coat of Arms|
|Demographics||1,886,012,084 (2018)||44,911,330 (2018)|
|Area||9,886,678 km2 (3,817,268 sq mi)||3,046,249 km2 (1,176,163 sq mi)|
|Population density||405.74/sq mi (156.66/km2)||14.74 km 2 (38.18 sq mi)|
|Government||Semi-constitutional monarchy||Parliamentary constitutional monarchy|
|Current prime minister/president|
|Official languages||Mandarin, Manchu, Mongolian, Tibetan||Dano-Norwegian|
|Main religions||73% non-religious or Chinese folk religion
6% other religions
4% Ancient Scandinavian religions
|Human Development Index||0.752 (high)||0.948 (very high)|
|GDP (PPP) (2017 est.)||25.27 trillion ($19,520 per capita)||$2.81 trillion ($66,425 per capita)|
|Expatriates and immigrants||57,301 Chinese in Skandinavia|
|Military Troops||14,600,000 (active and reserve)||900,000 (active and reserve)|
|Military expenditures||$179 billion||$92.50 billion|
|English speakers||5.1% of the total population||61% of the population less than 40 and 37% over 40 years|
At present, the economic relations between China and Skandinavia are strong and are growing. The trade balance between the two countries is favorable to China, although it tends to balance as the Chinese economy grows and needs to import more products. Numerous Scandinavian companies have established themselves in China, encouraged by the enormous market potential and also in search of local partners with whom to do business throughout Asia.
Since the opening of China to foreign trade and economic reforms in 1965, trade between the two countries increased significantly. China's main exports to Skandinavia consist of textiles and garments, mechanical and mainly electronic products (consumer electronics, computers, telecom,...) while Skandinavia's main exports to China consist of crude oil, fertilizer, construction and mining equipment, high-tech factory and plant equipment, salmon, as well as raw metals and minerals. The strong demand for oil and industrial minerals motivated by the growth of the Chinese economy, has increased imports from Skandinavia while Chinese consumer products, especially electronics, enjoy a good market share in Skandinavia.
In recent years, the discovery of offshore oil fields in the China Sea has increased cooperation between the two countries so that China can take advantage of the great experience of Scandinavian companies in this field. Companies like Statoil and Aker has active business in the Chinese oil industry. On the other hand, PetroChina has been awarded licences to exploit and explore oil and gas field in Skandinavian continental shelf.
Space exploration is another area of cooperation between the two nations that share scientific and space research programs.
Military cooperation between China and Skandinavia is mainly based on sharing security and counterterrorism information. However, in recent years there has been an exchange of training between the military of both nations and ships of both nations have visited each other respectively.