Clark

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This article is an A-class article. It is written to a very high standard. This article is a part of Altverse.
Province of Clark (en)
Clark (es)
Clark (fr)
克拉克 (zh)
Clark (tn)
Tỉnh Cả-lạc (vn)
클라크 (kr)
クラーク州 (ja)
Clark (de)
Province of Sierra
Flag of Clark Provincial seal of Clark
Flag Seal
Nickname(s): The Paradise Province, The Happy-Go-Lucky Province
Motto(s): Semper mutans (Latin: Always changing)
Liberty or Death (unofficial)
Provincial song(s): "Atop Red Rock"
Map of Clark
Official language(s) *Nationally recognized languages
Demonym Clarker(s)
Capital
(and largest city)
Las Vegas
Area Ranked 1st
 • Total 40,446.13 sq mi
(104,755 km2 km2)
Population Ranked 10th
 • Total 2,203,919 (2020)
 • Density 54.49/sq mi  (21.04/km2)
Ranked 16th
Elevation
 • Highest point Mt. Jefferson
11,949 ft (3,642 m)
 • Lowest point Colorado River at the Clark-Inland Empire-Mohave border
481 ft (147 m)
Admission to the Union November 28, 1858 (14th)
Lord Superintendent Clara, Baroness Demont-Taylor of Jean
Governor Georg von der Bellen (R)
Lieutenant Governor Isaac Hoffman (R)
Legislature Clark Provincial Legislature
 • Upper house Clark Provincial Senate
 • Lower house Clark Provincial Assembly
K.S. Senators Simon Zhang (R)
Nick Hugh (R)
Porter Offerman (L)
K.S. House delegation 8 total commoners
1 Democratic-Republican
3 Royalists
4 Libertarians
Time zone Pacific Time Zone
UTC –8/UTC –7
Abbreviations CK, Cla.
CategoryTopics

Clark is a province located in the northeastern central region of Sierra. Clark is the largest province in Sierra by total area and the 10th most populous province. It is the 14th most populous PSALT overall. The capital of Clark is Las Vegas, which is also the province's largest city and whose metropolitan area is its principal population center. Over three-fourths of the province's population lives in the Las Vegas metropolitan area.

Clark is largely semiarid desert. Southern Clark is located within the Mojave Desert, while northern Clark is part of the Great Basin. The Colorado River forms its southeastern border and is the primary and only viable source of water for the entire province. It borders Eureka to the north, Emery and Iron to the east, the Inland Empire, Central Valley, and Mohave to the south, and San Joaquin to the west.

The original inhabitants of Clark were Native Sierran Indians who settled in the Las Vegas Valley approximately 10,000 years ago. Evidence of activity were uncovered through archaeological discoveries of pottery, petroglyphs and pictographs. As early as 700 AD, the Paiutes moved into Clark and migrated between the mountains during the summer and the valley during the winter. The first non-native Indian to explore the area of Clark was Francisco Garcés who laid claim to Clark for the Spanish Empire. Clark became part of the Commandancy General of the Provincias Internas in the Viceroyalty of New Spain and would remain so until its jurisdiction was transferred to the province of Alta California in 1804 when the the Californias split.

Following the Mexican War of Independence in 1821, Clark became part of the Mexican territory of Alta California. The arrival of American and Hoosier settlers in Clark and the rest of Alta California would eventually lead to the Mexican-American War. After the California Republic gained its independence in 1848, Clark was incorporated as a state. Clark underwent its last transition and reorganization in 1858 after California reformed into the Kingdom of Sierra. Clark became a province, and has remained so since then. Prior to 1925, Clark was known as Tonopah both under California and under Sierra. A decision by the Tonopah Provincial Legislature officially changed the name of the province to its current form, Clark, in honor of William A. Clark.

From the 1930s onward, gambling was legalized in Clark, enhancing its economy greatly and stimulating population growth. The first casinos would be established in the city of Las Vegas, and continued development would lead to the city's current worldwide status as the gambling capital of the world. The construction and completion of the Salinas Dam made it much more possible for communities and businesses to grow and expand, bringing much needed electricity and water to the resources-deprived province. One of the fastest growing provinces in Sierra, Clark's economy heavily depends on tourism and gambling, although since the early 21st century, has cultivated emerging banking and telecommunications industries as well. Other significant industries include defense, aerospace, and mining.

Etymology[edit]

Clark symbols
Flag of Clark.svg
Coat of arms of Clark.svg
Living insignia
Amphibian Mountain yellow-legged frog
Bird Gambel's quail
Fish Longfish dace
Flower Red columbine
Reptile Desert tortoise
Tree White fir
Inanimate insignia
Colors Blue, gold, silver
Motto Semper mutans
Rock Granite
Ship HRHS Clark
Slogan Liberty or Death
Song Atop Red Rock
Provincial route marker
Clark route marker
Part of a series on the provinces, states, areas, and territories of Sierra

Clark was named in posthumous honor of American-Sierran entrepreneur William A. Clark in 1925 for his contributions to the province through his railroads, banks, and finances to support local projects and the economy. Prior to that, Clark was incorporated as the province of "Tonopah" and the name's change was accomplished following an act of the provincial legislature. While William A. Clark never lived in Tonopah or based his primary operations there, did establish the Los Angeles and Salt Lake Railroad which helped bring thousands of people through the province, supporting the economy. This would be directly responsible towards the foundation of Las Vegas, the province's future capital and primary population center. Clark is the only province in Sierra named after an individual other than a saint (i.e. San Francisco, San Joaquin, and Santa Clara) and one of only six PSAs named after individuals (including the aforementioned, the Hawaiian state of Kamehameha, and the Deseretian area of Morganland).

Residents and people from Clark are known as "Clarkers" while "Clarkians" is a rarer demonym used.

The official postal abbreviation of Clark is "CL" or "KS-CL", along with "Cla.".

Nicknames[edit]

Clark is officially known as "The Paradise Province", which was adopted by the Clark Provincial Legislature on May 11, 1985. The nickname was adopted to highlight the province's sunny weather and oasitic nature. Most of the province's inhabitants live in the Las Vegas metropolitan area, which is supported and sustained by Lake Mead and the Colorado River for much of its water and electricity. The province's capital and largest city, Las Vegas, has been likened to a paradise due to its world-class gambling and hospitality industries, large housing market, business-friendly policies, and socially relaxed laws. The province has consistently been rated as one of the best five provinces to live in since 2006.

The province is also known as the "Happy-Go-Lucky Province", which reflects the province's socially liberal and easygoing culture. Its gambling industry is internationally renowned and common stereotypes of Clarkers have been that of high-rolling gamblers, partygoers, and heavy drinkers. Perceptions of Clark as an easygoing province have been reinforced in various Hollywood films and television shows, such as Clark 611 and The Prince of Paradise.

Geography[edit]

Clark is located in the central eastern region of Sierra commonly known as Nevada. Most of Clark lies within the Basin and Range Province, a vast physiographic region comprising primarily of desert and alternating mountains and valleys. Southern Clark is generally comprised of low-lying flats (most notably the Las Vegas Valley) featuring several mountain ranges, while northern Clark features more hilly terrain and has a higher average elevation. The Great Basin Divide runs through Clark from the northeast to the southwest.

A view of Mummy Mountain from Charleston Peak in the Spring Mountains range.

The chief sources of water in Clark is the Colorado River, and the artificially created reservoirs: Lake Mead, Lake Mohave, and Lake Las Vegas (with the former two constituting a direct part of the river), which defines the southern boundary of Clark and its borders with Mohave. The rest of Clark is generally arid, with virtually all of Clark's natural lakes being dry year-round except during rainfall in the winter. There are several natural springs in Clark, with most of these found on or near Clarker mountains.

Las Vegas Valley viewed from space.

In northern Clark, the Amargosa Desert, Yucca Mountain, Toiyabe Range, and Shoshone Mountains straddles the western portion of the province. Eastward, the landscape features the characteristic alternation of mountains and variety-sized valleys with the mountain ranges including the Toquima Range (which includes Jefferson Peak), Egan Range, Grant Range, and the Quinn Canyon Range.

Central Clark follows a similar pattern of alternating mountains and valleys from west to east, with most mountains running from north to south and adjacent valleys corresponding along them. From west to east roughly runs the Reveille Range, the Worthington Mountains, Golden Gate Range, Seaman Range, Mount Irish Range, Pahranagat Range, Timpaphute Range, Ely Springs Range, Bristol Range, West Range, Black Canyon Range, Highland Range, Pioche Hills, Chief Range, Burnt Springs Range, and Delamar Mountains.

In southern Clark, the land is considerably flatter with the Spring Mountains as the chief mountain range in the area. Running northwest to southeast near the southeastern border of Clark, the range includes Charleston Peak, which is the highest point in Clark at 11,918 ft. The mountains divide the Pahrump Valley to the west from the Las Vegas Valley. The Las Vegas Valley, a large drainage basin dominating much of the southern end of Clark, is home to most of Clark's towns and residents. Other mountain ranges and valleys also exist in southern Clark, although the mountains generally feature gentler slopes than those further north. At the southern extremity of Clark, known colloquially as the "Needle", the Piute Valley, Newberry Mountains, and Dead Mountains dominate the area.

Climate[edit]

Clark's climate is a subtropical, hot desert climate (Köppen climate classification: BWh) with sunny days year-round. Summers are hot and dry, with temperatures often climbing up to the 120s in some parts of the province, and winters are short and mild. In the mountains, primarily the Spring Mountains, snow may accumulate during the winter. Snow in the valleys and the desert are rare with most of Clark's precipitation falling during the winter, especially during February (with an average of four days of precipitation). During the mid to late summer, parts of Clark may experience a sudden increase in precipitation known as the North American Monsoon as thunderstorms from the south travel northward in spontaneous bursts. These storms may trigger dangerous flash floods which threaten communities in low-lying valleys and plains.

Ecology[edit]

Flora[edit]

The flower of a creosote bush (Larrea tridentata)

Clark's arid climate and environment features vegetation that is adapted to little precipitation and extended periods of drought. The prevailing species of plant in Clark is the Larrea tridentata (creosote bush) which grows in abundance and is distributed across the valley floor and along the hills. There are 33 different species of cacti found in Clark including those from the Ferocactus genus and the famous Saguaro. Various flowering plants, including annuals, biannuals, and perennials are also present in Clark. Wildflowers may also sprout across the desert in the spring following rainfall in the late winter. Naturally-growing coniferous and deciduous trees can be found around the Spring Mountains where the climate is much more temperate and milder to support such life. The Juniperus communis (common juniper) is an example of such a tree that is able to inhabit the more favorable conditions found in Clark's mountains.

Fauna[edit]

Predominantly featuring a desert climate, Clark supports a variety of species adapted to the environment. Due to the heat, most animals are active during the night or the evening including predators, the Canis latrans (coyote) and the Lynx rufus (bobcat). Other large terrestrial mammals, such as the Ovis canadensis and the Antilocapra americana (pronghorn) are active during the day, but spend most of it resting in the shade, and avoiding direct sunlight. Clark's desert can also support smaller mammals such as rodents including two naturally occurring species of rabbits, the Ochotona princeps (American pika), eighteen species of mice/rats, and five species of squirrels/chipmunks.

History[edit]

Early Clark[edit]

The Paiutes are believed to be the original inhabitants of Clark.

Clark was first inhabited by Native Sierran Indians approximately 10,000 years ago who migrated from the north and south into the Las Vegas Valley. These early peoples lived in small huts and followed seasonal migratory patterns, traveling between the mountains during the summer and the valleys during the winter. Early local Native Indian culture included intricate pottery, cave painting, pictograms, and possible use of a writing language. Concentration of activity were found in locations including the Gypsum Cave and the Tule Springs. Around 700 AD, the Paiutes moved into the Las Vegas Valley and spent most of their time in or near the Las Vegas Springs.

Francisco Garcés was the first European to explore Clark. A Spanish Franciscan friar, he led an exploration across the southwestern region of North America including the Colorado River. Garcés proclaimed Clark to be part of New Spain, a vast colony that contained all of Spain's claims and possessions in the New World north of the Isthmus of Panama. Clark would later be properly organized within the colony in the Commandancy General of the Provincias Internas (Internal Provinces) before being reorganized into Alta California in 1804 following the Californias' split in 1804.

In 1810, Mexico, the largest and most populated of New Spain's provinces revolted, igniting a war that lasted until 1821 with Mexico victorious and independence. Spain relinquished control of all of New Spain to Mexico including Clark, thereby subjecting the province to Mexican control.

John C. Frémont led an expedition group through Clark in 1844 and established a fort which was later used for war.

In 1829, Mexican explorer Antonio Armijo led a caravan party through the Las Vegas Valley. On Christmas, Armijo's party camped approximately 110 miles northeast of present-day Las Vegas. One of Armijo's scouts, Rafael Rivera, wandered away from the party in search of a shortcut before discovering the Las Vegas Valley. Returning to his party within two weeks, Rivera led Armijo and his men into the valley, which they named "Las Vegas" ("fertile plains" in Spanish) due to the fertility and abundance of vegetation around the desert springs in the area. Armijo's path is now known today as the Old Spanish Trail.

On May 3, 1844, future Sierran prime minister John C. Frémont, an American, led a group of United States Army Corps of Engineers-affiliated scientists, scouts, and spies commissioned by the President into Clark, who were probing the possibility of war with Mexico. Making camp in Las Vegas Valley, Frémont's men constructed a fort which would later be used during the Mexican-American War.

Tonopah[edit]

In 1848, California gained independence from Mexico through the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, transferring control over Clark from the Mexican authorities to the Californians. Clark was incorporated as the State of Tonopah, which comprised all of present-day Clark, parts of eastern San Joaquin, and parts of Eureka. The state capital was Pah-Ute, a town which no longer exists and was located in an area now submerged underneath Lake Mead.

During Clark's existence as a Californian state, the only settlements in the area was Frémont's fort, whose population peaked at only 250, and the capital, Pah-Ute, whose population was no larger than 200. In 1855, a group of Mormon missionaries led by William Bringhurst traveled into Las Vegas Valley and built an adobe fort and irrigation system near a creek. By 1857, the fort was abandoned due to managerial disputes and difficulty in growing crops in the Clark heat. Tonopah's status as a state was fiercely disputed and protested by the neighboring Arizonian states of Mojave and Maricopa. Both governments had far larger populations than Tonopah and lodged petitions to the Californian Congress to reverse Tonopah's statehood, in favor of subsuming it to Mojave. Every attempt made by the protesting states' legislators were unsuccessful each time.

In 1858, California was reformed into the Kingdom of Sierra, and the present-day boundaries that create Clark were formed, as Tonopah's land was partitioned to three new provinces (Tonopah, San Joaquin, and Eureka). Tonopah remained underdeveloped until the arrival of Octavius Gass, an American-Sierran businessman and politician, charged with utilizing the land with federal funding. Controlling a 640 acre plot, his "Las Vegas Rancho" became a popular winery along the Old Spanish Trail. By 1881 however, Gass would lose his property to Archibald Stewart, a man who had a lien on the property. The property would remain under Stewart ownership until 1902 when the St. Pierre-Chah, Porciúncula, and Salt Lake Railroad purchased it. The railroad, a project commissioned by Sierran businessman William Andrews Clark, would run through Clark, connecting towns from the United States and Brazoria to Porciúncula.

During the Sierran Civil War, parts of Tonopah were nominally claimed and controlled by the Second California Republic although the area never saw any significant battles. Today, the lands occupied by the Republicans belong to San Joaquin, while none of present-day Clark was ever under the control of the Republicans. A small number of Republican sentries were sent to garrison the Republic's claim over the province but the actual impact on Tonopah and its pro-Porciúncula government was negligible and never seriously tendered to. Prior to the capitulation of Isaiah Landon, he had planned to escape the Inland Empire by traveling through Death Valley into Clark, before heading towards Brazoria by way through the Deseret.

By 1895, Mormons and Canaanites from the Deseret began migrating to Clark, developing agricultural plots and an elaborate irrigation system in the Las Vegas Valley. The increased availability of water greatly eased Clark's transition from a virtually uninhabited land to a thriving community. The Royal Surveyors Corps was responsible for mapping and surveying Tonopah, where over ninety percent of the land was owned by the federal government. The Corps' work in Tonopah during the 1890s would later be used by future generations to identify areas for human development such as military bases, freeways, and housing.

Early 20th century[edit]

On 1905, the present-day city of Las Vegas was officially established, and became incorporated in 1911 as the capital of the province. The town, which was initially a mere 110 acres, would soon expand as William Clark and his associates, Governor Thomas Kearns and David Keith, continued laying down railroad tracks. Clark's business and project in Tonopah were crucial for the success of the province and shortly after his death in 1925, the Tonopah Provincial Legislature passed an amendment to the provincial constitution which renamed Tonopah to Clark in his posthumous honor.

A photograph showing the construction site of the Salinas Dam.

During the early 20th century, Clark saw the rise of small communities, mostly straddling along the Old Spanish Trail as residents assisted travelers on their way to the coast. As Las Vegas and the surrounding vicinity grew in size, the demand for greater access to water increased. To meet this demand, Prime Minister Poncio Salinas signed a bill from Parliament apportioning funds for the Salinas Dam Project. With construction starting in 1931, the population of Clark swelled as newcomers seeking jobs came to work at the dam. With most newcomers being single males from throughout the country, Clark's entertainment industry was born as business owners and members of the Sierran Mafia financed casinos and showgirl theaters for the pleasure of the workers.

Clark largely avoided the cultural and social upheaval of the Sierran Cultural Revolution that emerged in the Southwest Corridor. Its culture lasted as a pre-Revolution society until the 1960s before emigrants from the Gold Coast, Orange, the Inland Empire, and elsewhere came in large numbers. Due to the province's sparse and relatively small population, the newcomers overwhelmed the natives by four-to-one, transplanting the local culture with their own.

In 1931, the Clark Provincial Legislature passed a law legalizing gambling, greenlighting Las Vegas' already-established entertainment industry, in attempt to raise revenue. The first casinos licensed by the province were on Fremont Street. By 1935, the Salinas Dam was completed, which provided much-needed water and electricity to the growing province. Development of Clark's entertainment initially elicited condemnation and opposition by traditionalists and members of Sierra's temperance movement. In the 1932 elections, ten individuals including Betsy Harper, a prominent prohibitionist were elected into the 40-member Clark Provincial Legislature, with the aim of delaying and overturning legislation that authorized gambling, prostitution, and other "vices". Harper and her allies formed the "Coalition Against Delinquency and Debauchery" (CADD), a nationwide movement aimed at overturning liberalized social policies. Despite aggressively campaigning against the development of Las Vegas, Clark's path towards an entertainment-based economy continued. In 1936, Prime Minister Salinas visited Las Vegas, meeting local business, boosting the city's reputation with his tour, and solidifying the province's direction.

The Fremont Street, circa 1952

As Sierrans began visiting or moving into Clark, it became especially apparent that tourism would be the province's primary economic sector. Lake Mead, the reservoir that arose from the damming of the Colorado River, became a tourist destination by its own right. In addition, the rise of the gambling center in Laughlin, a city at the southern extremity of Clark's Needle region, became another popular tourist site.

Contemporary Clark[edit]

By 1940, Interprovincial 95 was linked with Las Vegas, and most roads in Las Vegas and the vicinity had paved roads. The McCarran International Airport was established in 1948 for civilian use after nearly a decade used a Royal Air Force base during World War II. The war transformed the local economy of Clark and its land came under particular interest by military leaders and lawmakers. Prominent politicians including Senator Matt Buchanan pushed in Porciúncula to establish military installations and landing sies in Clark. The largest and most significant military installation established in Clark as a result of Buchanan's efforts was the Whitefield Royal Air Force Base, located northeast of North Las Vegas.

Clark played a central role in the Manhattan Project during World War II. The Sierran government provided Clarker land for testing including the Groom Lake Military Base (more commonly known as Area 51), located in central Clark. Project Specter would be the first of several nuclear weapons detonated on-site in Clark. The testings, which were kept out of public eye, were revealed following the war as the Great Basin controversy, damaging trust in federal and provincial government. The Sierran federal government continued using Clark land to test nuclear bombs at the Nye Proving Grounds.

Maxie Cohen was a Jewish-Northeasterner gangster who was instrumental to the financial development of Clark, particularly in Las Vegas.

In 1941, El Rancho Las Vegas, a hotel with a renowned buffet became the first resort opened on what would later become the Las Vegas Strip. Soon after, other businesses followed suit, establishing casinos such as the Pair-o-Dice Club in the area southwest of Las Vegas city limits. As Las Vegas' notoriety as an entertainment town grew, Clark began to attract organized crime including Mormon criminal syndicates from the Deseret and mobsters from the Northeast Union and Brazoria. Maxie Cohen, a Jewish-Northeasterner gangster, took interest in Las Vegas and financially supported the establishment of the Flamingo in 1946 and the Desert Inn in 1950. Crime became rampant, giving Las Vegas a reputation as a city of lawlessness and vices. The prolific activities of organized crime and mobsters garnered significant interest by the Royal Bureau of Investigation and other federal law enforcement agencies. The Purple Shirts were employed to crackdown illegal and seditious activity in the city, and were largely credited for driving street gangs away from the Strip and the downtown area.

Despite increased scrutiny from federal and local law enforcement, the gambling enterprise continued to expand under the helm of criminal organization and families. New businesses supported by legitimate sources emerged, including the Sahara and Sands. By 1954, over 8 million people were visiting Las Vegas, and the numbers attracted celebrities from Hollywood and elsewhere including Elvis Presley and Frank Sinatra to perform and run shows in the city. The communities of Henderson and Boulder City grew as more Sierrans began settling in Clark.

In 1951, following the City of Las Vegas' attempt to incorporate the area surrounding the Las Vegas Strip, the Strip casino owners lobbied to the Fremont County Commission for township status to prevent annexation. The Commission acquiesced to the owners' demands, establishing the unincorporated towns of Paradise "A", and Paradise "B" the next year. Paradise "A" would later be renamed "Winchester" while Paradise B was named, "Paradise".

For the next decade, Clark continued growing and expanding, although it suffered political corruption with the Las Vegas criminal system of control of the city's casinos and businesses intact. A crackdown by federal agents in 1956 was met with little success, allowing the criminally-controlled casinos to remain under control until the arrival of Brazorian-Sierran businessman Howard Hughes in 1966. A powerful and influential entrepreneur with extensive connections throughout the continent, Hughes purchased the Desert Inn and established the Howard Hughes Corporation. Soon after his initial purchase, Hughes used his power to purchase other casinos, amassing a real estate empire and eradicating criminal connections with the city and its businesses in the process. The aggressive investigative journalism campaign pursued by Hank Greenspun to expose provincial corruption and gang involvement quickened the decline in criminal influence.

View of the Bellgaio Fountains at the center of the Las Vegas Strip in 2019

From 1970s onward to the mid-2000s, Clark experienced high population growth rates, often doubling in size per decade. The continued urban sprawl across Las Vegas Valley coupled with further improvements and construction of new casinos in Las Vegas attracted thousands to the province. By the 1990s, Las Vegas had become a cosmopolitan city with a diversified economy that now included banking and logistics, bringing more employment opportunities to residents. In the early 2000s, Clark began privatizing some of its public highways, selling them to gentrified trusts.

The late 2000s recession halted economic growth as real estate projects were cancelled, homeowners suffered foreclosures, tourism declined substantially, and businesses faced bankruptcies. Numerous megaresort projects and proposals for planned communities in Clark were abandoned during this time. By 2013, Clark witnessed signs of economic recovery and the Las Vegas Strip continued to witness expansion.

On October 1, 2017, the deadliest mass shooting in Clark's history occurred when a lone gunman killed 58 Route 91 Harvest festival concertgoers and injured over 850 more from the Mandalay Bay resort.

In January 2020, Clark became the center of controversy due to the Red Rock Castle crisis where Prince George the Elder of Sonora sought refuge in Red Rock Castle in Summerlin, Fremont County. The crisis lasted eight days before the Prince Elder committed suicide.

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Year Pop.
1850
1860 749
1870 1,691 125.77%
1880 2,584 52.81%
1890 3,717 43.85%

1900 4,928 32.58%
1910 7,191 45.92%
1920 9,018 25.40%
1930 16,322 80.99%
1940 53,834 229.82%

1950 125,101 132.38%
1960 264,333 111.30%
1970 471,792 78.48%
1980 719,281 52.46%
1990 958,446 33.25%

2000 1,300,105 80.75%
2010 1,760,773 35.43%
2020 2,203,919 25.16%
K.S. Decennial Census

According to the Sierra Royal Bureau of Census, in April 2020, Clark had an officially recorded population of 2,203,919. In the 2010 census, the official population stood at 1,760,773. The population change between both censuses indicates a population increase of 443,186 or 25.16%, one of the highest population growths in the country. This includes a natural increase of 136,789 (that is 295,008 births minus 158,219 deaths) and an increase of 217,204 due to net migration from other Sierran PSAs into the province. Immigration from outside the Kingdom of Sierra resulted in a net increase of 89,193 and emigration from Clark represented a net decrease of 77,403. According to the 2020 census, 17.67% of residents were born in Clark, 48.3% were born in another Sierran PSA or territory, 0.09% were born abroad to Sierran parent(s), and 33.94% were foreign-born. The center of population was in the unincorporated area of Winchester, about 200 feet east of Encore Las Vegas.

Clark has consistently grown in population size since the late 19th century, with exponential growth during the 1980s and 90s. Since then, due partly to financial hardship and real estate troubles in the mid-2010s, growth rates have declined although the province's growth has been correlated with its recovering economy.

Clark has the highest rate of divorces in the entire Kingdom, and one of the highest marriage rates. Both of these figures stem from the fact that Clark has simpler, cheaper, and easier legal processing for both institutions. In Las Vegas, which is internationally reputed for its wedding industry, issues most of its marriage licenses to out-of-province residents who take advantage of such ease.

Racial and ancestral makeup[edit]

According to the Sierra Royal Bureau of Census, the 2020 racial makeup of the Province of Clark was as follows according to self-identification:

  • 62.4% White (1,375,245)
  • 42.0% Non-Hispanic White (925,645)
  • 22.4% Hispanic White (493,677)
  • 20.2% Asian/Pacific Islander (445,191)
  • 11.6% Black (255,654)
  • 0.7% Native Sierran (15,427)
  • 11.7% Mixed/Other (257,858)
  • 24.3% Hispanic or Latino of any race (535,552)
  • 3.5% Creole of any race (77,137)
Clark Racial Breakdown of Population
Racial composition 2000 2010 2020
White 70.1% 68.6% 62.4%
Asian 18.7% 19.4% 20.2%
Black 8.8% 9.0% 11.6%
Two or more races 1.0% 1.2% 2.2%
Native 0.5% 0.5% 0.4%
Other race 0.9% 1.3% 3.2%

By ethnicity, 75.7% of the population was non-Hispanic, while 24.3% of the population was Hispanic or Latino of any race. 96.5% of the population was non-Creole while 3.5% were Creole. Non-Hispanic Whites constituted the plurality in the province, making up 42.0% of the population.

In terms of ancestry among the non-Hispanic White or European Sierrans, 11.9% were German, 9.4% were Irish, 7.3% were English, 6.5% were Italian, and 3.7% were Jacobites. The majority of Clarkers with European ancestry are descended from settlers who arrived from Anglo-America. Certain groups such as Italians, Greeks, and other Southern Europeans arrived during the early 20th century and were more likely to have emigrated directly from Europe rather than settling first in Anglo-America and then immigrating to Sierra. Although the proportion of whites has declined in the province overall, they remain the overwhelming majority in northern Clark and much of the province's rural communities with populations less than 25,000.

Of the 24.3% of Hispanics or Latinos, 19.5% are Mexican, 2.1% are Salvadoran, 0.4% are Guatemalan, 0.3% are Nicaraguan, 0.3% are Cuban, 0.3% are Colombian, 0.3% are Peruvian, 0.2% are Honduran, and 0.1% are Venezuelan. The majority of Clark's Hispanic population lives in the Las Vegas Valley, especially in North Las Vegas and downtown Las Vegas. A significant portion of Clark's Central American population are undocumented, accounting as much as 60% of the community. The community has been shielded from deportations largely due to Las Vegas and several other cities' implementation of sanctuary city statuses.

Asian Sierrans make up the second largest racial group, constituting one-fifth of the entire population. The majority of Asian Sierrans live in or within the vicinity of the pan-Asian Chinatown in Spring Valley, a community west of the Las Vegas Strip. Affluent Asian Sierran families have moved into other communities however, such as Summerlin or Henderson. The largest Asian ethnic groups in Clark are Chinese (5.6%), Tondolese (5.4%), Vietnamese (4.7%), Korean (3.8%), Indian (3.3%), Japanese (2.0%), Hmong (1.7%), Thai (1.7%), and Cambodian (1.5%).

The Black Sierran population in Clark makes up 11.6%, one of the highest rates in the country. Of the black population, 3.5% identified themselves additionally or solely as Sierran Creole, while 1.1% identified themselves as Hispanic or Latino (most of whom are Afro-Caribbean with Cuban or Dominican nationalities). The Clark black population is generally concentrated in the historic West Las Vegas neighborhood and the southwestern side of North Las Vegas.

There is a significant number of Native Hawaiians who live in Clark, especially in the City of Las Vegas where it has been affectionately called the "ninth island of Hawaii" by Las Vegans and Hawaiians alike. Hawaiian culture and cuisine has left an impact on the local culture and economy of Clark, and the Prince of Hawaii maintains an official residence in the Las Vegas Valley.

Religions[edit]

Religious affiliation in Clark
Affiliation % of Sierra population
Christian cross.svg Christian 65 65
 
Christian cross.svg Protestant/Evangelical 35 35
 
USVA headstone emb-46.svg Catholic 25 25
 
USVA headstone emb-05.svg Eastern Orthodox 1 1
 
USVA headstone emb-11.svg Mormon 4 4
 
Christian cross.svg Other Christian 1 1
 
Five-pointed star.svg Other Faith 6 6
 
CanaanismMoonSun(Black and white).svg Canaanite 3 3
 
USVA headstone emb-02.svg Buddhist 2 2
 
USVA headstone emb-03.svg Jewish 1 1
 
USVA headstone emb-16.svg Unaffiliated 28 28
 
Question mark.svg Don't know/refused answer 1 1
 
Total 100 100
 

Clark has one of the lowest church attendance rates in the country, with only 30% of Clarkers polled in 2009 stating they attended church weekly or almost weekly. The majority of Clarkers are Christian (65%) with 35% of Christian Clarkers identifying themselves as part of a Protestant or Evangelical denomination, 25% as part of a Catholic church, 4% as Mormons, and 2% as part of other Christian sects including Eastern Orthodoxy and Jehovah's Witnesses. The largest religious denomination in Clark is the Roman Catholic Church whose membership accounts for 15% of Clark's residents. The next largest Christian churches include the Baptists, Episcopalians, Evangelicals, Pentecostals, and Adventists.

Clark has one of the Kingdom's highest number of the irreligious, with 28% of Clark identifying themselves as part of no religion or faith. It is one of the least religious PSAs in the country and the Clark Society of Atheists, Agnostics, and Humanists has reported a membership of over 200,000. The largest non-Christian religious groups include the Canaanites (3%) and Mahayana Buddhists (2%). The remaining 1% include Muslims, Sikhs, Jews, and others.

In a 2019 poll conducted by the Ministry of Culture's Research Data report, 68 percent of residents said that they were either "absolutely certain" or "slightly certain" that there was a God or gods, compared to the national average of 76 percent. In the same survey, only 33 percent stated that religion was "very important" to their lives. Less than 1 out of 3 Clarkers attended worship services weekly or more. Church attendance has been relatively low compared to the national average even on major religious holidays such as Christmas and Easter, where only 40 percent of self-identified Christians reported attendance.

Languages[edit]

The official languages of Clark include the nine languages that are recognized nationally in Sierra (English, Spanish, French, Chinese, Tondolese, Vietnamese, Korean, Japanese, and German), thus requiring all official government documents in the province to be published with all of the aforementioned languages. It does not have any other official languages other than the national ones. English and Spanish are the two single most spoken languages in Clark.

In 2020, the Royal Bureau of Census reported that 60.3% of people aged 5 or older spoke only English at home, while 27.19% spoke a different primary language at home. The remaining 12.5% spoke English and another language or a combination of two or more other languages. 58.9% of people whose primary language was not English was able to speak English well or very well, while 6.5% could not speak English at all.

Clark is linguistically diverse with more than 55 different languages spoken by its residents. The most spoken language in Clark after English and Spanish is Tondolese, which makes up more than 6% of the population. Several varieties of Chinese, including Cantonese, Mandarin, and Taiwanese Hokkien are spoken by about 4% of the population. Korean, Vietnamese, Japanese, German, French, Thai, Arabic, Hindi-Urdu, Punjabi, Greek, Hebrew, and Dutch are also spoken by significant numbers in the province.

Culture[edit]

Seven Magic Mountains, a desert art installation near Jean

A cosmopolitan culture, Clark is home to a diverse community of people of all backgrounds. The majority of Clark's residents are non-natives, most either transplanted from other Sierran provinces, or from overseas. Historically viewed as a province filled with social vices, disorder and immorality, Clark has emerged in contemporary times as a province of opportunity and independence. Aside from the gaming industry in Las Vegas, Laughlin, and other gambling areas, Clark is home to various museums, theaters, and art galleries including the Neon Museum and the Downtown Arts District. Mountain hiking, rock climbing, camping, and other outdoor sports are also possible at the Springs Mountain. During the winter, skiing and snowboarding are available following snowfall. At Lake Mead and along the Colorado River, there are opportunities for fishing, boating, jet-skiing, and swimming.

Art, literature, theatre, and museums[edit]

King Smith Center for the Performing Arts

In the Downtown Las Vegas Arts District, the city hosts First Friday, a monthly event where local artists exhibit their work and musicians perform live. Year-round, there are art galleries and events which promote local art and artists in the area. The Bellagio Gallery of Fine Art houses some of the world's most expensive and valuable pieces of art, including works by Andy Warhol, Alexander Calder, and Peter Carl Fabergé. The Las Vegas Art Museum features contemporary art and includes the world's largest collection of contemporary Amerindian art.

The King Smith Center for the Performing Arts is the largest performing center in the province and has featured a number of Broadway theatrical performances, operas, orchestral performances, choir performances, poetry readings, dance performances, and concerts. The Spring Valley Philharmonic is based at the King Smith Center and have frequently performed for worldwide audiences.

Clark has been the subject of various literary works, especially in science fiction and military history fiction. Sierran science fiction writer Eli Greenblatt was born and raised in Clark, and his When They Came Here trilogy books are based in Clark, as well as his standalone novel, The Mole People. The annual ReadCon, a fan convention held in Las Vegas where popular culture, the book industry, and authors convene, attracts over 75,000 unique visitors each year, and is also the site where many Sierran authors announce the release of unwritten works.

Music[edit]

Clark has a well-established music scene centered in the Las Vegas Valley. It has several large music venues including the Las Vegas Festival Grounds and hundreds of nightclubs. It has become one of North America's premier locations for electronic dance music and rock music, attracting tens of thousands of music fans each year with its more than dozen rave events, music concerts, and music festivals. Sierran and international musicians commonly include Las Vegas on their tours in Sierra and typically perform as headliners for venues at Las Vegas' various casinos and resorts.

The Las Vegas New Year's Eve celebration and its time ball has become the central focus of Sierran nationally televised broadcasting programs during New Year's Eve. Several networks including RBS, EBN, Tokki Network, and 16ON have their own New Year's Eve specials broadcast in both Las Vegas, Porciúncula, and San Francisco City. The Las Vegas specials typically feature a lineup of various celebrity artists and performers, televising live music performances in the hours before and after midnight's ball drop.

Sports[edit]

The Vegas Golden Knights playing against the visiting Vancouver Canucks at the T-Mobile Arena

Clark has three professional sports teams: the Las Vegas Slots of the American Baseball League, the Vegas Golden Knights of the Anglo-American Hockey League, and the Las Vegas Raiders of the American Football League. The Las Vegas 51s are the only other baseball team in Clark, and are part of the minor Pacific Coast League. The only major collegiate sports team in Clark is the USLV Rebels. All of the major professional sports teams have been recent additions to Clark's sports scene. Historically, Clark was the most populous province to lack a single professional sports team before the creation of the Las Vegas Slots in 2009, followed by the Vegas Golden Knights in 2017.

The Von Holt Ballpark hosts the Las Vegas Slots; the T-Mobile Arena hosts the Vegas Golden Knights; and the Allegiant Stadium hosts the Las Vegas Raiders.

Clark has hosted numerous professional boxing matches and other professional fighting bouts. The Las Vegas Valley has become the premier central location for a number of Sierran fighting leagues, especially Supreme Fighting Competition (SFC). The SFC has hosted more than a hundred events in Clark, alongside dozens of other MMA title fights.

Economy[edit]

Clark relies heavily on tourism and the gambling industry in and around the Las Vegas area.

The economy of Clark is tied to tourism, having long been associated with the entertainment and gambling industry. Its two largest gambling centers: Las Vegas and Laughlin, attract millions of both domestic and international visitors annually, and generating the province a revenue of $30 billion. Gambling was first legalized provincial-wide in 1931 and since then, the development of casinos, hotels, and other tourist attractions have led to booming real estate, communities, and local retail businesses.

Historically, Clark's economy was based chiefly on mining and transportation. Its semiarid climate and poor soil made it poor for agriculture and ranching, a complication which persisted until the advent of irrigated water diverted from the Colorado River through the Hoover Dam. The provincial economy remained resources extraction-based until the Interwar period when the nation grew rapidly economically. The introduction of the automobile and early highway system made it easier for Clark to maintain connections with the rest of Sierra. Although Clark was already connected through several railroad lines, the burgeoning road system in Clark facilitated greater access for prospective residents and businesses.

By the end of World War II, Clark's economy had transformed completely. Under the government of Poncio Salinas, Clark's development boomed with the Salinas Dam project and the entry of the Sierran Crown Armed Forces in the province. The province's increased importance as a defense industry center encouraged larger communities which could accommodate the families of military servicemen, defense contractors, and other workers who operated near Clark's military bases. Growth and expansion in the Las Vegas Valley, especially around the future Strip further promoted an expanding economy that thrived from the economic and demographic explosion.

Business[edit]

Over 150 international and major domestic firms are represented in Clark. Three of Anglo-America's 1,000 largest publicly traded companies are headquartered in Clark including Allegiant Air, Boyd Gaming, Caesars Entertainment Corporation, Las Vegas Sands, MGM Resorts International, Southwest Gas, Station Casinos, Von Holt Hotels & Casinos International, Wynn Resorts and Zappos. The province was listed as one of the business-friendliest places in North America in 2019 due to its low taxes and minimal regulations.

Following economic recovery from the 2008 recession, Clark became an attractive location for technology start-up companies to base their operations. A number of technology firms have established a presence in Clark, including Dryve, Echo, and Polaris Motors.

Tourism and gambling[edit]

A panorama showing the Cosmopolitan, Aria, Bellagio, and Caesars Palace from left to right.

Tourism is Clark's most crucial and largest contributor to Clark's economy, which in turned is predominantly tied to the gambling industry through the gaming centers in the Las Vegas Valley. Most forms of gambling, including full-scale casinos, are legal across the entire province. It is one of the few PSAs in the country which permit non-Amerindian commercial casinos without restrictions. Parimutuel betting, online gambling, and sports betting are also allowed. The notable exception to Clark's otherwise wholesale allowance to gambling is lottery and race track betting, two forms of gambling which have been opposed by Clark's casino operators and their lobbyists.

As of December 2015, there are 178 casinos in Clark, excluding those in Native Sierran reservations, with 50% of all gambling revenue in the province coming from the 36 casinos based in the Las Vegas Strip. 11 of the world's 15 largest hotels are Las Vegas resorts including The Venetian and The Palazzo, MGM Grand Las Vegas, and the Wynn/Encore.

Aside from the gambling centers, other areas in Clark that attract millions of tourists annually include the Salinas Dam and adjacent Lake Mead National Recreation Area, the latter of which features water activities and hiking. The Springs Mountain National Recreation Area, located within the Humboldt-Toiyabe National Forest offers various activities including picnicking and skiing. The small town of Rachel in central Clark, straddled along the Extraterrestrial Highway attracts thousands of UFO hunters due to its proximity to Area 51, a restricted military base thought to house several UFOs and even alien captives.

Housing and real estate[edit]

Residential neighborhood with the Las Vegas Strip in the background

Clark's housing market was one of the cheapest in the country in 2019. The median price was $221,402 although the rate of increase has outpaced the national average since 2015. The median home value for newly built single-family homes was $288,200 and the median home value for newly built condominiums and townhouse was $164,500. Home sales of $500,000 and higher accounted for 35% of all residential real estate sales in 2019.

At the end of the fourth quarter for the 2019 financial year, the mortgage delinquency rate was 1.7% (of mortgages delinquent for more than 60 days), well below the national average of 3.6%. There were approximately 55,108 delinquent loans and 15,794 foreclosures within the same quarter. According to the K.S. Royal Bureau of Census, the agency estimated that Clarkers spent an average of 30.1% of personal income on housing-related costs, the thirteenth-highest percentage in the country.

Military[edit]

In 2019, Clark had a total of 39,672 Ministry of Defense active duty service members and 25,975 reservists and guardsmen. The Sierran Crown Armed Forces have a major presence in the province, including the Sierran Royal Army, the Sierran Royal Navy, the Sierran Royal Air Force, and the Sierran Royal Marines. Both the Royal Air Force and the Royal Navy have several significant facilities and bases in the province. For the former, this includes Argyle Royal Air Force Base in Indian Springs; Whitefield Royal Air Force Base near North Las Vegas; and Wingfield Test Range in Tonopah. For the latter, this includes Royal Naval Air Station Caliente in Caliente; the Royal Naval Air Strike Warfare Center Jean in Jean; and the Naval Weapons Station Searchlight in Searchlight.

Mining[edit]

Mining has been Clark's oldest and most important historical industry for the province. Minerals and precious metals such as gold, silver, salt, zinc, copper, tungsten, turquoise, and iron were mined heavily in Clark and peaked in production the 1980s. Other minerals which were mined later in the 20th century included barite, gypsum, diatomite, lithium carbonate, mercury, magnesite, limestone, sand, and gravel. During the mid-to-late 20th century, Clark was one of the world's leading centers for rare earth mineral mining. At its peak in the 1970s, Clark accounted for nearly 75% of Sierra's output, which in turn contributed to over 90% of the world's rare earth production. As Clark's rare earth mining activity declined, Sierra's overall production has also declined as China has overtaken Sierra as the global leader in rare earth minerals.

Taxation and budget[edit]

With a fiscally conservative government, Clark does not levy provincial individual income tax or corporate tax. There is however, a provincial sales tax, and counties can opt to include a combined sales tax marked up as high as 8%. As of 2015, the current provincial sales tax rate is 6.5%. Property tax is determined at the municipal level, although Clark's property taxes on average, are among the highest in the country (2-4% of property market value). It also levies taxes on capital gains and dividends. It does not have inheritance taxes or estate taxes, although it does impose a scalable tax on gifts. It also imposes a flat tax of 1.5% on all intangible personal property including bonds, notes, contracts, trusts, annuities, and loans to stockholders.

Infrastructure[edit]

Energy[edit]

The primary public utility which provides electricity to Clark is CL Energy, a gentrified trust. Water is managed, treated, and distributed by the Clark Provincial Water and Sanitary Authority (CPWSA), which covers the entire province.

Since the late 20th century, Clark's electricity consumption has exceeded its in-provincial electricity generation, requiring Clark to obtain additional electricity from the Gold Coast, Inland Empire, Kings, Mohave, and San Joaquin. The primary fuel and energy source in Clark is natural gas, which accounts for seven-tenths of the province's net electricity generation. As of 2020, it maintains 7 active power plants.

Similar to other inland provinces, hydropower accounts less than 10% of the province's entire electricity generation due to water scarcity. The largest and most significant hydropower station in Clark is the Salinas Dam, which operates on the Colorado River. Most of Clark's hydroelectric energy derives from the electricity produced by the Salinas Dam. The dam, which on average produces about 4 billion kilowatt-hours each year, provides energy for the provinces of Clark, the Inland Empire, Mohave, Maricopa, Apache, Orange, and the Gold Coast. Clark is allocated nearly 25% of this energy.

Other renewable sources of energy such as geothermal, wind, and solar energy have supplied a growing share of the province's electrical needs and consumption. There are currently 27 operational solar power facilities in the province.

Roads[edit]

Northbound CL-95 between Beatty and Scotty's Junction

The Clark Department of Transportation (CDOT) oversees and manages over 3,200 miles of public highways and paved roads, of which 70% receive federal funding, and 321 miles are freeways as of January 2020. These figures include park and recreational roads located within or near national and provincial parks. The highway fatality rate was 1.9 per million miles traveled. There are five private toll roads and one standard highway which features toll-express lanes for a portion of their entire length. The highest posted speed limit is 85 mph (136.7 km/h) for most highways, although there are no speed limits on rural highways (the provincial advisory maximum speed is 80 mph [128.7 km/h]). All federal and provincial highways, regardless of identification, are paved. In addition to the nationally numbered highways that are registered with the Interprovincial Highway and K.S. Route Highway systems, Clark maintains its own provincial highway system, with thirty-five highways. All highways within the province are subject to the patrol and protection by the Clark Highway Patrol, which enforces traffic laws and public safety. Private roads are patrolled and enforced by private security.

Aerial view of I-3 looking south from Sunset Road in the Las Vegas Valley in 2014

Motor vehicles belonging to Clark residents must be licensed and registered with the Clark Department of Motor Vehicles. Drivers must be licensed, either by Clark or valid outside jurisdiction (i.e. another Sierran PSA) in order to operate vehicles on public roads in Clark. As of 2020, there were 846,181 licensed drivers, of which over 97% possessed active licenses. The earliest possible age to receive a driver's license is 16, although the provinces aged 15 ½ years old to obtain a driver's permit. The blood alcohol count (BAC) legal limit is 0.08% for non-commercial drivers above the age of 18, 0.04% for commercial drivers, and 0.01% for drivers under the age of 18. Penalties and punishment for driving under the influence in Clark follow a three-strikes model. First offense results in a sentencing of 2–180 days in jail and no less than $400 in fines; the second offense is 180–365 days and no less than $750; the third offense is 1–6 years in prison and no less than $2,000. In all cases, convicted DUI offenders results in a license suspension between half a year to three years. Ignition interlock devices may be installed in the vehicles of convicted DUI offenders if their BAC exceeds a certain threshold.

Major highways[edit]

Private highway in italics.
Interprovincials, K.S. Routes, Provincial Highways, and other highways in Clark

Rail and public transit[edit]

Historically, Clark has had minimal commercial light rail infrastructure. The oldest continuing service is the 3.9 mile-long Las Vegas Monorail in the Las Vegas Strip, which is operated by the Fremont County Commission of Public Transportation. Sierrail operates and runs lines with a collective total of sixteen stops, with nine trains in commission to operate within Clark, connecting the province to the Great Sierran Rail Network.

The Provincial Transportation Commission Transit (PTC Transit) is the province's primary bus service which runs regularly scheduled lines and stops throughout the province, mainly in the Las Vegas Valley area. It offers transfers and as of January 2020, runs ten routes throughout the province with a fleet of 35 buses.

Airports[edit]

City served Code Airport name ARA
Category
Enplanements
Henderson KHND Henderson Executive Airport General aviation 98,403 (2019)
Primm KPRI Ivanpah Valley Airport Medium hub 2,413,445 (2019)
Paradise KVEG Clark International Airport Primary large hub 52,288,982 (2019)
North Las Vegas KVGT North Las Vegas Airport General aviation 1,104,333 (2019)

The province is served by the Clark International Airport (KVEG), the province's primary commercial airport. Located in Paradise, just south of the Strip and east of the Welcome to Fabulous Las Vegas sign, the airport is the 24th busiest in the world, accommodating 52,288,982 passengers in 2014. Over 20 airlines operate flights from the airport and it is the hub for Allegiant Air. The airport has 56 gates and offers both domestic and international destinations throughout the Americas, Europe, and Asia. A relief airport in the Ivanpah Valley, the Primm Auxiliary Airport (KPRI), completed in 2012, provides additional capacity for the airport whenever it reaches maximum capacity.

Smaller airports include the Henderson Executive Airport (KHND) and the North Las Vegas Airport (KVGT), the former of which serves as another relief airport for McCarran while the latter the primary hub for general aviation and scenic tours.

Water[edit]

Virtually all of the water Clark uses comes from the Colorado River or one of its tributaries (the most prominent being the Virgin River), with much of this being stored in Lake Mead, a reservoir that formed following the completion of the Salinas Dam. Water management and services are provided by several water districts. In recent years, due to historic low precipitation and drought, water levels in Lake Mead have dropped significantly, resulting in provincial-wide conservation efforts, limiting water use.

The water system is a part of the Colorado River Irrigation System and the Sierran Transnational Water System. Clark is in an interprovincial compact with the Inland Empire, Imperial, the Gold Coast, Orange, Laguna, Kings, Maricopa, Mohave, Cornerstone, and Apache, Iron, Juab, and Emery, known as the Colorado River Compact. Aside from Lake Mead, two other major reservoirs in Clark are Lake Las Vegas and Lake Mohave. The rest of Clark's natural lakes are dry lakes which become filled with water briefly during the monsoon and wet seasons.

Government and politics[edit]

Clark Executive Government Building

Overview[edit]

The government of Clark, seated in Las Vegas, is established through the Constitution of Clark which describes itself as a semi-parliamentary system separated into three branches of government: the executive, the legislative, and the judicial. The executive branch is led by the Governor who is supported by his/her cabinet including the Lieutenant Governor and other elected constitutional offices. The legislative branch consists of the Clark Provincial Legislature, a bicameral house including the Senate and the Assembly. The judicial branch comprises of the Clark Supreme Court and inferior provincial-level courts. It is a Sierran province and PSA that holds three seats in the Senate (two regular senators and one commissioned senator) and at least one seat in the House of Commons.

The current provincial constitution was adopted in December 11, 1989. There has been a total of three versions of the provincial constitution since the inception of Clark as the Province of Tonopah. It is one of the shortest provincial constitutions in the Kingdom, totaling only 11,384 words. Although voters are allowed to vote on initiatives and referenda, such measures are not incorporated into the Constitution of Clark without being formally amended by the Clark Provincial Legislature. Instead, all voter-approved initiatives and referenda become statutes. Voters may also vote on legislative referrals. Clark is one of the few provinces that allows statute affirmation, which empower voters to affirm an existing law for the purposes of making the said law immutable or repealable by the legislature without a direct vote by a majority of citizens (or by court decision on grounds of unconstitutionality).

Executive[edit]

Executive Government of Clark
L.S. Madame Clara, Baroness Demont-Taylor of Jean
Lt. Gov. Issac Hoffman (R)

The head of state is the Lord or Lady Superintendent of Clark, who is appointed by the Queen to be her viceregal representative. The Lord Superintendent fulfills all of the ceremonial duties and roles of the Queen-in-right of Clark when she is not present in the province. All legislation, statutes, ordinances, documents, and oaths within Clark must be made in the name or affixed with the seal of the Queen via the Lord Superintendent.

The head of government is the Governor, who is appointed separately from the Clark Provincial Legislature. Under the Anglo-American model, the Governor is elected directly by the people to serve fixed-length terms of four years, and is the chief executive of the province and the commander-in-chief of the province's armed forces. The Governor is empowered to enforce the law and may execute any prerogatives reserved for the Lord or Lady Superintendent, namely to appoint non-elected officials, grant pardons and reprieves, to issue executive orders, and to create the province's budget. The Governor is also supported by the Lieutenant Governor, the Secretary of State, the Attorney General, the Treasurer, the Superintendent of Schools, the Commissioner on Gambling, and several other executive officers. All of the major executive posts form the Cabinet of Clark and all are elected by the people (on separate tickets from the Governor).

Legislative[edit]

The Clark Provincial Legislature is a bicameral legislature composing of the upper house Provincial Senate and the lower house Provincial Assembly. Like the majority of Sierra's provinces, Clark uses the Anglo-American federal model in contrast to the Westminster-style parliamentary system found in the Pacific Northwest provinces. The Provincial Senate is composed of 100 senators elected once every four years while the Provincial Assembly is composed of 270 members all of whom are elected once every two years with both houses each gathering for four-year long sessions. Since the 1970s, the Libertarians have been the dominant party in the legislature and share power with the Royalists in the modern era, though the Democratic-Republicans and their allies in the Social Democrats and Greens have grown in recent years as the Dem-Rep base has also grown in size.

Judicial[edit]

The Supreme Court of Clark is the highest court of law in Clark and the head of the provincial judiciary. Its primary function is to review appeals made from the lower district courts. It must consider all appeals filed from the district courts. There are seven justices on the court who serve six-year terms as nonpartisans. Most cases are reviewed by the appellate courts to determine if the central issue of a case raises important contention on public policy or law, rather than misapplied or errant handling by the lower courts. Those that fall under the latter are deferred and reassigned to the Clark Courts of Appeal, which is composed of three members. In addition to the Supreme Court, courts of appeal, and district courts, each county maintains their own municipal courts which deal with a wide range of issues including traffic violations and small claims.

Law[edit]

The law of Clark comprises the Constitution of Clark, the statues of the Clark Provincial Legislature, the regulations and codes of the Clark executive government, and the legal decisions of Clark's judicial system. The legislative statutes are compiled in the Clark Revised Statutes, which is divided into twenty chapters and four sections, while regulations are compiled in the Clark Administrative Code.

Alcohol and other drugs[edit]

Clark is well known for its very lax laws on narcotics. According to official provincial law, the legal age for drinking, smoking and general narcotics consumption is 16 years old, the lowest in the entire country. Clark is well known for its "baby bars", bars where teenagers make up significant portions of both customers and employees. Marijuana has been legal in Clark since 2008 and the province has been a stronghold for pro-marijuana legalization activists and organizations. Marijuana is a booming industry in Clark as well and the province makes over $348 billion a year from the marijuana industry alone.

Age of majority laws[edit]

The official age of majority is 18. Both the ages of sexual consent and marriageable consent is 16, although the lower limit of consent is at 14 if the age difference between the younger partner and the older partner does not exceed 2 years. Any sexual activity between minors below the age of consent and adult citizens automatically qualifies as statutory rape unless the difference in age does not exceed 2 years and the older partner is not in a position of trust or authority, or abusing the inexperience of the younger partner. The age of sexual consent is extended to engaging in or providing legal forms of prostitution or pornographic acts.

LGBT rights[edit]

Clark has been described as one of the most LGBT friendly provinces in the country due to the libertarian and socially liberal nature of the province. Same-sex marriage was legalized in 1998 and in 2003 the Clark provincial government outlawed conversion therapy calling it "an abhorrent, unscientific and atrocious act that legitimizes abuse and punishes people for their identity". Clark has annual gay pride parades and Clark is one of the few provinces that guarantee full legal protections for all LGBT citizens and the province has full anti-discrimination protections for all citizens of the LGBT community. In 2014, Clark gave legal protections to transgender citizens as well and made sex-change operations legal in the province as well.

Prostitution[edit]

Clark is one of the few provinces where prostitution is legal across the entire province with the others being Santa Clara and San Francisco. Las Vegas was the first city in Clark to legalize prostitution and the city is well-known for its red-light districts and is nicknamed the prostitution capital of Sierra. Prostitution is a legal industry in Clark and efforts are taken to ensure the protection of sex workers from abusers and sex trafficking. In 1989, all major cities had legalized prostitution and the act was fully legalized a year later in 1990 as the Sex Work Legalization Act of 1990. The move is highly controversial among socially conservative members of the Clark Royalist Party, but legalized prostitution remains in effect due to the Clark Libertarian and Democratic-Republican Parties having fought to keep it legal.

Counties, cities, and towns[edit]

The five counties of Clark
County County seat Year founded Population Population (2020)
Percentage
Area
(sq. mi.)
Area % Map
Extant
Amargosa Pahrump 1864 45,233 2.05% 7,329.20 18.12% Map of Clark highlighting Amargosa County.svg
Fremont Las Vegas 1909 1,846,485 83.78% 8,061 19.93% Map of Clark highlighting Fremont County.svg
Jefferson Warm Springs 1879 21,081 0.95% 7,924.44 19.59% Map of Clark highlighting Jefferson County.svg
Quinn Duckwater 1909 8,679 0.39% 2945.36 7.28% Map of Clark highlighting Quinn County.svg
Stuart Pioche 1864 282,441 12.83% 14,206.13 35.08% Map of Clark highlighting Stuart County.svg
Totals: 5 2,203,919 100.00% 40,446.13 100.00%
Defunct
Bullfrog Bullfrog 1988–1989
Nye Pahrump 1858–1864

Clark has five counties, 21 cities and towns, and 55 census-designated places and other unincorporated places. Each county operates their own government, local laws, and regulations. Each county is governed by a county commission, a body of elected officials who possess a combination of executive, legislative, and quasi-judicial powers. The county governments are empowered to perform or maintain a wide range of functions, responsibilities, and buildings including tax collection, voter registration, road maintenance, public utilities, family registry collection, vital records, law enforcement, waste disposal and collection, public health and social services, health inspections, libraries, public offices, and jails.

The Clark Provincial Assembly reserves the right to create and dissolve counties. It allows the incorporation of both general-law municipalities and charter cities. Current provincial law also allows for the creation of consolidated city-counties and independent cities although none have been created as of January 2020. It also allows other localities, mainly special districts such as public utilities districts and school districts. Parliamentary districts and provincial legislative districts are electoral constituencies which are created and revised by the federal and provincial governments respectively. In Clark, provincial legislative districts are redrawn after each census by a joint committee between the two houses of the Provincial Assembly.

Political party strength and ideologies[edit]

Clark has traditionally leaned conservatively, and is notable for its libertarian policies being one of the only provinces with gambling and prostitution legalized provincial-wide, among the first to legalize recreational marijuana and same-sex marriage, and featuring one of the nation's laxest business law and regulations, and the only to use privatized roads extensively.

Clark is also noted for its very liberal laws on alcohol, marriage, and divorce. It is the only province without laws on seat belts and motorcycle helmet safety, and has the lowest drinking age in the country (16 years old). The province's unofficial motto, "Liberty or Death" is a common expression used and a reflection of the province's long history of civil libertarianism. Although Clark voters enacted a smoking ban in public spaces and casino areas in 2006, government enforcement has been lenient.

Despite being a Royalist and Libertarian stronghold, in recent years, the Democratic-Republican base has grown considerably, especially in the southern counties including Las Vegas, primarily due to the migration of citizens from the more liberal coastal provinces such as the Gold Coast.

Federal and CAS representation[edit]

Like all provinces, Clark has three senators in total and an eight member delegation to the House of Commons. The most well known senator is Porter Offerman of the Libertarian Party who's commonly viewed as both the face of Clark and one of the most well known Libertarian politicians in Sierra. The two other senators are Simon Zhang and Nick Hugh of the Royalist Party. In Clark's House of Commons delegation, four members are Libertarian, another three are Royalist and the last one is a Democratic-Republican. The one Democratic-Republican MP, Sebastian Gray, was elected in 2017 whose election is viewed as evidence of the growing Democratic-Republican base in Clark. Clark is represented in the American Parliament as well and is made up of two parliamentary constituencies, those being the Las Vegas Valley and Northern Paradise constituencies. In total, Clark has around 10 MAPs most of whom are affiliated with the Americans for Liberty and Democracy.

Education[edit]

Education is handled by the Clark Department of Education, which is governed by the Clark Provincial Board of Education. All statutes pertaining to education are codified under Chapter 8 of the Clark Revised Statutes. The province sets education and curricular standards for public, private, and homeschooling education facilities through the Clark Master Education Plan. All K-12 students and schools are evaluated annually by the nationally held Cumulative Academic Test (CAT), which is localized as the Provincial Assessment on Learned Subjects (PALS). Funding is primarily provided by the provincial government, which supplementary funding coming from the federal government through acts of Parliament and assistance by the Ministry of Education.

Clark ranks among one of the lowest PSAs in education in terms of test scores, high school graduations, college graduations, and postsecondary degree completion. It has placed last under several rankings list, including Newstar's rankings in 2019. In 2019, 68% of high school students graduated within 4 years and an additional 18% graduated as super seniors. The high school dropout rate was 9% in 2019, the nation's second highest after Cornerstone. Less than 20% of new kindergarteners in the 2019–20 academic year were previously enrolled in preschool or a similar preparatory-level program. Literacy rates are nearly universal among native-born citizens, and 59% of Sierra's high school upperclassmen were accredited with a provincial seal of biliteracy (passed a competence test demonstrating bilingualism or multilingualism). Sierran Hanzi competency rates are below average in Clark, with only 30% of students scoring a 3 or higher on the Sierran Hanzi High School Exit Exam (SHHSEE) in 2019.

Less than one-third of Clark's adult population above the age of 25 attained a college degree of any kind in 2019. Approximately 13% of people who attended a college or university did not obtain a degree upon leaving. Only 7% of those above the age of 30 held a doctorate or equivalent-level degree from graduate, medical, or law schools. In 2019, over 80% of college students enrolled during at least one quarter of the 2018–2019 academic year reported that they were the first in the family or in the first generation of the family to attend college, a rate that is above the national average at 52%.

Primary and secondary schools[edit]

Clark has a total of 3 school districts: the Southern Clark Unified School District (SCUSD), the Amargosa County School District (ACSD), and the Stuart School District (SSD). There is a combined total of 62 public schools throughout the province (31 elementary schools, 14 middle or junior high schools, and 17 high schools) with 398,402 students and 24,028 teachers, faculty, and staff. Clark's per-student public expenditure for primary and secondary schools was $7,148 in 2019. In 2019, Clark scored the 4th lowest of all PSAs in math, the 5th lowest of all PSAs in science, and the 2nd lowest of all PSAs in reading and writing based on the national Cumulative Academic Test. About 22% of Clark's students attended private or parochial schools instead of public school. 60% of all public and private high schools in Clark offered Accelerated Learning (AL) courses and only one offered an International Baccalaureate (IB) program.

Homeschooling[edit]

Provincial law prohibits the Clark Department of Education from regulating homeschools. Under statutory law, homeschools are classified as unaccredited private schools and therefore, homeschooling does not need to meet the educational standards and curriculum requirements expected from public schools and accredited private schools. The law requires that any school, regardless of type, must satisfy the basic requirement of teaching its students "grammar, writing, mathematics, and civic education" in a bona fide manner. Homeschooled students are excused from mandatory attendance and cannot be declared truant if they have been registered as a homeschooled student. Homeschooled students are permitted to combine their education with other routes of education including part-time attendance at a public school. Clark's extremely lenient laws towards homeschooling was designed to give parents a great deal of autonomy and discretion over their children's education.

Colleges and universities[edit]

Public[edit]

The Clark Provincial Board of Education oversees four public universities: the University of Sierra campus in Las Vegas (USLV), the multi-campus College of the Mojave (3 campuses), and the Clark Provincial College in Henderson.

Private[edit]

In addition to the public colleges, private institutions include The Art Institute of Las Vegas, the Desert Research Institute, The International Academy of Design & Technology Las Vegas, the Le Cordon Bleu College of Culinary Arts Las Vegas, the Nevada Career Institute, the Roseman University of Health Sciences, and the Touro University Clark.

Symbols[edit]

Insignia Symbol Binomial nomenclature Year Adopted
Official provincial amphibian Mountain yellow-legged frog Rana muscosa 1999
Official provincial bird Gambel's quail Callipepla gambelii 1980
Official provincial butterfly None
Official provincial fish Longfin dace Agosia chrysogaster 2002
Official provincial flower Red columbine Aquilegia formosa 1967
Official provincial reptile Desert tortoise Gopherus agassizii 1980
Official provincial mammal Coyote Canis latrans 1980
Official provincial crustacean None
Official provincial fossil Ichthyosaur Shonisaurus popularis 1989
Official provincial motto "Semper mutans" (Always changing) 1925
Official provincial slogan "Liberty or Death" Traditional
Official provincial nickname "The Paradise Province" 1985
Official provincial tree White fir Abies concolor 1980
Official provincial fruit None
Official provincial song "Atop Red Rock" 1919
Official naval ship HRMS Clark 1995
Coat of arms of Clark

See also[edit]