Conference of American States
- This international organization is part of the Altverse universe.
Conference of American States
Conferencia de los Estados Americanos
Conférence des États Américains
Konferenz der Amerikanische Staaten
Ассоциация государств Америки
Conferência dos Estados Americanos
|Working languages||English, Spanish, French, German, Russian, Portuguese, Danish|
• Secretary General
• Assistant Secretary-General
American Council (upper)|
American Parliament (lower)
|American Court of Justice|
• Financial body
|American Customs Authority|
|7 January 1966|
The Conference of American States (Spanish: Conferencia de los Estados Americanos, French: Conférence des États Américains, German: Konferenz der Amerikanische Staaten, Russian: Ассоциация государств Америки), or the CAS or CEA, is a supranational political-economic union of 15 member states that are located primarily in North America. Covering an area of over 879,000 square miles (2,276,600 square kilometers) and with an estimated population of over 600 million people, it includes a majority of North America (with the notable exception of the United Commonwealth and its dependent territories), Central America, and parts of South America. The Conference of American States has a combined GDP of $24 trillion, and if it were a sovereign state, be the largest economy in the world, surpassing China.
The CAS features an organized system of supranational institutions and standardized laws that apply to all member states. The institutions include the American Parliament, the American Council, the American Secretariat, American Court of Justice, and the American Customs Authority. Within the Seattle Area, border control between participating member states has been eliminated. The CAS features a common market with an overarching free trade agreement among all member states. Members of the American Parliament are elected every four years by CAS citizens while members in the Conference's other institutions are appointed internally or by their member states.
Through common agreement and the Treaty of Seattle, the CAS is enabled the power to protect basic human rights and to enact legislation concerning internal affairs and justice, and common policies on trade, agriculture, and the environment. In recent years however, the scope of legislation for the CAS has expanded to address virtually all areas and issues. There is no currency union although there is customs union with a fixed exchange-rate system. In modern times, there has been a push for more economic unity between member states.
The CAS was created through the Treaty of Seattle in 1965, following the conclusion of Great War II with the intention of creating an international union that would include all countries in the Americas and to prevent further fighting occurring on the continent. The organization was also created to curb the rising influence of the United Commonwealth and Landonism over the rest of the continent. The CAS was initially founded with only four states: Sierra, Brazoria, Astoria, and Superior. These nations were already close allies with each other, with some of them participating in both Great Wars. Over the years, membership expanded, with a majority of the North American continent, Central America, and the Caribbean being confirmed members. Since then, the organization has continued to expand into South America, with São Leopoldo being the first South American nation to join in 1999. Brazil is the latest nation to join the CAS, becoming a full member in 2016 after six years of candidate status.
As a whole, the CAS has been treated as a supranational entity with some elements akin to that of a sovereign state. In the League of Nations and other organizations, the CAS represents itself alongside its own member states, although only as an non-voting observer state. In the LN, it has enhanced participation rights and status as an observer. Featuring some of the wealthiest and most politically developed nations, including Sierra, Astoria, Brazoria, and Superior, the Conference of American States has been described and treated as a world superpower by its own right, due to its global and political influence.
History[edit | edit source]
In the early 19th century, the region today known as Anglo-America was composed of the United States, the British-Canadian dominions, Brazoria, and Sierra, the most powerful and largest of which was the United States. As the first true Anglo-American country, the United States was a major influence in the region. From the beginning of its history in the 1770s however, the nation faced regionalism, principally between the North and South. These differences worsened over the years, and by the 1860s, regionalism had fractured the political fabric of the United States that it led to the American Civil War in 1861 when Southern states began seceding from the Union. Although the Union prevailed and regained control over the South by 1865, the assassination of U.S. president Abraham Lincoln and other high-profile American leaders led to political turmoil, derailing into the re-secession of the South, along with New England, New York, and the American West in an event known as the War of Contingency. The states which remained under the American government reorganized as the United Commonwealth, and centralized its government, moving the capital from Washington, D.C. to Chicago in Illinois. The South would form the Confederate States of Dixie, the State of New York became the Hudson Republic, the New Englander states became the New England Republic (the two later merged into the Northeast Union, and the American Western states became Superior. The United Commonwealth attempted to restore the Union by invading the self-declared breakaway countries in the War of Contingency but ultimately failed with Brazoria and Sierra intervening on the side of the seceding states, and guaranteed their independence. During the decades leading up towards Great War I, tensions between the United Commonwealth and the rest of the continent would continue to rise. After the Continental Revolutionary War and the establishment of a Landonist government, the ideology of Continentalism, the belief that Anglo-America should be united under one central government, began to gain traction, not just in the United Commonwealth, but in different areas of the continent.
Decades of increasing tensions and a uneasy relationship between Sierra and the United Commonwealth, which were considered the superpowers of the New World, would boil over during Great War I, when the United Commonwealth and its allies launched an invasion into western North America, hoping to eliminate their Sierran rivals and to finally establish a continent-wide government. After it's successful invansions into Brazoria and Superior, the United Commonwealth attempted to invade the Sierran homeland by passing through the Rocky Mountains. However, the United Commonwealth's attempts to breach the the Rockies would result in failure and revolts in occupied territories would force the U.C to withdrawal its forces. Great War I would end in 1946 with the Treaty of Verdun, with no all sides gaining or losing much territory. However, what would emerge from the conclusion of the first Great War would be a intense hatred and rivalry between the Sierran and Continentalist blocs.
The period between Great War I and Great War II would known as the Interwar Period, and would be marked by increased paranoia and hatred in North America, especially between Sierra and the United Commonwealth... (Events pertaining to Great War II and the Cold War will be added as those pages are completed)
After the start of the Cold War, talks to form a union of American states began between the major anti-Landonist countries. These series of conferences and meetings would all lead up to the Seattle Conference and later the signing of the Treaty of Seattle, forming the early Conference of American States. Originally an economic and diplomatic alliance, the Conference of American States would later develop into a political union in 1967 after the signing of the Treaty of Salt Lake City, electing it's first democratically-elected General Secretary, (TBD) of Sierra.
Future[edit | edit source]
Opening its membership up to South America, the CAS has intended to continue the process of political and economic integration of its member states. With the entry of Argentina, Chile, and Paraguay in 2006, becoming the largest single entrance of countries into the CAS since Sierra in 1966.
There have been plans among the member states of the CAS to expand the Lincoln Area, mainly among the Caribbean states. In addition, the CAS has been working towards standardized drug and energy policies. The CAS is also exploring the possibility of including mutual defense policy, increased military cooperation, and continuing its mission towards promoting "peace, democracy, and liberty" across the Americas and the world. One of the Conference's stated goals is to promote democracy in Mexico, an aim that faces great obstruction due to the Mexican government's resistance against reform and defense of Veracruzism, an ideology that is deemed "fundamentally and morally incompatible" with the CAS. In 2014, the Mexican government-in-exile in Sierra was officially recognized by the CAS as the official representative of Mexico within the organization, and has been granted special observer status.
Geography[edit | edit source]
The CAS encompasses all of North America and the Caribbean except the United Commonwealth, Tournesol, Mexico, Antilles, and the overseas territories of European countries (such as Bermuda). Approximately TBD square miles (about TBD km2), there are a total of 15 member states in the Conference, of which 9 are also part of the Lincoln Area.
The CAS covers a geographically diverse and vast landscape, occupying much of the North American continent, the Central American peninsula, the Panamanian isthmus, the Caribbean, and several islands in the Pacific including the Hawaiian Islands and the Gilbert and Ellice Islands. Meteorologically, climate is equally diverse in CAS, ranging from Arctic (Alaska, Greenland, northern Manitoba, and Yukon) to tropical (Hawaii and the West Indies), with much more consistent, and smooth transition of climates along the Atlantic Seaboard, and haphazardly varied climates in the western continental region of the CAS.
Member states[edit | edit source]
The Conference of American States was originally composed of only three member states: Sierra, Astoria, Brazoria, and Superior in 1966. Since then, membership count has expanded to a total of 14 states. In order to join the Conference, countries must become signatories of the Conference's founding treaties, namely the Treaty of Lincoln and have been approved for ascension by the American Council and Parliament. Members are free to withdraw from the Conference although as of date, there has never been an instance of a member state leaving the CAS. As a member, countries agree to confer some of its sovereignty to the Conference in exchange for representation and participation.
Before a country can even apply for membership, it must satisfy all of the five points of the Louisville Standard. The Standard requires that:
- the country must be predominantly located in either North or South America and share a border, land or maritime, with at least one existing member state;
- the country must be a fully sovereign state recognized by the League of Nations;
- the country must have a democratic form of government which allows all of its citizens to participate equally in the national civic discourse and hold free elections at every level of government;
- the country has a functioning market economy which is capable of competing against and withstanding the international market;
- the country must have adopted and complied, or is in the process of adopting and complying with the most up-to-date accumulated law of the CAS.
In addition to member states, there are candidate, observer, and partner states. Candidate states are countries which are in the process of fulfilling the Louisville Standard and negotiating with the Conference on the terms of ascension, and the process itself usually takes between 4–10 years to implement. Observer states are countries which are eligible for candidacy but have not elected to undergo such a process at the time being, but enjoy a passive presence in the Conference. Partner states are countries which are ineligible for candidacy (namely as they do not satisfy Rule 1 which requires the country be primarily located in the Americas) but nonetheless, are influential, trusted allies outside the Americas with the Conference who seek to engage and work alongside the Conference as a whole directly.
|Arms||Flag||Country||Capital||Date of Ascension||Area (km2)||Population||Pop. year|
|Alaska||Juneau||June 4, 1990||663,300||738,448||(2018)|
|Argentina||Buenos Aires||January 1, 2006||2,780,400||45,195,774||(2020)|
|Astoria||Seattle||January 7, 1966||TBD||14,482,350||(2018)|
|Brazil||Rio de Janiero||September 1, 2016||8,337,218||210,147,125||(2020)|
|Brazoria||Houston||January 7, 1966||1,201,404||44,516,726||(2017)|
|Central America||Sonsonate||August 9, 2002||423,493||42,610,347||(2020)|
|Chile||Santiago||January 1, 2006||756,096||19,116,201||(2020)|
|Greenland||Godthåb||November 1, 1994||2,166,086||107,840||(2019)|
|Manitoba||Toscouné||December 12, 1970||TBD||13,669,923||(2020)|
|Paraguay||Villa Hayes||January 1, 2006||246,925||213,000||(2020)|
|São Leopoldo||São Pedro||May 30, 1999||576,410||44,674,515||(2019)|
|Sierra||Porciúncula||January 7, 1966||1,225,601||87,287,291||(2016)|
|Superior||St. Anthony||January 7, 1966||2,089,384||33,134,706||(2016)|
|West Indies||Kingston||February 18, 1987||TBD||14,261,281||(2020)|
|Yukon||Montrésor||October 11, 1992||482,443||349,702||(2018)|
Government and politics[edit | edit source]
Similar to the European Union, the Conference of American States operates as a conferral and supplementary institution governed by the Treaty of Seattle and other regulatory documents. Laws made by the Conference of American States can be either binding or non-binding, the former generally being mandatory statutes that must be enforced in all member states with or without CAS financial assistance, and the latter recommended implementation plans that always entails guaranteed funding. It is composed of five primary organs: the American Parliament (located in Seattle), the American Council (located in Seattle), the American Secretariat (located in Seattle), the American Court of Justice (located in Salt Lake City), and the American Customs Authority (located in New Hamburg).
- Legislature -
- Legislature -
|American Court of Justice
- Judiciary -
|American Customs Authority
American Parliament[edit | edit source]
The American Parliament, alongside the American Council, form the official deliberative, legislative body in the CAS. The Parliament consists of 800 Members of the American Parliament (MAPs) who are directly elected by CAS citizens every four years on the basis of the D'Hondt method form of party-list proportional representation. MAPs are seated and grouped based on political coalitions rather than by nationality, and the number of seats each member state has is based on a fixed proportion grounded on population.
The American Parliament is charged with formulating and passing legislation on virtually every area of issues and policies, and include binding and non-binding legislation, the former being mandatory statutes that must be implemented by member states, and the latter recommended policy plans. The Parliament is in charge of creating the Conference's budget and together with the Council, appropriates funds to CAS bodies and member states to ensure policy can be implemented properly and efficiently. The Parliament is the origin of all CAS law and possesses the right of legislative initiation, but all proposed legislation must be reviewed and approved by the Council. Typically, Parliament and the Council work together in formulating law but ultimately, the Council decides whether or not if a legislation shall pass. Parliament is also responsible for creating and controlling the budget for the Conference. As with normal legislation, any appropriation of funds must be reviewed by the Council.
The Parliament is headed by the President of the American Parliament, who is currently Sofia Muñoz from Honduras. The President serves as the speaker and chairperson in the Parliament, and its official spokesperson to the public. The President's signature is one of the names required for legislation to pass. The President and other senior officials in Parliament are elected by MAPs every 2 years and may serve indefinitely renewable terms. There are also group leaders for every one of Parliament's nine official political groups: the Alliance of American Unity (AAU), American Coalition for Liberty (ACL), American Conservative Coalition (ACC), Americans for Democracy and Liberty (ADL), Liberal Democrats of America (LDA), Pan-American Reform Union (PARU), Red-Green Alliance (RGA), Social Democrats of America (SDA), and the United Alliance of the Left (UAL). There is no party leader for the Non-Inscrits which comprises of all parties which are not a part of any of the other nine groups.
American Council[edit | edit source]
The American Council is a 28-member institution that serves as the other half of the CAS legislature. Each member, known as a minister, is a representative appointed by their respective member state. The Council is led by the Presidency which rotates among the ministers every six-months. The current President of the Council is Jérôme François Brissot from Canada. The Council is primarily concerned with reviewing and modifying legislation submitted by Parliament, and sending back revisions and amendments to Parliament if the legislation requires additional deliberations. Once a compromise has been reached with the legislation deemed satisfactory by the Council, the legislation is passed and signed by the President of the Council, President of the Parliament, and the Secretary-General, thus officiating the legislation into law. If compromise cannot be reached, a conciliatory committee is formed to reconcile differences and disputes between the two bodies. If a compromise cannot be reached within 30 working days, the bill is automatically dismissed and must be re-proposed on the Parliament floor, restarting the drafting process. A bill can be dismissed instantly by the Council if more than 60% of the Council rejects its initial proposal.
On matters regarding foreign policy, defense policy, and transnational security, the Council is responsible for proposing legislation within its floor without the input of Parliament. Although a conciliatory committee may be formed, this is not required, and any legislation regarding these fields may be passed as long as a supermajority is reached and is signed by the President of the Council and the Secretary-General.
American Secretariat[edit | edit source]
The American Secretariat is responsible for running and administrating the daily affairs of the CAS organization. The American Secretariat is headed by the Secretary-General who acts as the CAS leader and official spokesperson. The current Secretary-General is Johann Hauptsmann from Superior. In addition to the Secretary-General, he is aided by the Deputy Secretary-General and Adjunct Secretaries who head one of the Secretariat's 12 departments ranging from foreign policy to healthcare. The Secretariat can propose legislation before Parliament and is involved in the legislation process as a moderator, by steering legislation to fit according to the Secretariat agenda. All pieces of legislation require a signature from the Secretary-General in order to pass.
The Secretariat is responsible for ensuring that all member states comply with CAS law and implement the law correctly and efficiently. If the Secretariat deems a nation as non-compliant, it may flag the nation and submit a Writ of Suspension to the defiant government, ordering compliance within a set time period. If the nation fails to meet the requirements by then, the nation's membership can be automatically suspended and all CAS funding to the country can be halted, and representatives placed on administrative leave until the suspended nation can prove it has complied with the Secretariat's orders. It is imperative and within the interest of the Secretariat to maintain continuous dialogue with the governments of all member states, and is seen as the persuasive arm of the Conference to encourage member states to back CAS policy and legislation, and foster cooperation.
In times of emergency or war, the Secretariat acts as the focal point of collective defense and works with coordinating the commanders-in-chief and their militaries of all member states in defending the region from any threats internal or external. Although the Secretariat does not have any direct power or control over any individual military, nor does it control any independent defense organization, it does have limited authority over joint international military bases set aside for the Conference itself.
American Court of Justice[edit | edit source]
The American Court of Justice is the chief judicial authority in the Conference and is responsible for interpreting American law, and oversees the law being uniformly applied across the member states. Contrary to popular thought, the cases settled by national supreme courts within a member state's own jurisdiction cannot usually be appealed to the American Court of Justice as the Court has no jurisdiction or competence in interpreting the laws of individual member states. However, it does have jurisdiction over the following cases: a member state against another member state; a member state against a non-member state; individuals, companies, or governments whose cases involve American law; internal actions pertaining to the Conference; and any cases involving treaties or international agreements.
American Customs Authority[edit | edit source]
The American Customs Authority is the most recently established institution of the CAS, created in 2006, superseding the former American Commission on Trade and Finance. Currently, the American Customs Authority is responsible for auditing and reviewing the CAS' finances and budget, oversees economic regulations, and working with national banks. In the future, once a common currency is adopted (most likely the proposed Amero), the Customs Authority has, by a 2011 CAS statute, the right to upgrade into a central bank with control over monetary policy as it was intended to do. It is based in New York City.
Legal system[edit | edit source]
The Conference of American States is an internationally recognized supranational politico-economic entity which is based on the culmination of several treaties signed over the years including the Treaty of Seattle by its member states. The treaties were mutual, multilateral agreements that granted the Conference various political rights and authority to carry out the stated goals and aims of the Conference's member states. Some of these legal powers include the right to enact legislation which can apply to all citizens and governments within the CAS. Internationally, the CAS has a legal personality, and is allowed to sign agreements and international treaties as a singular signatory. A condition of membership in the CAS requires that the member state adopt and ratify all treaties that the CAS is built upon, and signs itself, even if such documents violate national law under the principal of CAS legal supremacy. The American Court of Justice is responsible for interpreting and reviewing all actions that pertain to the American legal and treatise system.
Under the 1980 Treaty of Porciúncula, citizens of the CAS are guaranteed "essential" human rights, among them including the freedom of religion, speech, employment opportunity, basic housing, and education. The CAS promotes itself as a supporter of human rights, dignity, peace, freedom, democracy, rule of law, protection of minority and indigenous rights, national sovereignty, and transnational security.
Foreign relations[edit | edit source]
The American Secretariat and Council are charged with coordinating, formulating, and enforcing common foreign and security policies among member states. The development of a common foreign affairs policy started with the foundation of the CAS. By the 1950s, as nations including Sierra joined, in wake of rising tension between the West and the Soviet bloc, the American Parliament and Council established the Common American Cooperation Initiative (CACI) which aimed towards establishing a non-binding consultive group tasked with evaluating, recommending, negotiating, and supporting relations with non-member states. The purposes and goals of the CACI were later incorporated into the 1972 Treaty of Porciúncula under the American Common Diplomatic Policy. Mutual defense and military policy is closely tied with the American Common Diplomatic Policy, as the CAS also operates simultaneously as an international military organization.
Military[edit | edit source]
The military history of the CAS predates the existence of the organization, and began under the CAS' immediate predecessor, the North American Defense Organization (NADO). Founded in 1938 by the continental Anglo-American nations, the military alliance was created in response to rising tensions with the United Commonwealth, and the desire to create a common defense against potential Landonist revolutions or Continental invasions. On the North American Front of Great War I, which lasted from 1942 to 1946, the countries of Sierra, Astoria, Brazoria, and Superior worked closely and integrated their militaries to a great degree during their operations against the Continental Army. This was continued in the 1950s and was used during Great War II as well. This foundation was integrated into the CAS, with the assistance of the American Integration Society (AIS). Together with the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) created in 1970, the CAS led the Western Bloc in the Cold War, against the United Commonwealth, the People's Republic of China, and the Landonist International.
The policy of the CAS' military security, crisis management and peace keeping is collectively known as the Common Defense and Security Pact which encompasses both the civilian and military leaders that handle the defense of the CAS. The CDSP is tasked with overseeing crisis management operations, peacekeeping missions, and the CAS' collective military forces known as the Collective Security and Defense Forces. The chief coordinator fo the CDSP is the General Representative who serves as the lead official for diplomatic missions, crisis management operations, diplomacy and peacekeeping missions and is the highest-ranking civilian leader within the CSDF. The primary military leaders are the Chairman of the Committee for Defense and Security and the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of the General Staff. Both positions are held by generals, usually those from CAS member states, and are appointed by the General Representative and approved by both legislative institutions and the Defense Committee.
Military units of the CSDF are divided into battlegroups which range from the size of four regiments to two or three divisions and are all placed under a regional command. All members of the CAS, with the exception of Costa Rica, contribute and provide funding, logistical support, resources, troops, and facilities to support the military operations and defensive functions of the CAS. Battlegroups are multinational military formations that are part of a single unified command and is headed by generals from a "lead nation", a position historically held by Sierra, Brazoria, and Superior.
Foreign aid[edit | edit source]
Economy[edit | edit source]
The Conference of American States has evolved to become a full-fledged single market, guaranteeing free trade and free movement of goods, enterprise, capital, and people. The Conference is represented in the World Trade Organization and the World Bank, and has a combined GDP of $27.5 trillion, making it the largest political entity in the world by GDP. Although the Conference officially established a single market in 2002, plans to introduce a common currency has been delayed, and a unified, legally binding monetary policy has met resistance by several members, most notably from Rainier and Sierra. The proposed currency union would use the Amero. In 2016, the American Parliament unveiled design plans for the Amero, and established a pathway for it to be preliminarily implemented by 2022.
Customs union[edit | edit source]
Demographics[edit | edit source]
Culture[edit | edit source]
As a supranational union of American states, the CAS has promoted the shared cultural heritage and experiences of its member states, and has been deeply invested in all aspects of preserving and protecting historic sites, art, literature, music, and other non-tangible cultural objects. CAS policies have helped support the development and growth of individuals, corporations, and organizations committed towards the fields of cinema, television, music, literature, journalism, dance, and more. The organization also hosts a number of annual celebrations and competitions to raise awareness of cultural diversity, including the Solaris Song Contest and the American Culture of the Month program, aimed at educating citizens, and supporting students, artists, entrepreneurs, and others.
Unionism[edit | edit source]
Symbols[edit | edit source]
Flag[edit | edit source]
Criticism[edit | edit source]
Ameroskepticism[edit | edit source]
Ameroskepticism (spelled as Ameroscepticism in the former British dominions) is the criticism or opposition to the Conference of American States, and consists of two variants: soft (which advocates reforming the Conference) and hard (which advocates for the abolishment of the Conference or the withdrawal of one's state from the organization). Ameroskepticism is contrasted with American unionism which may include soft Ameroskeptics as generally, American unionists believe the Conference is essential towards American unity and integration, and is beneficial to the peoples of the Americas. Ameroskepticism is most prevalent among Sierrans and Confederates who have historically been resistant towards integrating or reluctant to participate with the rest of their Anglo-American neighbors.
Ameroskepticism is both a historic and a recent political phenomenon, with its resurgence occurring after the September 11 attacks when several major international cities including New York City, Porciúncula, Houston, and Louisville were attacked by Islamic terrorists. In Sierra, differences on foreign policy, trade, and national sovereignty reignited the discussion and controversy on the nature of the CAS as an organization, and gained traction across both sides of Sierra's political spectrum. These concerns were similarly apparent in the Confederate States, and in minor circles in the other states including the United Commonwealth and the Confederate States. Ameroskepticism is also pronounced in Superior and Quebec, two nations which have resisted Anglicization, and retained their respective, distinct cultural and linguistic differences (German/Scandinavian and French respectively). Ameroskepticism has also been on the rise in Rainier after in recent years Rainier has been under pressure within the CAS to reduce its high budget deficits, which in turn has led to unpopular austrity policies blamed on the CAS alongside opposition to immigration.
In Sierra[edit | edit source]
Historically, the Sierran government officially maintained a policy of neutrality and a semi-isolationist foreign policy, having only engaged in one foreign war, the War of Contingency before the arrival of the 20th century. Although Sierra's principal ally was Rainier, Sierran interaction with the rest of Anglo-America was minimal with the exception of trade and transnational commerce. When World War I broke out, Sierra was hesitant to join the collective forces of Anglo-America, and vehemently opposed coalescing its military with others under a defense group.
In Brazoria[edit | edit source]
Brazoria has one of the highest percentage of Ameroskepticism, with a majority of right-leaning citizens having negative opinions about the organization. This is mainly due to the CAS's responses to United Commonwealth aggressions and the push for a more federal organization. The largest Ameroskeptic party is the Ranchers and Riggers Party, which is also the largest conservative party in the country.
In Superior[edit | edit source]
In Astoria[edit | edit source]
Ameroskepticism is rare in Astoria, due to the country's close and personal relationship and history with the Conference of American States. Despite this, the National Party of Astoria, though not officially endorsing the ideology, does have elements of Ameroskepticism when revolving around trade and greater federalization.