Continental Revolutionary War
|Continental Revolutionary War|
|Part of the Revolutions of 1917-23|
Federalist troops fighting in Chicago during the siege.
United Farmers' Front
|Commanders and leaders|
Karson Henderson |
Samuel Hanson †
Gregory Warren †
The Continental Revolutionary War, also known as the Continental Revolution or the Commonwealth Civil War, was an armed revolt conducted by the Continentalist Party against the Federalist-controlled Continental government. The revolution ended with Continentalist victory that overthrew the Federalist Party and established the current one-party system in the United Commonwealth. The Continentalist-led United Commonwealth declared itself the world's first Landonist state and coincided with other world revolutions including the Sierran Cultural Revolution and the Russian Civil War. Beginning in 1919 following a major insurrection from continentalist and landonist militiamen, both groups fled to the Appalachian Mountains to wage a guerrilla war and waged an insurgency in the countryside commonly known as the Frontier War. By 1920, the Federalists lost ground in both areas and fled to the cities and urban areas to wage a defensive war and to receive support from the Kingdom of Sierra and Brazoria who were supporting the Federalist government and loyalist troops.
The war occurred during the backdrop of the Revolutions of 1917-23 and occurred during another Continentalist revolution in Tournesol where the Continentalist Party of Labor, the Tournerser Continentalist party, revolted in 1920 as well against the government of the Republic of Tournersol lead by the Tourneser People’s Party. From 1920 to 1922, the Continentalists waged a hefty guerrilla war against the Federalists and made the Frontier War as costly as possible so that the major cities and urban areas would become vulnerable and easier to capture. The last year of the war would see the fall of all major cities with the last major battle being the Siege of Chicago in 1922 which resulted in the exile of the Federalist Party and creation of the United Commonwealth of Continental States. The war was a pivotal event in Anglo-American history as it saw the rise of two Landonist states in Anglo-America with the United Commonwealth going on to become the premier regional power in Anglo-America. The war continues to influence the United Commonwealth today politically, culturally, and socially and is widely celebrated in the nation.
- 1 Background
- 2 Insurrection
- 3 Popular Uprisings
- 4 Outcome
Creation of the United Commonwealth
Following the conclusion of the American Civil War, the United States administration under President Abraham Lincoln began efforts to repair the union's dysfunctional, post-war status, bringing about the reforms of the Reconstruction Era. On April 14, 1865, Abraham Lincoln was assassinated by John Wilkes Booth at the Ford's Theatre in Washington D.C. Other high-ranking officials in the government were also assassinated by Booth's associates, all of whom were members of the Order of the Golden Circle. The political turmoil and confusion which ensued threw the American government into a state of confusion and chaos. Multiple factions within the American government emerged while several remnants of the recently defeated Confederacy assembled a renewed offensive and attacked Washington. Northeastern states, wary of the unstable situation in Washington, began efforts to secure the border along the Pennsylvania-New York border, effectively signaling the Northeastern states' separation from the Union. With Washington besieged and the Northeastern states defecting, the beleaguered American government was forced to relocate its center of operations and administration to Louisville, Kentucky. In Louisville, a provisional military government was established. The new government in Louisville formally declared the United Commonwealth of America, which dismantled the federal model of the government in favor of a centralized, unitary state. This declaration prompted the Northeastern states to formally declare independence from the United States as the Northeast Union. The state of Kansas seceded, declaring itself as Tournesol and other Midwest states seceded as Superior. Cassius Clay and George Warren sought to restore the entire integrity of the United States under the new United Commonwealth, which ultimately resulted in the War of Contingency as they attempted to retake the Northeast, Midwest, and Southern states. Union forces were crushed by a unified coalition of the Northeast Union, the Kingdom of Superior, Brazoria and the Kingdom of Sierra. In 1868, the Treaty of Salinas was signed by Clay government to end the war and to end the Commonwealth's goal of reunifying the territory of the United States, creating a division within the Federalist Party of the United Commonwealth regarding the future of the American people.
Additional issues arose from the new model of government, as power was centralized under former members of the Republican Party. The new government sought to remove any influence of the former Democratic Party and prevent another crisis like Lincoln's assassination. Various members accused of supporting or being a part of the Order of the Golden Circle were arrested, apprehended, and executed. Economic and political inequalities quickly arose, as the Southern States' infrastructure greatly deteriorated and postwar conditions worsened. Business interests were placed at the forefront of Federalist policy to ensure a quick recovery and revitalization of the destroyed Southern economy. In 1886, the Haymarket affair spurred the growth of the anti-Federalist movement and the formulation of the Continentalist ideology. The Second Industrial Revolution, known colloquially in the Continentalist States as theTechnological Revolution, generated economic development and dramatically changed the socioeconomic nature of the nation. Economic development was highly uneven and unequal as wealth was mostly concentrated among industrialists, entrepreneurs, and business owners. This period of extreme economic inequality and industrialization became known as the Gilded Age. Labor unions, workers' guilds, and syndicates emerged in response to the lack of workers' rights and poor working conditions brought about the excesses of the Gilded Age. Federalists worked along with business interests to crush labor movements. Major political efforts to end child labor and to bring about eight-hour day were ultimately dismissed. Political reforms that developed during the Progressive Era in neighboring nations across North America did not take hold in the United Commonwealth. The Federalist Party explicitly opposed significant reforms or changes to its labor laws because it operated on the idea of minimal state interference on the economy.
Development of Continentalism
Landonism, Aeneas Warren in Sierra, Zhou Xinyue
|Part of a series on|
In 1915, while Aeneas Warren was an observing military cadet at the The Presidio, The Military College of San Francisco, the young Kentuckian developed an affinity for the ideology of Landonism. Although Landonism had already begun to grow in Appalachia in the early 1910's, it never fully manifested into collective action as government efforts to suppress labor were increasingly becoming more brutal. Aeneas, having already been confronted with issues with supporting the government after the events of the Paint Creek Massacre. In March of 1916, government officials began efforts to detain labor organizers in Eastern Kentucky. Having received letters from family and friends from home about arrests, Aeneas began to become increasingly more sympathetic to the cause of labor and its liberation. With the series of letters from family back in Kentucky and the radiating political ideology of his colleague, Zhou Xinyue, Warren turned to a radicalized view regarding the reformation of the United Commonwealth.
Warren joined the Landonist student organization known as the The Seventy-Seven Society through an invitation by his close friend, Zhou Xinyue, who was among the first Chinese-Sierrans to attend the Presidio military university. The Seventy-Seven Society was a San Francisco based Landonist republican group that sought to bring about social reforms to the province. Zhou, considered by Continental and Sierran historians, was central to shaping the ideology of Warren and Continentalism. The two had grown close in the summer of 1915 and regularly ventured the city of San Francisco, escaping the rigidity of the Presidio at any chance given. They were commonly punished as a pair, and Warren was considered the "undoing" of Zhou's promising military career. Regarded as a 'pragmatic Landonist', Zhou focused on the development of a socialist state through transitional demands that would bring about governmental universal housing and employment, rejecting any revolutionary action within Sierra. Although he considered himself a republican, he remained at odds with the racialized mentality of the inhabitants of Styxie. Zhou consistently consoled his friend Warren, who regularly became distraught with news and letters from his home as the two often contradicted one another. In May of 1916, when Warren had discovered that his uncle had been executed by Federalist soldiers during the Eastern Field Culling, Zhou claimed he had witnessed Warren's interest in revolution turn from fantasy to desire.
Warren began calculated efforts to dismiss the slanderous accusations of the Associated Press in Sierra, a sentiment that would ultimately lead to the future development of Associated Broadcasting. His activities in Sierra were eventually relayed to Louisville where the military demanded Sierran authorietiesdetain Aeneas and deport him back to the United Commonwealth. Robert Abraham Landon, hoping not to entice an international incident, cooperated with the Federalist officials, dispatching the Secret Service of Sierra to detain the cadet. Zhou received word from his family members, lower level civil servants within the San Francisco government that the detention orders had been issued for Warren. Fearful of Warren's immediate capture and eventual execution, Zhou orchestrated the escape of his friend off the peninsula on a row boat, departing in the middle of the night on December 1st, 1916. The actions of Zhou are considered by many Sierran historians as a historical oddity, as Zhou was a gifted student with a promising future in the Crown Armed Forces. Some theories from Sierran biographers of Zhou have claimed that Zhou was infatuated with Warren, although most Continental historians believe that Zhou knew that a revolution in the United Commonwealth was a certainty and faithfully believed in the fruition of Landonism.
Escape from Sierra, activities in Brazoria, Tournesol
Upon reaching Oakland, the two boarded a train to Denver, and passing through Brazoria under pseudonyms. In Brazoria, the two found refuge with members of the Brazorian Association of Combined Labour Unions, the predecessor to the Democratic Socialist Party of Brazoria. On the outskirts of Denver, Zhou and Warren meet future Brazorian Chancellor, Daniel Moody who was at the time a lawyer in the city. It was with the BACLU that Zhou and Warren observed labor organizing and gained insight from veterans of the Colorado Coalfield War on how to combat government forces. The labor sermons preformed by older members greatly influenced and improved the speech capabilities of Zhou and Warren, who were not considered by classmates at the Presidio as charismatic individuals. On April 2nd, 1917, Zhou preformed his first labor sermon in Colorado Springs and was considered a profound speaker, utilizing a crowds emotion and along with a soothing vocal bass swayed men to picket or unionize. Warren's various labor sermons in April and May were considered blunders, dismal displays that were often off putting to many.
In June Federalist and Sierran operatives had uncovered the whereabouts of Warren and Zhou, they submitted formal requests to Brazorian government to detain the duo. When approached on the outskirts, Warren and Zhou fled in a stolen Cadillac Type 53, crossing into Tournesol. Fleeing the Brazorian Rangers, the two began working laborer jobs on various farms in eastern Tournesol. Their employment were often short odd jobs as the region was enduring serious issues concerning water allocation, issues with farm mortgages and poor weather conditions. In July, Zhou and Warren formed a close bond with a group of young renegades who were showing force at penny auctions, making sure that speculators from Ouichite and Topèque did not buy the property in unfair conditions. On July 22nd, a group of men from Ouichite and Topèque brought armed guards from the city of Ulysse to buy a series of farms in a single auction. Warren lead a speech to rouse the renegades to arms. Zhou assembled some forty men and raided the city's armory and cleaned out Ulysse's local departmental depository and county courthouse. Several thousands of dollars were stolen along with the deeds of the farmers who's farmsteads had recently been bought, the duo reportedly redistributed some forty deeds. Topèque dispatched forces to confront the western renegades. Émeric Vigouroux, a local pastor and founder of the Continentalist Party of Labor was radicalized by the troop presence as the men often confiscated goods to sustain deployments. Vigouroux organized a force of around five hundred local parishioners, which through military training by Zhou and Warren was transformed into the Tournesol National Liberation Front, the vanguard element that would lead the Tournesol Continentalist Revolution in 1921. On July 1st 1917, Zhou and Warren fled Tournesol with the assistance of Vigouroux and his forces, smuggling him the duo into the Ozarks.
Appalachian insurgency, Virtues of the People
Federalist efforts during World War I forced much of the industrial capacity to focus on the war in Europe, reducing consumer production drastically. Coal supplies were becoming critical to war production and in 1917, the government began placing pressure on coal companies to increase production. Increased quotas by companies brought increased strain on coal miners in Appalachia and organizers, deteriorating relations between the regions inhabitants and the government. In Chicago, the Industrial Workers of the World was gaining traction in its anti-government activities as the crackdowns were becoming increasingly more violent. Warren, writing to his family in Appalachia, stated that the IWW's clash with the United Mine Workers in Scranton, Pennsylvania had delegitimized the efforts of the urban organizers. Warren believed the IWW's antiwar stance was detrimental to the efforts of organized labor, believing that efforts to fuse patriotism with Landonism was the only meaningful route for the removal of the Federalists from power.
While in the Ozarks, Zhou and Aeneas began building connections with local labor organizations. In Rogers, the duo developed a haven for Tournesol and Brazorian revolutionaries who frequently conducting operations across the porous border. Federalist documents uncovered after the revolution showed that the government was aware of the activities of the Landonist revolutionaries in the Ozarks, but left the cells unmolested as the potential for revolutions in the bordering nations open the opportunity to intervene and annex the two nations. Agitation on the borders was gaining international attention and was beginning to sway the power pendulum to the east. In September, the Kingdom of Sierra demanded the United Commonwealth to crackdown on the insurgents resulting in the government. Ignoring the demands initially, action came nearly two months later when Federalist partisans had discovered the revolutionaries were building close relations with urban organizers outside of the monitored IWW circles, resulting in raids throughout southeastern Missouri and northeastern Arkansas. Aeneas, Zhou and a large portion of the Landonist forces fled by boxcars to Appalachia, the remaining insurgents developed into the organization known as the Ozark Revolutionary Front led by Coleman Mueller. During the trek on the rails the group developed an affinity with towards the vagrant hobo community. In Memphis, Aeneas recruited the influential Hobo Elliot Fowler, a respected man within the community who rose to prominence on the basis of his mulligan stew 'banquets'. Fowler's influence spanned across the United Commonwealth as well into the Northeast and became the primary promoter of Continentalist ideology within urban areas.
While aboard a train bound for London, Kentucky, Aeneas began work on the founding documents for the Continentalist ideology known as the Five Virtues of the People. Those virtues being, brotherhood, temperance, service, diligence and prosperity. Within his memoirs, he credited Zhou heavily with the philosophy, who in turn was inspired by Sun Yat-sen's Three Principles of the People. Zhou was critical of Yat-sen, believing that the Chinese leader would be considered a reactionary in Landonist circles. Warren, believed that the concept of "peace, order, and good government" should remain at the heart of the United Commonwealth rather than a revolutionary overhaul. Known as the Boxcar Affair, Zhou and Warren engaged in a contentious debate in front of several influential members of the future government. Zhou, who up until his arrival into the United Commonwealth was devoted to reformist means of installing a Landonist government but changed his opinion upon seeing the widespread poverty with the country. Warren believed Zhou's refusal to engage in revolutionary activity within Sierra, on the basis of his profound love for the nation was contradictory. Warren held great pride in his country and began to dismiss his own calls for revolution and instead insisted on seeing a peaceful transfer of power without having to shed American blood.
Zhou began to question his position among the men, evoking the question of "Americani vel non Americani?" which forced the men to squabble over the authenticity of a multi-racial state in the East, as the Federalist had upheld a mono-ethnic state dominated by Protestant Anglo-Americans. Zhou reportedly stated "I remain a Sierran on the basis that all the men in this boxcar look upon me as a foreigner", which turned into a squabble over the definition of what it meant to be an American. Fowler, deprived since birth stated "As a cracker Prot that ain't got no two dimes to rub together, I can say this- the American people look upon me as a foreigner too!" Going through a series of names, the men agreed upon the name 'Continental' as they were all inhabitants of North America. Although the Continentalist ideology today is associated with the unification of North America into a single entity, at the time continental unification went under the call sign of "Unionism". Fourteen men within the boxcar officially declared the establishment of the Continentalist Party, declaring the Five Virtues of the People and Landonism as the central ideology. The imagery of the the boxcar as the establishing ground for the party has lead to its usage in party memorabilia and iconography, it has also lead to the development of derogatory terminology for the party, with the Continetalist Party being referred to as "the Boxcar Party" in Sierra and the Northeast Union.
Soldier pension protests
Soldiers returning from Europe with the conclusion of World War I began demanding the establishment of a pension system for veterans. In Indianapolis, Columbus, Cincinnati and Pittsburgh. Known as 'soldiers fields' became stomping grounds for around 10,000-15,000 veterans, who were often regarded as excessively belligerent. Elliot Fowler developed a organized network within the cities to recruit the men in a clandestine manner to bluster support for the Continentalist cause. Stealing supplies from boxcars, Fowler provided large meal preparations for the soldiers fueling their activities with free food and alcohol. In Cincinnati, the veterans were warded off by the Cincinnati Reds after a hot dog vendor at Crosley Field refused to sell the buns to a group of spectating men, calling them "vile traitors". The incident resulted in a brawl, that eventually escalated to the veterans storming the field and destroying the facility's amenities. When the police arrived they were greeted by a formidable barricade that enclosed the stadium and some 5,000 men inside. Police efforts to blockade and starve the men out brought about a dismal public response, with calls from Cincinnati residents for the city's police chief to step down. By the third day, the blockade ceased, allowing churches and Fowler's men to provide necessary rations to the veterans. In the middle of the night, on August 9th, 1918, Fowler smuggled in a stash of M1903 Springfield rifles for the men to arm themselves with. Assisted by dissenting officers within the Ohio National Guard, Fowler's infiltration with military leaders, brought a much need morale boost for party officials in Appalachia.
Around 5:00 AM, Cincinnati police conducted an earl morning raid to storm Crosley Field in an attempt to catch the protesting veterans off guard. The ferocity of the siege alarmed the occupying guardsmen, who feared if they didn't retaliate with their firearms, the sleeping men would not be awoken in time to repel the police forces in a timely manner. Several men on the ramparts preformed warning shots at the police, yelling for the raiders to retreat from the field, the police responded in returning fire. The ensuring skirmish alerted the sleeping veterans, believing that they were fired upon first. Police retreated after realizing that some nearly 300 proficient marksmen were in position around the stadium. Four police officers were killed, and sixteen veterans were killed in the firefight. Around noon, the Police Chief of Cincinnati officially resigned with his final order demanding his men to stand down. The Ohio government alerted Louisville officials that the deployment of the National Guard was simply out of the question, forcing Federalist partisans to take over operations. Martial law was declared within the city, and the the government began efforts to crack down on Continentalist supporters. The incident also ended the government's passive efforts to sway the populace away from Landonism, deploying military elements to every city, the Ozarks and Appalachia. On August 13th, the Federalist troops deployed mortars on the protesting veterans in Crosley Field, conducted a sweep on the stadium that forced a brutal seizure of the men that resulted in 41 deaths. Around the country, fields were clean by similar methods with significantly lower casualties. The incident was censored within the media, with Cincinnati citizens being continuously harassed to remain quiet on the incident. Nearly 8,000 protesters around the country were arrested and placed in a prison camp on Kentucky Bend.
Seamus McCallahan, recently appointed Postmaster of the United Commonwealth was given control of the outflow of civilian and military letters detailing the ongoing disturbances around the country, which took a substantial amount of manpower from the Federalist government. McCallahan also began to censor the newspapers of Chicago, Philadelphia and Louisville, the largest sources of information in the country. Occasionally, McCallahan would read the confiscated letters, which were typically flagged as 'revolutionary' or 'incendiary'. In his first speech to the Continentalist Party at the inaugural Central Committee meeting, claimed that a letter from Stephanie Walsh from Covington, Kentucky caused a change in heart regarding his allegiances. The letter detailed the death of her fiance and her brother who were gathered at Crosley field, the torment that their deaths brought and the contempt she held for the Federalist forces. McCallahan eventually began to intentionally derail the operations of the Postal Service in their attempts to stop the spread of information, leaking notably pro-Continentalist letters to influential sources across the country. In late October of 1918, McCallahan had accurately pinpointed the location of the Landonist forces in Appalachia, and successfully unraveled their coded letter language. The messages were privately assembled, coordinated among McCallahan's office and sent to their respective recipients. Collection of rather sensitive material and military maneuvers from intercepted Federalist forces allowed for McCallahan to relay important intelligence to Warren and the revolutionary council. McCallahan went under the alias of 'Odysseus Clayton' a play on Ulysses Perry and Isaiah Landon's names, utilizing a language that was regarded as so informal the Continentalist believed it to be written by a child. Although Aeneas and Zhou initially rejected the validity of the unknown letters, by winter the revolution began to depend upon McCallahan's letters to out maneuver federalist forces. Zhou famously stated "The winter before the revolution began, we all believed we were being saved by a child from Chicago."
Battle of Black Mountain
Around the holiday season of 1917 Federalist forces had closely followed behind the Continentalist forces through the Appalachian foothill, deep into the heart of Eastern Kentucky. Federalist forces under the command of Gregory Warren, a distant uncle of Aeneas Warren sought to trap his young nephew in the Cumberland Gap with the assistance of Federalist forces from Virginia and Virginia. Aeneas was alerted by the buildup of troops in Virginia by McCallahan, forcing a painful trek through the cold winter to Black Mountain, where he believed a last stand was inevitable. General Gregory Warren's intelligence gathering became highly disrupted by members of the United Mine Workers, who held a stronghold in the area with locals. The Federalists Army's presence strained local resources, clogging rail lines and disrupting coal delivers that brought about a shortage to central Kentucky, leaving the city of Louisville and the surrounding area without heat during an extraordinarily cold winter. Federalist soldiers frustration with the locals throughout Eastern Kentucky began to intensify, being away from family during the holiday season and rumors that they were following phantoms began to spoil troop morale. During a rowdy New Years celebration in Pikeville, Kentucky, some thirty soldiers lead and all out brawl in several taverns that resulted in a shootout that result in the death of 34 locals and several assaults on local women, known as the Pikeville Butchery, an incident that flared tensions throughout the nation. Miners within the area joined in mass with Continentalist commissars, ready to disrupt supply lines of the occupying Federalist forces. Some 5,000 miners embarked through the hills to the Continentalist position on Black Mountain, with another 5,000 being spread throughout the mountains to secure crucial passages through the foothills. Fowler's network of train hobos began to derail shipments into the mountains, pillaging several large Federalist caches of ammunition and weapon. Gregory Warren sought a full retreat from the mountains on January 10th; with the Federalist Central Command in Chicago denying the General's wishes.
On January 16th, General Gregory Warren was replaced by Commander Samuel Hanson, who immediately began movements on Black Mountain. McCallahan reported that during the cabinet meeting of Karson Henderson, the reigning leader of the United Commonwealth, that the Federalist government was confident that Hanson would be successful and that the miners were going to be culled after Black Mountain was secured. Hanson initiated artillery fire on Continentalist forces early in the morning of February 18th, by noon an intense snowstorm hit, eliminating any chance of either force to quickly retreat from the mountain. Zhou Xinyue had taken up mortar position surrounding Black Mountain, and began intensive attacks on the Federalist artillery positions. Miners closed off the exits surrounding the immediate area, employing dynamite to destroy trees and destroy bridges over creek crossings. Some 6,000 Federalist troops were trapped and when news began to spread among the forces, desertion into the cold frontier became a popular option. Around 3:00 PM, Federalist forces began the main offense up Black Mountain, resulting in substantial losses for the government forces. Federalist Sergeant, Oliver Sims, recorded the incident in his last letter to his family in St. Louis;
|“||We began or frontal assault around three hours past noon, the scene was absolute chaos. We were initially confident the artillery would take them out before we would even assault, but after several volleys from the guns behind, we heard a barrage from the surrounding mountains behind us and the volleys ceased. I turned to my lieutenant who provided the most terrible stare I had ever seen, the fear that rippled throughout the cadre became more increasingly evident as men began to disappear. My good friend Will fled just an hour before the fighting, I pray to the good Lord that he finds himself safely home and that the communists do not follow his tracks. During our march up the mountain, several nests of the Continentals began to spray us with machine gun fire, they fought with such fortitude it was obvious they were veterans of the Great War. After reaching halfway up the mountain, it became evident that the offensive is in vain. The front positions have began to quiet, and our pathway is littered with blood stained snow, I pray to the Lord that I make it home. Oliver Sims, January 18th, 1918||”|
Federalist casualties totaled nearly 800 within the first few hours of the assault up the mountain, leading to most of the junior officers to disobey Gregory Warren's command of continuing the uphill trek, instead initiating a full retreat. Continentalist forces swept down from the various hillsides, capturing the Federalist troops. Rations were dispersed among the Federalist troops, along with additional winter ware that was stolen by the Continentalists. Aeneas Warren provided audience to his uncle, where the two preformed cordial formalities and exchanged several family heirlooms. Gregory Warren, a respected general in the Federalist Army was instrumental in sending Aeneas Warren to the Presido in Sierra with the hopes of bringing Aeneas back to the United Commonwealth under his leadership. The winter storm began to intensify, resulting in Warren to make the trek down the mountaintop with his army and now detained Federalist Army, leading the forces into several coal mines that had be abandoned by the revolting coal miners. Some 5,000 Federalist soldiers survived the brutal winter due to the assistance of the coal miners. Within various mines, 11,000 Federalist and Continental soldiers resided together for more than four days, resulting in several reunions between friends and families, as most members of the two armies were from Kentucky and West Virginia. Federalist scouts on January 22nd relayed to Chicago's central command that the scene of the battle was empty; the desolate landscape and the disappearance of both armies lead to a hysterical frenzy among the Henderson cabinet.
Gregory Warren requested his nephew that he and his men be released, allowing them to return to their hometowns. Aeneas granted the request on January 28th, with Zhou strongly disagreeing with the decision leading to a heated dispute that nearly tore the two apart. Gregory was so shocked by his nephews benevolence, that he pledge his loyalty to him, along with several thousands of his men. Those who returned, quickly spoke highly of the actions of the Continentalist Army, with local newspapers characterizing the revolutionaries as the "Crusade of Christ". The winter had brought about food shortages, that resulted in many of the fleeing men to return to the Continentalist Army.
Battle of Chicago
Food shortages, along with heating inadequacies from a lack of coal from the insurgency in the Appalachia had pushed the city of the Midwest to a breaking point. Labor production plummeted as the industrial capacity of the country was inhibited by coal shortages. January was particularly difficult for citizens of the Great Lakes regions as record low temperatures ravaged the cities, leading to several deaths. Business interests feared industrial losses and pressured the government to prioritize the nations industrial might over heating coal consumption.
Continentalists agitators within various cities helped propel the mass movement within key Commonwealth cities at the dissatisfaction of the United Commonwealth Communist Party who also sought to utilize the situation to start a revolution. On February 9th, 1919 citizens went out in mass to demonstrate and effectively flooded downtown Chicago. Protesters on North LaSalle St stormed the newly built Chicago City Hall, capturing the city Mayor William Hale Thompson and several Federalist aldermen. Henderson, fearing that the protesters may march south onto the capital grounds, deployed the army. Protests at the Grant Park cultivated a revolutionary atmosphere that prompted Postmaster Seamus McCallahan to reveal his loyalties, with some 500,000 Chicago citizens joining the protests. McCallahan, having earned the loyalty of Chicago's naval academy and army post was able to secure his personal safety without interference from Federalist troops loyal to Henderson. Halfway through McCallahan's speech, Henderson was alerted resulting in a angered frenzy that resulted in an firing order and a bounty for McCallahan's head. Several members of the cabinet cautioned Henderson, stating that firing on the crowds would result in mass hysteria and that the soldiers themselves would never obey such an order.
Members of the Illinois National Guard from Peoria, who had little relation with the city were among the most loyal to the Federalist cause and obeyed the orders of the President. Positioned on Michigan Avenue, the troops began opening fire on the protesters in hope of pushing them towards Lake Michigan into the frigid waters. McCallahan stopped his speech as the roar of gunshots frightened the activists in Grant Park, with many fleeing in a stamped towards the Lake. Fearing a mass loss of life, McCallahan, outnumbered, ordered his men to rush towards Michigan Avenue to confront the national guard. The resulting firefight took the lives of several hundreds of civilians and soldiers. The Illinois National Guard retreated deeper into the city, where they took up positions in the city and began shooting at all those attempting to flee back to their homes on the outskirts outside of downtown.
Chicago Chief of Police, Conall O'Flannery was shot accidentally during a volley from the Illinois National Guard while on horseback. Police officers, who sought only to keep the protests under control were caught in the middle of the ensuring firefight and ultimately fled alongside the protesters towards Lake Michigan. Officers attempted to calm the crowd as the feared the rush would ultimately drive thousands to a frigid death in the lake. News spread throughout the city of the ensuring chaos, with many citizens taking up personal arms to free their trapped loved ones in Grant Park. The Illinois National Guard garrisoned at Chicago rallied additional men to confront the Peoria guardsmen that encircled the protesters; mothers fearing the loss of their sons at Grant Park followed in purist behind the Chicago affiliated guardsmen, providing additional 200,000 souls downtown. The Peoria guardsmen trapped in various buildings, began firing signal flares to indicate to the Federalist offices located south of the downtown that their position was compromised. Henderson ordered a volley of artillery on Grant Park and various positions west of downtown, igniting a fiery blaze. Large barges were brought to the shoreline in an attempt to save thousands from the inferno and the frigid waters, foremen commandeered business ships and the navy deployed its lake frigates to assist in the effort. The Chicago Fire Department was able to extinguish several fires north of Grant Park, away from the government forces west and south of Grant Park, allowing for the protesters to flee. Federalist garrisons in North Chicago opened their armories to arm the citizens in an effort to provide relief to the Chicago National Guard.
Anthony Williams, Harry Haywood, Southern Revolution
Surrender of the Federalist government
Henderson fled the presidential palace after seeing the situation in downtown Chicago was beginning to quickly to deteriorate. Throughout the night, the Chicago regiment destroyed Federal partisans throughout the city in a brutal crackdown known as the Chicago Massacre. During the massacre, the Continentalist partisans specifically targeted communists affiliated with Marxism-Leninism in an attempt to consolidate power. Hearing the fall of the capital and the news of the President's departure, the cities of St. Louis, Louisville, Indianapolis, Detroit and Cleveland officially handed control to the Continentalist partisan assembled throughout the city. New councils were formed with workers gaining control over management within factories. In Appalachia, Continentalist forces captured the majority of the mines, securing the nation's coal reserves. In the South, Anthony Williams and revolutionary Harry Haywood secured the cities of Atlanta, Birmingham and Tallahassee in a vicious guerrilla warfare campaign with the landed gentry of the south.
On April 11th, 1920, President Henderson was caught in New Orleans by Cajun and Creole partisans while on a ship destined to the United Provinces. Several members of his government were also captured while en route to Brazoria. They were forced to return to Chicago, arriving on April 20th they were greeted by the a Continental tribunal that sentenced them to death for treason. Some 200 men associated with the cabinet were executed by firing squad in Grant Park officially destroying the last remains of the civil government of the United Commonwealth. Units still faithful to the Federalist government became encircled within the interior of the country, with several hundreds of thousands of refugees trapped. Mostly white southerns from South, the citizens feared retribution from black partisans. On April 29th, Warren and Zhou demanded black partisans to return to their homes and begin demobilization. Warren approached the remaining Federalist troops, providing a promissory that they may live separately from African-Americans on the continent. In perhaps the most controversial of acts, Warren guaranteed the formation of two republics specifically designated for whites and blacks to live separately in. These became the Continental Republics of Okaloosa and Appalachia. The remaining Federalist partisans and troops agreed to the compromise, laying down their arms and surrendering to the Continentalist Army on April 23rd, 1919. Throughout the country smaller pockets of opposition continued until April and May, by 1920 major military confrontations ceased.