United Commonwealth of Continental States
Anthem: "The Commonwealth of Toil"
|Largest city||New York City|
|Government||Federal Landonist–Continentalist one-party socialist republic|
|Daniel Muir (CPUC)|
|Joseph Ojeda (CPUC)|
|Legislature||National People's Congress|
|House of Republics|
|18 January 1917|
|1 May 1922|
• Passage of the Third Edition of the Continental Code
|December 9 1948|
|5,883,404 km2 (2,271,595 sq mi)|
• 2021 estimate
• 2020 census
|GDP (PPP)||2020 estimate|
|$11.8 trillion (2nd)|
• Per capita
|GDP (nominal)||2020 estimate|
|$13.5 trillion (2nd)|
• Per capita
|Currency||Commonwealth Dollar (Ȼ, Ȼ$)|
The United Commonwealth was first inhabited by Paleo-Indians who migrated to the continent from Siberia at least 12,000 years ago during the Middle Paleolithic period. Various Precolumbian civilizations and cultures thrived in the North American mainland, including the Mississippian culture of the southeast, who developed advanced agriculture, architecture, and complex societies, the Haudenosaunee developed in the Great Lakes region some time between the twelfth and fifteen centuries, while most prominent along the Atlantic coast was the Algonquian peoples. The British, French, and Spanish established colonies in what is now the present-day United Commonwealth. Canada and the United States emerged from the British and French colonies in the North American mainland, with the latter gaining independence during the American Revolutionary War as the former Thirteen Colonies along the East Coast. The United States rapidly expanded across North America under the pretext of manifest destiny, acquiring territory through both diplomatic and military means, oftentimes killing and displacing Native Americans. Slavery was a central issue for the United States and was the main cause behind the American Civil War. Shortly after the war ended in Union victory, the United States government collapsed following the assassination of President Abraham Lincoln and other key U.S. officials. The reconsolidation of the remnant U.S. government as the United Commonwealth and the breakaway of several U.S. states as independent countries led to the War of Contingency, which ended with the reduction of the United Commonwealth to only 19 of the former 29 U.S. states. The United Commonwealth under the Federalists was checkered with periods of calamity and stability as rapid economic growth coincided with rising levels of inequality and political corruption.
The Continental Revolutionary War resulted in the Continentalists overthrowing the Federalist government, exiling them to the Antilles. The Continentalists centralized the national economy and state power, and established the goal of creating a self-sufficient socialist state operating on the principles of Landonism and a homegrown variant of Continentalism. During Great War I, the United Commonwealth led the Landonist Internationale war faction, gaining several border territories, and establishing a series of satellite states on its borders under friendly continentalist regimes, such as Quebec and Brazoria. In Great War II, the United Commonwealth emerged as an established world power, playing a significant role in the European theater of the war. During the Cold War, it competed with its longtime neighboring rival, Sierra, and European rivals, Germany and the United Kingdom. The period saw some of the most significant 20th-century scientific and technological achievements, including the world's first man-made satellite and the launching of the first animals and humans into spaceflight.
The United Commonwealth has the second-largest economy in the world, with a GDP of Ȼ$13.8 trillion, and features the world's second-largest manufacturing economy. It is a highly developed country and is also one of the most ethnically, religiously, and linguistically diverse nations in the world. Since the 1970s, it has operated a mixed economy which synthesizes syndicalism with a socialist-oriented market economy in adherence to Landonist orthodoxy and Continentalism. Its labor force is among the world's largest and the most unionized. It is the second-largest importer in the world and the third-largest exporter. The United Commonwealth is a member of the Organization for Mutual Economic Assistance and Development (OMEAD), Chattanooga Pact and the League of Nations.
From 1920 to 1921, the Continentalist Party maintained the nation's former name as the United Commonwealth of America. Aeneas Warren, who was staunchly in favor of preserving the legacy of the United States of America, sought to revert back to the former name in 1921. However, by 1921 local elections concluded, officially reorganizing the subdivisions of the old United Commonwealth and former United States, and all states elected to adopt new naming semantics on the grounds that the previous terms were relics of the pre-revolution, capitalist society. This signaled to Warren and the Continentalist Party to change the nation's name. To distinguish themselves from other Anglo-American nations and to create a unified nationality, the demonym for the nation was established as 'Continentals' which retains much of the ambiguous notions associated with being American, where one can be of any race or religion.
During the ratification of the Continental States Constitution, the name United Commonwealth of Continental States was proposed by the Central Committee of the Continentalist Party and adopted by the National Congress. The name also signified that the United Commonwealth was composed of semi-autonomous states within a federalized union, ideologically tied to Continentalism. Several Appalachian continentalist states, retained their ideological leanings to Landonism, by incorporating it into their official state names. The retention of the name United Commonwealth was seen as reactionary by some far-left elements within the Party, who saw it as a continuation of the Federalist-Republican regime. Because of the ideological differences the simplified usage of Continental States and Continentalist States is used frequently and the usage of the full or partial name is often seen as an ideological stance.
In political rhetoric of the nation, the nation is referred to as this United Commonwealth of Continental States, an allegory to the preservation of the Union. Warren during an opening speech at the Central Congress, established the political tradition of invoking the name of the country;
|“||As we have fought to establish a more sacred union, one that enshrines the working class into its national fabric, let it be known that invoking such a name must be carried in high regard. For it is not a name tied to any race; but that to a single unifying concept that unites the people as one. Established by Providence, the United States was a most auspicious experiment that was ultimately bastardized by capitalism. Today we stand in the spirit of the American people to form a new idealized version of what the future can be. Indeed, a continental order, one that will one day incorporate the shores of the Pacific Ocean, the fringes of the Arctic Circle, where the worker will rule supreme. On this day, July 19th, 1922 in the year of our Lord, we establish this United Commonwealth of Continental States.||”|
|— Secretariat Aeneas Warren, Proclamation of the Continental States, December 20, 1921|
|Part of a series on the|
|History of the United Commonwealth|
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The first inhabitants of the Americas are generally accepted to have migrated to the continent from Siberia using the Bering Strait land bridge, arriving at least 12,000 years ago, with some evidence pointing to an even earlier arrival date. The first wave of human settlement in the Americas is believed to be represented by the Clovis culture, which appeared around 11,000 BC, however, older sites dating to 20,000 years ago have also been claimed, and some genetic studies have estimated the colonization of the Americas to have begun between 13,000 and 40,000 years ago. There generally exists two camps: the short chronology theory which holds that the first movement to the Americas occurred no earlier than 14,000 to 17,000 years ago, followed by several more successive waves, and the long chronology theory, which proposes that the first people entered the hemisphere possibly as early as 40,000 to 50,000 years ago. An estimated three separate waves of migration may have taken place, with the ancestors of present-day Athabaskans, Aleuts, and Inuits likely being among the later waves—the Inuit possibly arrived in North America no more than 2,000 years ago.
The North American climate was unstable during the receding of the ice age until about 10,000 years ago, leading to widespread migration across the Americas. The Paleo-Indians were likely hunter-gatherers, traveling in small, mobile bands of about 20 to 50 members, and using a variety of tools. These ancient peoples coalesced into many distinct linguistic and cultural groups, as reflected in the oral histories of indigenous peoples. Over the course of thousands of years, a number of plant species were domesticated, bred, and cultivated, including crops which now constitute 50–60% of the world’s agriculture. In general the more temperate and sheltered regions of the continent adopted agriculture and permitted a dramatic rise in population, while Arctic, Subarctic, and some coastal areas continued to host hunter-gatherer populations. The first complex societies arose some seven to eight thousand years ago, such as at the Monte Sano site of the Lower Mississippi Valley, where complex earthwork mounds, possibly for religious purposes, were created. Large complexes such as the one discovered at Watson Brake have led to the theory that many of these early sites were constructed by hunter-gatherer societies and occupied on a seasonal basis, questioning the assumption that complex construction only arises in societies that have adopted sedentary agriculture, with hierarchy and usually ceramics. The famous site at Poverty Point was likely constructed around 1500 BC, considered one of the largest sites of the Late Archaic Period.
One of the most influential and widespread pre-columbian cultures of North America would be the Mississippian culture, which first developed around the year 1000 AD and spread across the Southeast and Midwest, from the Atlantic coast to the edge of the Great Plains. The Mississippians are characterized by their construction of large complexes of earth mounds and grand plazas, in a continuation of the moundbuilding traditions of earlier cultures. They adopted agriculture (especially the cultivation of maize) intensively, developed an extensive trade network across the continent, and maintained a complex, stratified society. The culture was centered around the city of Cahokia—located near modern East St. Louis, Illinois—which is believed to have been one of the largest cities in the pre-Columbian United Commonwealth, with a population of over 20,000. At the city’s peak in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, Cahokia traded with chiefdoms across the Southeast and as far north as the Great Lakes, and Monk’s Mound, the major ceremonial center of Cahokia, became the largest earthen construction of the prehistoric Americas. Many Mississippian peoples were encountered by the first European exploration to the region by Hermando de Soto in the 1540s, although the Misssissippian culture appears to have been in decline by this time prior to European introduction.
In the eastern half of the future United Commonwealth, the eastern seaboard was primarily settled by Iroquoian and Algonquian peoples. Between the twelfth and fifteen centuries the Haudenosaunee developed as a powerful confederacy in present-day upstate New York. The northeast seaboard largely consisted of Algonquian-speaking peoples such as the Lenni Lenape, Abenaki, and Powhatan. During the early centuries of European colonization, the Beaver Wars commenced, which saw the Iroquois dramatically expanding into the Great Lakes region and the Midwest in pursuit of dominating the valuable fur trade with European powers.
The estimated pre-Columbian indigenous population of the United Commonwealth is highly debated. Estimates for North America as a whole (not including Mesoamerica) usually range between 3.8 million and 7 million, with some claiming as high as 18 million. The Mississippi Valley and its tributaries was likely the most highly populated region of North America, with some historians estimating a total of 5.2 million inhabitants of that region alone. The eastern seaboard likely was at least half that number, while the Canada region had an estimated half a million inhabitants. The arrival of Europeans to the continent brought with them a number of old world infectious diseases, for which the native population had no immunity to. As a result of disease – as well wars and other factors of societal upheaval – the indigenous population of the Americas experienced a sharp decline in population, possibly as much as 90% in many areas.
The earliest confirmed European settlers to North America are the Norse, who briefly settled in the region around the year 1000. However, claims of Norse exploration to the present-day United Commonwealth are disputed and controversial. Christopher Columbus first arrived in North America in 1492, landing in Puerto Rico and other Caribbean territories formerly owned by the United Commonwealth in subsequent voyages. The first documented Europeans to set foot in the continental United Commonwealth are the Spanish conquistadors under Juan Ponce de León, who arrived in Florida in 1513. Saint Augustine in Florida, founded in 1565, is often cited as the nation’s oldest city. The French established colonies in the St. Lawrence River valley in the early seventh century, as well as settlements on the Mississippi River, such as New Orleans. Beginning in 1607 with the settlement at Jamestown, successful English settlement of the eastern seaboard began. Jamestown became the start of the Virginia Colony, and was followed soon after by the Pilgrims’ Plymouth Colony in 1620. In 1619 the first legislative assembly in the continent was established: Virginia’s House of Burgesses. Documents such as the Mayflower Compact and the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut would help establish the precedent of representative self-governance and constitutionalism in the colonies, which would later influence the creation of the United States.
The early European colonies were often subject to a lack of food, disease, and attacks from Native Americans or each other, however, in many cases the settlers and indigenous peoples came to depend on one another, with settlers trading for food and animal pelts often in exchange for guns, tools or other European goods. With increased colonization by Europeans to North America, the indigenous peoples were displaced and often killed, and the native population of the continent dramatically declined. The trafficking of African slaves to the continent also began during European colonization, in what became known as the transatlantic slave trade. Slaves of North America were fewer in number than those brought to South America, where harsh conditions and tropical diseases decimated slave populations. By the turn of the eighteenth century, African slaves supplanted European indentured servitude and cash crop labor, especially in the American South, became a highly lucrative industry. The religious and moral implications of slavery divided colonial society, with several colonies passing legislation for or against the practice.
The colonies that would become the United States, known collectively as the Thirteen Colonies (New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia) were administered as overseas dependencies of the British crown, but nonetheless possessed local governments with elections open to most free men. The population of the colonies grew rapidly, eclipsing Native American populations, due to high birth rates, low death rates, and steady immigration from Europe. Excluding Native Americans, the population of the Thirteen Colonies reach about 2.1 million in 1770, about a third the population of Britain, and despite increased immigration the natural increase was such that by the 1770s a minority of Americans had been born overseas. America’s First Great Awakening, a Christian revival movement of the 1730s and 1740s, further fueled interest in religious liberty. During the Seven Years' War (1756–1763), also known in the United Commonwealth as the French and Indian War, the British captured French Canada and created the Province of Quebec. During this time the colonies’ distance from Britain allowed for the development of self-governance, but the unprecedented success in the war motivated British monarchs to periodically seek to reassert royal authority.
Creation of the United States
- Main article: American Revolution
The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783) secured the independence of the United States from Great Britain, becoming the first successful war of independence by a non-European entity against a European power in modern history. Americans balked at diminishing local governance and administration through Parliament, asserting that government rested on the will of the people as expressed in their local legislatures, which developed into an ideology of American republicanism. The colonists demanded their Rights of Englishmen and “No taxation without representation”, to which the English government was unwilling or unable to relent, escalating the conflict to war.
On 4 July 1776 the Second Continental Congress unanimously adopted the Declaration of Independence; this day would become celebrated annually as Independence Day. The Articles of Confederation would be the first government of the nation, operating from 1777 to 1789. After the British defeat at the Siege of Yorktown in 1781, the Treaty of Paris recognized American sovereignty and granted the country all lands east of the Mississippi River. In 1787 the Philadelphia Convention sought to create a new government to replace the ineffective Articles of Confederation, leading to the adoption of the Constitution of the United States, ratified in state conventions and going into effect in 1789. This reorganized the country into a federal government with three branches, on the principle of creating a separation of powers and checks and balances. George Washington, who had led the country’s army during the fight for independence, was elected the first president under the new constitution. The Bill of Rights was adopted in 1791, which forbade federal restriction of personal freedoms and guaranteed a range of legal protections.
Tensions with the British remained even after independence, culminating in the War of 1812. The war largely ended inconclusively, but confirmed the United States’ ability to defend itself and protect its interests. It was followed by the Era of Good Feelings, in which there was widespread unity among Americans and a desire for national purpose, as well as the end of the First Party System politically. The federal government outlawed American participation in the Atlantic slave trade after 1807, however, the cultivation of the highly profitable cotton plant reinvigorated slavery in the south, causing the issue to become the paramount political issue after 1820. The Second Great Awakening of 1800–1840 converted millions of people to evangelical Protestantism in the country, and in the north it energized the abolitionist movement.
The country also rapidly expanded westward in what became known as Manifest destiny, or the belief that American settlers were entitled to conquer and control the continent from coast to coast, prompting a series of conflicts with indigenous peoples. The 1803 Louisiana Purchase almost doubled the nation’s land area and opened expansion into the west. Florida and other Gulf Coast territories were ceded by Spain in 1819, the Republic of Texas was annexed in 1845, and the 1846 Oregon Treaty with Britain ceded the northwest coast to American control. The Mexican–American War (1846–1848) led to the conquest of California and the American Southwest, making the United States span from the Atlantic to the Pacific. The California Gold Rush spurred migration to the new territories and led to the creation of additional western states. The Homestead Acts granted vast quantities of land to new settlers in the west, and to private railroad companies, who developed industry across the country.
Civil War and War of Contingency
The division of the country between north and south over the issue of the enslavement of Africans ultimately led to the American Civil War. The 1860 election of Republican Abraham Lincoln led to conventions in thirteen slave states declaring secession, leading to the formation of the Confederate States of America, while the federal government maintained that secession was illegal. Southern secessionists initiated military action to bring about secession, leading to northern response in kind, formally beginning the war after the Battle of Fort Sumter on 12 April 1861. The ensuing war would become the deadliest military conflict in American history up to that point, resulting in the deaths of approximately 618,000 soldiers, as well as numerous civilians. The goal of the conflict grew from simply fighting to keep the union intact to that of the abolition of slavery after Lincoln’s 1863 Emancipation Proclamation, and after the war’s end in April 1865 the passage of the Thirteenth Amendment formally prohibited slavery except as penal labor. Citizenship for blacks and voting rights, in theory, were also passed with two additional amendments.
Following the assassination of Abraham Lincoln and much of his cabinet, the United States collapsed into another series of conflicts commonly known as the War of Contingency. In the south the only recently defeated southern states launched the Confederate Uprising. Federal power was established under former union general Ulysses S. Grant, who launched a coup in 1866 that polarized the northern states. The Northeast Union would be declared as the first collection of northern states to secede from the federal government under Grant. The war marked the formal end of the United States, being replaced by that of the “United Commonwealth”, and also saw several western states such as Sierra, Brazoria, and Superior declare independence from the nation. In 1869 the Treaty of Salinas formally ended the war and confirmed the independence of these new states.
Following the War of Contingency, the states that remained loyal to the federal government became known as the United Commonwealth, which effectively evolved into a dominant one-party system under the Federalist Party. The Federalist regime is often synonymous with the Gilded Age, an era in which the country saw rapid economic growth, but the concentration of wealth in the hands of a small number and vast income inequality nationwide. The country became woefully unequipped or unwilling to address economic hardships, leading to oppression of labor and labor unions, and increased social volatility by the end of the century.
Revolutionary sentiments within the United Commonwealth began to spread after the Panic of 1873, leading to the creation of the country’s first socialist parties, such as the Workingmen's Party of Illinois and the Social-Democratic Party of North America. In 1876 these parties and more formally united into the Socialist Labor Party of America, which became particularly influential in the local politics of cities such as Chicago. The Depression of 1882–1885 and the 1886 Haymarket affair further polarized the nation. Labor unions throughout various industrial cities began working alongside socialists to organize workers against what they perceived to be exploitative capitalism. During this time of political upheaval various labor and left-wing groups flourished including the American Federation of Labor, Knights of Labor, Industrial Workers of the World and the Socialist Labor Party of America. These organizations initially rejected revolutionary socialism and believed that the current government could be transformed into a tool to support the working class. Throughout the 1900s these positions regarding reformism versus revolutionary politics were softened with the introduction of Isaiah Landon's teachings.
The country’s politics were also dominated by the Black Question, or the best course of action for the integration of separatism of African-American inhabitants of the United Commonwealth prior to the Continental Revolution. At its inception in 1904, the United Labor Front was primarily a white organization, attracting many of its early members from European immigrants and the socialist-associated foreign language federation, whose affiliates included those who were not fluent in English speaking, or had sparse contact with the country’s black population. The country’s historic discrimination against black workers was viewed as an extreme form of capitalist worker exploitation by many leading members of the United Labor Front; prominent leaders such as Meyer London – a leading Jewish-American New York politican and activist – were committed opponents of racial segregation in the country, even at his own personal expense. However, the organization’s inclusion of a broad spectrum of unions and lesser organizations, many of which were apathetic to the plight of African workers or directly competed with or discriminated against them, halted progress toward a coherent anti-segregationist policy.
The indecision of the greater socialist movement propelled a number of black leaders to form the African Blood Brotherhood in 1910, led by Cyril Briggs, a proponent of black expatriation to Africa. They found common ground with the greater socialist movement on the subject of anti-colonial, “national liberation” movements, but appealed to a larger black population through its outreach to black communities specifically. The African Blood Brotherhood was largely in favor of the rhetoric of Marcus Garvey, the founder of the Universal Negro Improvement Association and the leader of the black separatist movement, which held that a separate state for blacks was necessary for the economic and cultural development of people of African descent in the country and abroad. However Garveyism was rapidly outpaced by the much more popular proponents of integration, such as W. E. B. Du Bois and William English Walling, founders of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in 1909, or Booker T. Washington of the Niagara Movement, founded in 1905, which promoted policies of accommodation and conciliation rather than segregation and disenfranchisement.
In 1901 the Socialist Party of America adopted various components of Landonism to support the establishment of a revolutionary socialist state. In 1904 the Industrial Workers of the World, the Socialist Party of America, and the Socialist Labor Party formed the United Labor Front. Aeneas Warren returned to the United Commonwealth in 1907 where he began promoting a socialist revolution in the public sphere, as well as within the governing bodies of the various labor unions and social democratic parties. In 1910 and 1911 workers' councils began to spring up across the country, with large support from rural Appalachia and urban Chicago. Support for the workers' councils culminated in the government initiating a suppression of left-wing activity. Warren and fellow landonist Zhou Xinyue became the faces of the landonist movement in the United commonwealth, and went on to co-found the Continentalist Party of the United Commonwealth on 1 May 1917, founded on the principles of revolutionary socialism and continentalism. Throughout the United Commonwealth local revolutionary cells quickly organized mass demonstrations with one of the most famous in Cincinnati at Crosley Field—nicknamed the home of the revolution. That year violent reprisals were carried out by the Federalist Party against dissidents, leading to the full escalation of war and the beginning of the Continental Revolutionary War.
Revolution and early history (1886–1922)
- Main article: Government of Aeneas Warren, Foundation of the Continental States, and Seventy Days period
As the Continentalists gained territory in the opening months of the war, the northern states became internally divided and alienated from the Federalist cause, leading to the declared secession of several states into the brief Eastern Provisional Government, which was later absorbed into the Continentalist fold. In 1918, the Continentalist forces achieved a decisive victory in the war at the Battle of Black Mountain and further propelled urban partisans to begin revolutionary activities within cities. Throughout the remainder of 1918 and 1919 local revolutionary groups performed raids on Federalist armories in Ohio, Pennsylvania, Virginia and Kentucky to disrupt the government's ability to counter Continentalist forces in Appalachia. Zhou was instrumental in securing the nation's coal supply. In 1918 the Labor controlled governments in the Midwest quickly deteriorated and tensions with Continentalist partisans led to the Battle of Chicago, the Battle of Detroit, and the Battle of Indianapolis, solidifying Continentalist in the Midwest.
The outbreak of the Continental Revolutionary War sparked further sectarian violence across the southern states. In what became known as the Red Summer, violent race riots against blacks over labor tensions broke out in cities such as St. Louis and Atlanta. Both the Landonists and the Federalists recruited blacks to their respective sides of the conflict, but especially the Landonists; an estimated 470,000 soldiers of African descent would be raised during the conflict. As the war developed, the southern states largely united in opposition to the Landonist movement, becoming the stronghold of the Federalist Party. However, the Federalists were challenged by the rebellion of several armed black militias, which loosely aligned with the Continental Army. Most prominently was the Black Guard, a militant group formed in 1919 which grew to become a major group of armed resistance and a faction in the civil war in its own right. By the end of 1919 they had successfully united many disconnected parties across the deep south, and had effectively toppled the state governments of several states in the Mississippi region. Under the leadership of Harry Haywood, the Black Guard movement became formally Landonist in nature and allied with the Continentalist Party. The alliance of the two parties and the use of the Continental Army’s resources to arm and supply the various black rebellions of the south proved crucial in winning the invasion of the south, which began in 1920. The union of the black and Landonist orders polarized white southerners and pushed many to the ranks of the Federalist Party, beginning a period of brutal civil war that ravaged the south.
Throughout 1919 and 1920, the Continental Revolutionary Army began a ruthless campaign against the Federalist government in the South which sparked international condemnation of Continentalists. The later half of the Continental Revolutionary War would see a series of atrocities, such as the Tulsa Massacre, in which white Federalists besieged and razed the city of Tulsa, specifically its predominantly black neighborhood known as “Black Wall Street”. No quarter was given to captured black soldiers by the southern Federalists, and others who were captured were forced into labor in work camps and farms to supply the war effort, a policy compared to that of slavery. The massacre of blacks in the south sparked greater recruitment for the Landonists, but also sparked several retaliatory attacks, such as the Kilbourne Massacre, in which armed sharecroppers rebelled against the town’s landowners, hacking several people to death with machetes and other weapons. A precarious balance was undertaken politically as the last years of the multi-front war in the south came to a close. Aeneas Warren would make several promises of fair treatment and equality in the armed forces after 1919, and pledged to address racial equality after the war, as he could not “undertake at this time to settle the so-called race question.” Nonetheless his assurances were aimed at preventing the creation of an independent black nation in opposition to the envisioned United Commonwealth.
Federalist armies attempted to establish front lines but were ultimately unsuccessful, leading to a full retreat in 1919. Federalist forces fled en masse to the Antilles where they established a government-in-exile. Seamus Callahan would be at the forefront of an internal coup that overthrew the federal government in Chicago, ending the conflict in the north. Theodore Attenbourgh, his cabinet, and an array of political enemies were executed in the aftermath of the surrender. The Continentalist faction during the revolution was also subject to an allied intervention by the nations of Brazoria, Sierra, and Superior, with aid from nations such as the United Kingdom. However, the foreign intervention suffered from poor organization within its leadership and unclear goals. Border territories along the Mississippi were occupied, as were several ports in the Congregationalist States that had allied with the Continentalist faction. After the abandonment of the mainland by the Federalists and the flight to the Antilles, the enthusiasm for the foreign intervention largely collapsed. Encouraged by the victories against the Federalists, anti-Landonists, and Sierran-backed allies, Zhou Xinyue began to envision the future of world revolution with greater optimism. This sparked the invasions of Acadiana, Florida, and Brazoria, which were not all successful.
The 1921 Treaty of Bernheim ended hostilities between the Continentalists and the allied powers, officially ending the counter-revolutionary intervention. This intervention would have the unintended effect of uniting the aspirations of the Congregationalist States with the Continentalists, paving the way for their eventual incorporation into the United Commonwealth. It is also cited as the unofficial beginning of the Cold War, as relations between the United Commonwealth and Sierra never fully recovered. Within the treaty the United Commonwealth was recognized as the Provisional Socialist Authority of the United Commonwealth, the civilian arm of the Continental Revolutionary Army. A provisional government would be established with representatives from various labor unions, leftist parties, and municipal governments to discuss the ongoing offensive against the remaining Federalist government and the extrajudicial trials taking place against the former capitalist class and federalists, and the assembly’s field orders would evolve into the foundation of Landonist law. On 20 April 1922 a conference of plenipotentiary delegations from each state approved and ratified the Union Treaty on the Creation of the Continental States, as well as the Declaration of Liberation and Independence, formally establishing the United Commonwealth of Continental States. Both documents were ratified by the first Central Congress and signed by the heads of the state delegations. On 1 May 1922 the formal proclamation of the republic was made from Lincoln Park.
For most of 1922 until his death in September, the United Commonwealth would be led by Aeneas Warren. Under his leadership the revolutionary war ended, the 2nd National Committee of the Continentalist Party was held organizing the nation into its continental republics, and the first Constitution of the nation was ratified. This constitution outlined that the new commonwealth, united as a brotherhood of Continental states, would be unified by their belief in Continentalism and Landonism, establishing a dictatorship of the proletariat with a vanguard party. During the war the policy of “War Landonism” was implemented, which consisted of a number of temporary measures meant to conclude the war in a timely manner, before proper Landonist ideology could be implemented. The war saw the nationalization of all industries and the implementation of strict centralized management, with strikes temporarily forbidden and obligatory labor duty being mandated. Late 1921 saw the beginning of the Great Famine brought about by devastation from the revolution, the embargo from food producing nations (especially Superior), and upheaval from the implementation of government policies.
Social policies collectively known as the Cultural Revolution began, which saw state censorship and restriction of religious practices, the establishment of work and prison camps for political dissidents, and the overhaul of education and cultural values in the country. On August 20, 1924 one of the largest Continental book burnings would be carried out in Crosley Field, one of the spiritual epicenters of the Landonist revolution, including the destruction of 25,000 musical records. Warren mobilized military action against a number of revolts in 1921 and 1922, most notably the Portsmouth Revolt, a major mutiny of naval forces in the Congregationalist States. The government responded to these criticisms by labeling the mutineers as misguided by foreign propaganda and reactionists, and violent reprisals were carried out. The Free States movement was dismantled and anarchists were driven into the underground, inspiring reprisals such as the 1921 New York City Bombing.
The Great Famine was perhaps most impactful in the south, which was organized into the autonomous republic of Okaloosa. The ongoing occupation and sectarian violence across the south, and the highly disruptive agricultural reforms led to vast instability. Land distribution and collectivization was carried out en masse, and middle class farmers who employed other laborers – the basic Marxist definition of a capitalist – were targeted for alleged Federalist sympathies. A labor shortage developed, as areas were depopulated from death or emigration; in the Okaloosa territories the government controversially forced former sharecroppers, farmers, and laborers back onto the farms in large numbers, in an effort to solve the migratory crisis and rebuild the country’s agriculture. Distribution of food supply decreased due to the realities of diminished infrastructure, but more so from the agrarian population’s lack of desire to purchase overpriced manufactured goods, instead increasing consumption of total food production prior to reaching the cities. Violent opposition to Landonism would persist for the next decade, known as the Southern Insurrection.
Division arose within Warren’s government toward the end of his reign, especially between Zhou Xinyue and Seamus Callahan, who came to represent two rival factions within the Continentalist Party. In particular, Callahan represented the Revolutionary Front of the Continentalist Party which promoted a nationalistic and militaristic line within the party, and he also personally favored the continuation of strict racial segregation. He disagreed on Warren’s implementation of land reparations for black farmers, the public reason being because it compromised the Continentalist vision. With Warren’s commitment to holding a 1924 election, this galvanized the various forces of the Warren administration to push for their own agendas—very few differed on the goals of the administration, but rather on the implementation. In September 1922 Warren fell ill with the Spanish flu and died on 14 September. In his last public speech, Aeneas Warren famously stated "our goal is the happiness of all mankind”, which would become a hallmark of the Continentalist Party. With the death of Warren, the battle within the Central Committee flung the country into a period of plotting and political deceitfulness. With a planned election almost two years away, the office of President sat vacant.
In the days following Warren’s death, William Foster made a bid before the National Congress to force an emergency vote that would make him acting president with all the powers bestowed upon the office, however, his motion was successfully filibustered by rival members of the presidium on the grounds that a quorum was not present. Members of the Central Committee trickled into the capital, some of which having been flown in on military aircraft, eventually forcing a meeting of the Central Committee that confirmed the position of Seamus Callahan as General Secretary, and appointed two of his political allies – Coleman Mueller and Joseph McDonald – to the Central Committee. After the failure to force the issue of the presidency, Foster relinquished command to a triumvirate that sought to compromise between both factions, as it consisted of Mauer (the Fosterite), Morris Hillquit (a Foster-leaning moderate), and Meyer London (a Callahanite). This arrangement became known as the “Seventy Days”, as the triumvirate de facto ruled the country for a period lasting a little over two weeks, and sought to dramatically overhaul the country and settle the factional debate.
During this brief period relations between the United Commonwealth and the surrounding world were reopened. The country carefully toed the line between amnesty out of necessity for the fragile rebuilding situation, and militancy, especially after the publishing of Foster’s ideals of a “permanent revolution”. The Congregationalist States and other republics of the union were given increased autonomy, as the Triumvirate feared the instability in the government might lead to secessionist tendencies. Callahan’s denouncement of the Triumvirate led to its disbandment in November. Coleman Mueller was elected the interim head of the Presidium and effectively became leader of the United Commonwealth, however, his tenure would be short lived. In a series of events known as the Waldmann Plot, prominent rival Zhou Xinyue would be assassinated by supporters of Callahan. Foster would later be executed in 1923, having confessed to being involved in a plot to kill interim leader Mueller—having confessed either to save the image of the party, or as the result of torture. An additional 4,000 individuals would be identified between November 1922 and May 1923, and imprisoned or executed under the leadership of Mueller and Callahan. Mueller effectively governed as a puppet president under Callahan’s direction, until he was forced to resign himself months later. Callahan became the de facto ruler in his own right in February 1923, and was later confirmed as president in January 1925 after the results of the 1924 election.
Seamus Callahan, First Great War (1922-1947)
On 14 November 1922 Callahan was confirmed the General Secretary of the Continentalist Party by the National Congress. Callahan argued for the concept of Socialism on One Continent in place of international socialism, which clashed with the establishment of the Continentalist Party, despite Callahan’s insistence that it was an orthodox Warrenite perspective. Having won the debate against the Fosterites, over the next decade Callahan dismantled the powers of the trade unions, making it clear that the party and the government would lead, while the trade unions had no recourse to challenge central policy. Under Callahan’s leadership, the National Board for Industrialization and Cooperation (NBIC) was developed as the government agency in charge of rebuilding the nation. From 1923 until 1928, the NBIC was designated as sole operator of the economy. In 1924, the Commission for Financial Stability and Fair Practice (CFSFP) was established to control inflation and to rebuild the financial industry.
Callahan expanded Kentucky Bend, and established a vast network of re-eduction camps across the country. In 1923 the informal camp system was placed under the control of the Continental Commissariat for Rehabilitation and Corrections (CCRC), detaining millions of citizens for the purpose of ideological rehabilitation. Entire sectors such as the entertainment industry were destroyed. Prior to the war an exodus had already begun among the entertainment industry, while another wave of migration came during the war and immediately after it, as creatives and people of all walks of life fled the destructive conflict or the unstable regime destined to follow. This had an immediate effect of a brain drain in the fledgling United Commonwealth. It was during this heightened period that Callahan sought to establish revolutionary cells aligned with the Continentalist cause in the Styxie, and other supportive organizations in favor of foreign Landonist revolution.
Under Callahan the Continental Cultural Revolution intensified. The Central Communications Commission (CCC), a rebranding of the Interstate Commerce Commission, would be established as the national agency in charge of regulating all communications nationwide, and would be placed in charge of the efforts to catalog, inspect, and regulate all printed media at its inception. Between 1922 and 1929, a number of laws were passed that eroded the power of the church, first in public and political life, and then in social life. Religious education, such as Catholic schools, were banned and repurposed under secular authorities, and youth groups, clubs, and other such assemblies were also banned or limited. The state instituted mandatory group studies of Landonist on Sunday-mornings for youth groups, in the hopes of gradually replacing the dependency of the population with the church. Public backlash was severe in matters of religion, although it varied by church. The Catholic Church in particular faced harsh descrimination, although the government would negotiate a symbolic concordant with the pope in 1928.
The effects of the Great Famine, as well as the Southern Insurrection against the Landonist government brought about millions of deaths during the first several years of the new government. Furthermore, throughout the 1920s the Okaloosan policy of land reform, which brought upon retaliation against the landowners and historic oppressors of the south had led to the collectivization or redistribution of practically all large scale plantations and farms in the south, had increased the percentage of households owned by poor and middle class farmers to an estimated 93.8%, and had resulted in an estimated 573,000 deaths. Additionally, thousands had fled the south, drug trafficking had been reportedly wiped out, and foreign investments had been seized. To the southern government, this was viewed as the blank slate by which the Continentalist Party would rebuild the south. Government policies sought to push southerners, both black and white inhabitants, toward formal introduction into the Continentalist Party after taking an oath renouncing the Federalist and pre-revolution government and its ideals. However, skepticism within the new ranks from outside the rural population led to paramount of Okaloosa Harry Haywood leading the Anti-Rightist Campaign between 1928 and 1930, which sought to question and arrest those suspected of sympathy to capitalism, or were critical of the new government reforms. The campaign led to the imprisonment of an estimated 550,000 additional people, and heavily damaged the Southern Insurgency, although at the expense of the political freedoms of the southern people.
Seamus Callahan differed from Warren and other revolutionaries on the focus of the United Commonwealth, believing that industrialization and urbanization was critical to the modernization of the country, its recovery, and its competitiveness against the rest of the globe. Callahan’s model of an industrialized society went into effect in the late 1920s, and officially his leadership would replace the “wastefulness” of a market economy with a well-researched, scientific planned economy. In the South, the turbulent period of collectivization eventually stabilized and quality of life in the south returned, spurred on by mechanization and the introduction of new goods from the northern factories. In 1929, tariffs were raised on foreign goods in an effort to spur local development and pay off national debt, although this was unsuccessful. Callahan established new taxes on the expanding heavy industry to subsidize loans to workers seeking to establish more consumer driven collectives. Expensive automobiles, telephones and home appliances began to enter the markets as a period of normality brought about optimism to citizens of the newly founded Continental States. Engineers at the Continental Telegraph and Continental Telephone and Telegraph Cooperative (CT&T) propelled mass media in North America and Europe. Continental homes, both rural and urban began to join the electrical grid with the government leading the charge to have complete national electrification by 1938.
Global conditions significantly declined during the 1930s. On 9 April 1928, the Sierran markets crashed which ultimately spurred the Depression of 1928–1932. Although the United Commonwealth suffered during the subsequent depression, the country was uniquely disconnected from the rest of the world’s economy, allowing the country to be largely unaffected in comparison to its neighbors. Nonetheless, the threat of a potential economic collapse allowed the National Board to re-nationalize most sectors of the economy. Throughout the Great Depression global manufacturing output decreased, which threatened the nation’s exports, and also caused prices to rise and deflation, which made repaying debts more difficult. Cultural attitudes within the nation sharply turned to a more conservative outlook, with many progressive reforms enacted in the 1920s being reversed. Callahan and the Central Committee set forth a new five year economic plan to redevelop the nation, creating new programs, public work projects, financial reforms, and regulations, and investing in roads, rails, public housing and the nation's waterways, all under the command of various new government agencies.
The late 1920s saw the foundation of the Cold War taking shape between the United Commonwealth and Sierra. Beginning in 1927 the Central Congress cut off connections to Sierra and the rest of the "reactionary world", and rejected Sierran media as antagonistic to the Landonist values of the nation. This effectively illegalized much of the entertainment industry in the United Commonwealth, cut off trade with Sierra, and instituted the descent of the “Iron Curtain" across the continent. On September 2 1931, Sierra and the United Commonwealth became embroiled in the Veracruz incident, an incident that resulted in several casualties for both belligerents. Hostilities increased with the September Crisis, prompting Central Committee to reorganize the nation's industrial sector to support a wartime economy. In 1931, the United Commonwealth began supporting the Brazorian United Landonist Relief Front in an effort to spur a revolution. After two years of political uncertainty and popular discontent with the right-wing government, the United Commonwealth invaded Brazoria on 11 April 1932. Sierra, Superior, and Tournesol joined together in an effort to repel the Continental forces, beginning the First Great War.
Continental forces entered the Maritimes, Quebec, and Ontario in 1932. Landonist revolutionaries were ultimately successful in the Brazorian Revolutionary War and in 1935 the Brazorian Confederation was declared a socialist republic. It became the official line of the party in 1937 that the government would sue for peace with Sierra, this was ultimately achieved with the signing of the Treaty of North American Amity and the New Orleans Accords in 1938. The nation had effectively been mobilized in its entirety toward the cause of victory; industry had exploded to meet the demand of the war effort, and was heavily concentrated under the command of Callahan. The last decade of Callahan’s reign would be dedicated to the rebuilding of the nation after the war, but also toward exporting continental industry and the nation’s ideology to war torn nations; the United Commonwealth was left as the de facto industrial hegemon of the western hemisphere and used its power to influence the policies of a number of neighboring satellite states.
In the aftermath of the First Great War, the “Continental Bloc” began to take shape as a ring of satellite states around the United Commonwealth; the Callahan administration sought to protect the interior of the country by placing buffers between itself and Sierra, and sought to slowly integrate continentalism and landonism to the rest of the continent through these puppet regimes. Continental soldiers would be deployed to these countries for the rest of Callahan’s reign, ensuring their cooperation, and aware that these nations had been pushed toward socialism through invasion rather than by proletarian revolution, Callahan preferred the term “people’s democracies” to refer to them. In 1940 the 12th Congress of the Landonist International was held as the first formal meeting between the United Commonwealth and the Landonist states of the continent, and Callahan’s Socialism on One Continent ideal reigned supreme. However, after the war the Callahan administration shifted its policy, intervening on numerous occasions to aid socialist revolutionaries in Europe, South America, Africa and Asia in an effort to establish revolutionary states.
Continental scientists developed the first artificial nuclear reactor, Chicago Pile-1, in 1942. In 1945, United Commonwealth was the second state to test an atomic bomb, only a month after the Kingdom of Sierra. In 1945 the Continental Development Plan was initiated, which saw the creation of new locks and dams on the Continental Maritime Corridors, the expansion of the Tennessee Valley Authority, and investment in dams and canals in Quebec. As part of the Baran Plan, named for Secretary of the Treasury Paul A. Baran, the United Commonwealth invested heavily in the rebuilding and development of allied nations across the continent and abroad. During a five year period after the war, the United Commonwealth dispensed over $10 billion in foreign aid in economic recovery programs. In addition to modernizing and developing the infrastructure of allied nations, which made them more reliant on the United Commonwealth, the plan also sought to entice foreign nations into favorable trade conditions with the country, and prevent the spread of rival, capitalist ideologies in nations that the United Commonwealth interacted with. This policy would eventually evolve into the Organization for Mutual Economic Assistance and Development.
Midcentury commonwealth, Crawford Era, Great War II (1947-1951)
On 1 June 1947 Seamus Callahan died and without a clear successor to Callahan the leadership of the nation was thrown into disarray. Amelia Fowler Crawford became the 3rd General Secretary with the death of Callahan, however, an emergency meeting of the Central Committee halted consolidation behind a single leader once more. Instead they elected to restore the system of collective leadership that Callahan had eroded, so that no one person could obtain complete control over the nation again. However, several frontrunners immediately emerged, including Hoyt Vandenberg, the Director of Central Intelligence and the head of the nation’s secret police. Alongside him was Norman Thomas, the former Governor of New York, and Callahan-appointed John L. Lewis. This group effectively evolved into the Second Triumvirate, seeking to, upon her election, cut out the influence of the new General Secretary, Amelia Fowler Crawford. Under Vandenberg, the country’s leadership investigated the claims made by Callahan with a more neutral perspective. The Triumvirate continued the political and economic agenda of the Revolutionary Front, but questioned the legacy of Callahan’s authoritarian policies. Driven by the ideological divide with the Conference of American States, the United Commonwealth established the Chattanooga Pact with Brazoria. Despite the strong image that Callahan had portrayed to the world, the Central Committee performed an audit that concluded they were falling behind, especially with the development of nuclear weapons by the nation’s rivals. Additionally, living standards and the rate of adoption of new consumer goods had become outpaced by Sierra, and the Continental Bloc lagged behind in food production overall.
In the South the sidelining of Harry Haywood had catalyzed his southern cultural revolution, which only intensified after Callahan’s demise. Haywood effectively mobilized the mostly black population to challenge the policies of racial segregation, emboldening the population with Landonist works that glorified the founders of the nation, including himself. This “Second Cultural Revolution” began a large-scale sectarian conflict in the south. The Central Committee inherited the fear that Haywood’s ambitions threatened their own power, but also were forced to contend with the reactionary backlash his rapid cultural shift brought upon. The triumvirate responded to the unrest and the demands for equal rights with the creation of the Committee on Civil Rights in October 1947, as well as Executive Order 9981 in January 1948, which ended segregation within the Continental Armed Forces. This galvanized the white population of the south and the Continentalist Party therein. At a tense meeting of the Okaloosan Continental Party Congress, several legislators walked out to form their own convention in the leadup to the 1948 General Election. At a meeting in Birmingham, Alabama on 17 March, 1948, this evolved into the Dixiecrat faction of the Continentalist Party, an ostensibly pro-segregation and white southerner interest group.
In September 1948 the general election occurred, and the Dixiecrats swept across the south. Okaloosan politicians underestimated the popularity of the movement, which now held a majority in several southern states, and the Okaloosan Continentalist Party became increasingly divided, with a white majority in the republic’s congress for the first time in the history of Okaloosa. Thurmond’s supporters took to the streets to demand the leadership positions of the government be conceded to the Dixiecrats. This escalated into a full rebellion known as the Dixiecrat Revolution, which forced the government to issue a major crackdown in the south. At the 17th Party Congress held in late 1949, Norman Thomas went on record criticizing some of the policies of the Callahan government, and blamed his tendencies for leading to the unstable situation in the south. The Triumvirate would announce a commitment to introducing a more democratic socialist government. They also pushed for a separation in powers between the General Secretary and the Presidency, labeling the nepotistic appointment of Crawford as the continuation of a Callahanite cult of personality. In 1949, president-elect Darlington Hoopes was sworn in, having been selected for his taciturn and inoffensive personality.
The Dixiecrat Revolution was a public embarrassment for the Continentalist Party, and they worked extensively to cover up the extent of the crisis. Reporting of the crisis outside the south was censored, and no reports of the event were documented to any of the nations of the Continental Bloc. However, an estimated 200,000 southerners managed to escape the country and were recognized as political refugees, while the Sierran government also leaked information of the event and reported on it with extreme prejudice. A Sierran-led effort was raised to internationally condemn the United Commonwealth as an authoritarian government that was crushing peaceful resistance.
After the Dixiecrat Revolution, divisions within the leadership of the Continentalist Party intensified. The issue of continued occupation led the Labor Front to criticize the Triumvirate and accuse them of further escalating the situation. Raymond Beshear, an outspoken opponent of the Revolutionary Front, became the majority leader in the National Congress and promised the transformation of the party into a democratic institution. Beshear clashed heavily with Crawford, who accused him of introducing revisionism and reactionism, and of being Sierra-aligned. Under the leadership of Beshear and Hoopes the party introduced a period of “Decallahanization”, which Crawford opposed. They discreetly began dismantling the centralization of the Callahan era, including the cult of personality that surrounded him, and gradually rolled back his political appointments. Crawford attempted to weaponize the supporters of Callahan against the rest of the Central Committee, and also gained the support of the Chairman of the Council of Ministers, William Green. In February 1950, John L. Lewis died of natural causes, and the Triumvirate effectively was broken up. This opened the door for personal struggle between Crawford and Hoopes.
In April 1950, a number of pro-Callahan riots broke out across the United Commonwealth, with Crawford stoking the fire of discontent. Protesters in major cities in the north took to the streets to protest the dismantling of Callahan’s legacy after the agenda of the Central Committee was leaked to the public. They were joined by several others protesting the bureaucratization of the country implemented by the Triumvirate, and those who disapproved of the Dixiecrat situation. On 20 April, protesters took to the streets of Chicago, but by this time the protests had become generally more confused and disorganized. The government ordered a swift crackdown of the protests, leading to 22 deaths and 3,000 arrests by the end of the month. Crawford would use the opportunity to criticize Hoopes’ government for its incompetence in handling the situation. The upper leadership became divided between Hoopes’ supporters, who formed a plurality, Crawford’s supporters, and third parties, which eventually contributed to Hoopes resigning from the office of president on 3 August. Crawford led a vote among the Central Committee which had herself installed as paramount leader, with her ally Clarence Senior as acting president.
Crawford’s reign would last into 1953, during which time she launched a coordinated effort to dismantle the power of the Dixiecrat movement, and championed a compromise between various interest groups of the South. Nationwide, Crawford instituted the creation of the Interrepublic Highway System in 1951, which was justified as a necessary upgrade of the country’s infrastructure to ensure security and preparedness during the Cold War. Crawford stoked the flame of a possible Sierran attack, arguing that a highway system would be an alternative form of transportation that would facilitate easier civilian evacuation and allow for military maneuvers. In 1952, the Chicago Motors scandal came to light, which alleged that the Crawford government knowingly supported a scheme to dismantle public transportation for the benefit of car manufacturers. Throughout her reign, Crawford also controversially antagonized Sierra in the ongoing Cold War. As part of her personal fascination with space and possible alien life after the Kenneth Arnold UFO sightings in 1947, Crawford invested heavily in the exploration of space. In 1953, Crawford voiced her willingness to use nuclear weapons in the event of any foreign aggression. Members of the government intentionally used her fascination with UFOs to establish an atmosphere of paranoia and deception, fearing that Crawford would utilize a pre-emptive nuclear strike against neighboring North American states.
In 1953 British intelligence forces discovered the installation of nuclear missiles in Ireland via long-range reconnaissance planes. This would begin a standoff known as the Irish Missile Crisis, in which careful negotiation occurred between the two sides of the Cold War to narrowly prevent nuclear war. On 29 March, the crisis ended with the negotiation that Continental missiles would be removed from Ireland, while France would demilitarize its border to a similar extent to alleviate pressure on Italy. The United Kingdom would also pledge to never invade Ireland without direct provocation, and a nuclear hotline was also established between the United Commonwealth and Sierra. Although nuclear war had been averted, the crisis was an embarrassment for the Crawford administration, and the Central Committee soon became united in the belief that she was not fit for leadership and her militarization was antagonizing the west to an extent beyond their capacities. Crawford announced that she would resign her position in July 1953, after an attempt to turn against members of the Central Committee backfired—the opponents, led by Norman Thomas, had received the assurances of the military that it would not back Crawford in a coup attempt.
In 1953, a conflict erupted in Europe that would evolve into the Second Great War, as on June 21 a French invasion of German Alsace-Lorraine commenced, with the support of Russia, who launched invasions of the German satellite states of Poland and Romania. France directly allied with the Indo-Japanese Axis, effectively pushing the United Commonwealth and Sierra to similar sides of the conflict despite their historic rivalry, as France invaded Italy and Sierra and Japan entered into direct war. The United Commonwealth would be hesitant to fully deploy to the conflict, keeping the border with Sierra fortified and manned. On several occasions during the war the preemptive invasion of Sierra was proposed. However, the United Commonwealth also became preoccupied in putting down the 1956 Canadian Rebellions, which saw the Landonist governments of Quebec nearly toppled. Utilizing its massive ore and coal reserves the nation produced nearly 85% of the Allied force's steel, as well as mass producing tanks, aircraft and ships for the war effort. In the aftermath of the war the United Commonwealth was designated as a permanent member of the League of Nations Security Council.
Crawford would begin the country’s interest in space exploration, and in 1957 launched the second satellite into space in a challenge against CAS, initiating a Space Race in which the United Commonwealth became the first nation to land a man on the moon. During the Space Race the United Commonwealth undertook several educational reforms that promoted the sciences at the heart of early education. The Manhattan Island Exclusive Economic Zone was established in December 1949, establishing a capitalist mode of production allowed within the island for a period of 100 years, outside the framework of Continental law, economic statutes and cooperative codes. Under the leadership of Rupert Gardner, Manhattan was transformed into a highly successful enclave of the United Commonwealth, although this in turn led to criticism from the more staunch Landonists that Gardner and his supporters were betraying the country with anti-socialist reforms. Gardner also became at the forefront of the movement for greater democratization of the United Commonwealth.
New Left, Rupert Garner, Democratic Socialism (1957–1968)
The crisis imposed on the United Commonwealth during the final years of Great War II catalyzed rapid political reform within the country. The confused response of the Continentalist Party against the anti-Landonist revolts of the mid-century, such as the Dixiecrat Revolution and the Canadian Rebellion, led a number of prominent Marxist intellectuals to develop a more democratic approach to politics within the Continentalist Party, as they authoritarian character of the “Old Left” that lingered since the days of Seamus Callahan. Outside the Continentalist Party, a movement arose of young people in the aftermath of Great War II of people who felt disillusioned with the government and its Cold War policies. Together these groups would formulate the ideology of the New Left, which broadly advocated for democratization, civil and political rights, feminism, and drug policy reform, but also in part rejected the traditional involvement of the left with the labor movement or Marxism’s historical theory of class struggle. The wartime restrictions were seen as a reminder of what the country could return to, with censorship, mass arrests, mass surveillance, and centralized bureaucracy returning; the New Left organized in the aftermath of Great War II to ensure that no such thing would become permanent. The term “New Left” itself would be coined by C. Wright Mills in 1960 with his Letter to the New Left, which argued for a shift away from labor issues, the entrenched leadership, and the establishment of pragmatic establishment politics.
The period after Great War II saw the birth of the Democracy Movement within the country as an outcropping of the popular student-led movements in Continental universities. More broad in scope than their counterparts, the Democracy Movement called for the end of the country’s continued one-party rule by the Continentalist Party, and the creation of a fully democratic and representative republic in its place. However, various factions within the movement differed on the exact end goal, with some wanting a return to the pre-Landonist government entirely, and others advocating for increased democratization within the current system. In 1960 democratic protesters organized nationwide prior to the 1960 General Election, reportedly organizing some 100,000 people across multiple major cities. One of the most prominent voices in the movement, Paul Goodman advocated for a strike against the 1960 General Election, and published a number of letters proposing a change in the United Commonwealth government and the Continentalist Party.
The democratic demonstrations of 1960 were met with police crack down, leading to violence breaking out in several major Continental cities. However, realizing that the situation was untenable, the Central Committee made a number of small concessions, including reforms regarding central leadership and the appointment of the new President. Democratic activists called upon their supporters to take to the polls, so that the National Congress would be flooded with reform-minded representatives. Todd Gitlin would later call the 1960 general election “the first election for president since the revolution”. The election also saw a shift in national demographics, especially in the South. In the aftermath of the Dixiecrat Revolution and Crawford’s efforts to erode the separatist movement, the South became a bastion of conservative, authoritarian Landonist thought; the militant culture of the South and the hard fought revolutions to keep the South in check was thought to necessitate leaders who were anti-democratic and anti-reform in the name of keeping a tight hold on the region. Additionally the south also saw the rise of the formally-recognized Continentalist faction the Black Panthers, considered a political arm of the Black Guard that was explicitly Haywoodite, Maoist, militant, and self-deterministic.
In 1960 noted supporter of democratization, Rupert Gardner, was elected to the presidency of the United Commonwealth. Gardner would confirm the proposed limitations and separation of powers on the General Secretary, President, and Prime Minister. He would spend the first few years of his reign as president combatting the “Old Guard” within the Continentalist Party, which was unappreciative of democratic reforms or de-escalation of the Cold War, and they criticized Gardner extensively for his policies that seemingly “bowed to the West”. Conversely, while in office Gardner was often forced to appear tough on Sierran influence during the Cold War. Dedicated to the principles of democratic socialism, internationalism and global prosperity, Gardner created the Organization for Mutual Economic Assistance and Development (OMEAD) as a means to promote socialism and economic development, however, this policy was also criticized as an act of Continental imperialism. He also inherited the problem of the Vietnam War, authorizing Continental advisors, specialists, and special forces to Vietnam, along with an increase in material and financial aid to the North Vietnamese government.
Although Gardner sought a gradual de-escalation of tensions, the Vietnam War and numerous other wars of intervention sabotaged peace efforts between the United Commonwealth and Sierra, in what is often called the "Rocky Road" phase of the Cold War. During the 1960s the Labor Front under Gardner maintained a majority within the Central Congress and the National Committee, cultivating a political period which became known as the "Era of Good Toil" where the economic wellbeing of the nation was at its height. In 1966, the Conference of American States was established to build cooperation between states on the North American continent, but was tacitly an anti-Landonist organization. In 1967, the United Commonwealth applied to join the Conference but was denied entry, leading many within the Continental public to view the Conference as an aggressive alliance.
Gardner disbanded the National Board for Industrialization and Cooperation (NBIC) and the Commission for Financial Stability and Fair Practice (CFSFP). Collectives were no longer forced to abide by quotas established by the government and all war production was immediately slowed. The Pledge of Solidarity was reworded to show solidarity with the global socialist community and to enshrine the belief in worker emancipation. With the deregulation of the cooperative trusts and solidarity funds the consumer market exploded. Reduced military spending greatly reduced the tax burden placed on the general population, increasing disposable income. Productivity increased in various sectors of the economy, although the layoffs in the military and the heavy industrial sectors lead to unemployment. Gardner was hesitant to describe the laid off workers as 'unemployed' believing that unemployment was a capitalist reserve army of labor and was quickly condemned by the Revolutionary Front. Gardner remained defiant in his belief that the economy would restructure to allow for these workers to reenter into the labor market. Unemployment figures reached nearly 9.3% in March of 1962 leading many within the government to question the economic policy of the Gardner administration, although by August unemployment had decreased to 4.3% and the economy was producing more consumer goods than anytime in Continental history.
Stemming from the deregulation of commercial industry, consumption increased dramatically during his initial term. Gardner heralded the introduction of the automatic transmission to civilian vehicles in Boston. Throughout the 1960s, Continental Motors produced some of the most sophisticated commercial motor vehicles in the world. Deregulation in the alcohol and tobacco industry allowed for all citizens above the age of 18 to consume these products on cooperative or private property, reigniting the bar and club scene in major cities across the country. Gardner began to experiment with the relaxing of restrictions in censorship in what became known as the “Gardner Thaw”. Music and entertainment became less regulated, allowing for new artistic expression not seen since before the reign of Seamus Callahan. Although Gardner's policies yielded greater autonomy for Continental composers and musicians, the state's involvement in the production of music was not ended. Almost all recorded music during this era was filtered through the Musician's Guild, which rarely allowed the publication of musicians deemed unorthodox or unpatriotic. However, under Gardner the first foreign musicians would be allowed to tour in the United Commonwealth, beginning with The Landing in 1961. Gardner launched the "Continentalist Democratic Tour" in February of 1961 to advocate for the principles of democratic socialism across the countryside, seeking to increase citizen's participation in rural local and party functions. Gardner enshrined public consultation into the Constitution of the Party, and that encouraged citizens to utilize a heckler's veto in situations where councils were betraying the principles of Landonism.
Gardner sought to promote urbanism and undo the negative aspects of car culture in the country, with mandates that promoted public transportation in all cities over a certain size, the reduction of mandatory parking, and the creation of denser neighborhoods to promote walking and ease of access. Migration into major cities dramatically increased, with suburbanization being curtailed by the creation of the Urban Development and Planning Commission (UDPC). Free cooperatives were prioritized during the construction of new urban developments, and the production of final goods and the services industry grew dramatically. As part of his urbanization plan, he created the Harmonious Society, which sought to provide every Continental civilian a newly furnished home with relative access to all animates. Large government apartment complexes were created across the nation, in the heart of cities with new hospitals, parks and schools being built, with the promise that every Continental citizen would have access to individual bedrooms for every family member. The Commissariat of Housing and Urban Development (CHUD) was established to handle the projects and at one point was in charge of nearly $898 billion dollars worth of property in 1977. Worker productivity and automation had increased significantly throughout the 70s which allowed for many cooperatives to introduce a four-day workweek. Participation in community activities was at its height, with many workers engaged weekly with their cooperatives and unions.
Another lasting impact of the 1960s would be Gardner’s push for full civil rights and desegregation of all citizens of the nation. A series of laws and court decisions would ban racial discrimination laws, school segregation, bans on interracial marriage, and unfair housing practices. Gardner was also supportive of cooperation between members of both sides of the Iron Curtain in Europe, and advocated for non-intervention in internal affairs and respect for human rights, in what later became known as the Helsinki Accords. On 25 October 1968 Rupert Gardner would be assassinated by a white supramcist while on a trip to Miami. This act, and many other acts of violence at the end of the decade, are thought to signify the end of the Era of Good Toil and the general feeling of positivity in 1960s politics.
Era of Stagnation, Neoconservatism (1968–1983)
The 1960s saw the relaxing of restrictions under Rupert Gardner, during which time democratization was slowly implemented and the civil rights movement and Harmonious Society programs reach a climax, however, by the end of the decade this progressiveness came to a halt after the recapture of government by conservative forces, an economic downturn, and shifting attitudes from the public. Collectively the next decade and a half would become known as the Era of Stagnation, characterized by the nation’s gerontocratic and unresponsive leadership. Gardner had never achieved a full embrace by the Continentalist Party during his lifetime; he failed to ever be elected to the position of General Secretary and operated on a popular mandate rather than at the head of the party’s leadership. Under General Secretary Gerard B. Truman, the party maintained a hands-off approach to Gardner’s presidency, but nonetheless Gardner was forced to contend with the political elite at every turn to implement reforms. After Truman’s death in 1966, he was succeeded by Charles Acker, a member of the party’s “Old Guard”, and a skeptic of Gardner, if not outright opponent.
1968 would prove the bloodiest year in the democratization movement thus far and signaled the beginning of harsh government crackdowns, collectively known as the Protests of 1968. Opposition to the Vietnam War and other wars of intervention reached an all time high, wildcat strikes broke out, and opposition to authoritarianism intensified. After the assassination of Gardner and civil rights leaders like Martin Luther King Jr., another series of protests broke out in the leadup to the 1968 elections which were particularly violent. Abroad, the United Commonwealth mobilized military force to crush an anti-Landonist rebellion in Quebec. A large-scale occupation began and personal freedoms in the satellite states were greatly curtailed. Despite government censorship, many scenes of warfare, atrocities, and government crackdowns reached television coverage or international news, galvanizing the population. It was in this political climate that Acker personally assumed control over the leadership of the nation; the power of the presidency and democratic reforms were curtailed for the next decade, and party officials retook control over the nation.
Under Acker the nation’s focus remained toward heavy industry and the arms industry, while consumer goods were deprioritized. Many progressive reforms such as universal health care, welfare spending, and environmentalism remained, but further expansion of these programs was halted, censorship was reintroduced, and the Vietnam War was escalated despite public backlash. The Era of Stagnation would also be characterized by the public’s growing distrust in government, as a number of public scandals would erode opinion toward upper leadership. Acker further emboldened “neoconservatives”, a growing movement in reaction to the New Left. Broadly this group promoted “Peace through Strength” and interventionism, found the counterculture of the 1960s alienating, found the influence of the Black Panthers and other civil rights groups as alarming, and denounced progressives as destabilizing radicals.
The dramatic increase in spending both on domestic policies and on the war in Vietnam resulted in an expansion of the money supply, resting largely on government deficits, which pushed prices rapidly upward. At the same time the nation experienced waning dominance in global economic, commercial, technological, and cultural affairs after Great War II. Increased competition for scarce raw commodities and increased prices being demanded by Third World suppliers would ultimately lead to increased inflation. The cost of energy and consumer goods in the United Commonwealth increased dramatically after 1969 as a result. The boundless optimism and belief in progress that characterized the previous decade gave rise to increased cynicism and distrust among the Continental population, spurred on by the growing knowledge of industry’s negative effects on the environment and health. For the first time the 1970s saw the rise of “stagflation”, or the existence of a high inflation rate, slow economic growth, and high unemployment, making any economic reform to combat all three problems incredibly difficult.
Poverty and crime increased in urban centers in the coming decade, with drugs becoming a lucrative industry in the inner-city, supported by armed gangs, foreign cartels, and extensive traffickers. This era saw the rise of numerous neoconservative leaders who advocated for tough punishments for crime and “Law and Order”, which became welcomed by the public. A nationwide “war” regarding drug prohibition began, which cracked down on drug use, trafficking, possession, and distribution, but also gave the government a blank cheque in squashing political dissidence and opposition. The country also experienced blackouts and periods of instability from the 1973 Oil Crisis, in which the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) raised prices and issued embargoes, which crippled the United Commonwealth’s economy.
Under mounting public pressure, the latter half of the 1970s saw the United Commonwealth under Hugh Qualter renew a deescalation of tensions with the rest of the world. The Vietnam War came to a close in 1975, and the United Commonwealth and Sierra negotiated a treaty limiting the number of ballistic missiles each held in 1976. The success of the Manhattan Island Exclusive Economic Zone led to the country relaxing economic restrictions, denationalizing several industries, and decollectivizing select regions. The rising cost of industry in the United Commonwealth led to a series of accords with allied nations such as China and Vietnam, which saw the outsourcing of manufacturing jobs in certain sectors to these nations under the guise of lowering costs and developing a “global landonist community”, where goods were produced more effectively on a global scale rather than a national scale. This would become a driving factor of Continental politics until the start of the 1990s and the era of tariffs and East Asian asset price bubble. In 1978 the Moral Pollution Campaign was launched which took aim at advocates of democratization on the grounds that it was a foreign, bourgeois liberalization.
In 1979 widespread student-led protests broke out across the nation. The reforms of the 1970s had promoted a fledgling market economy that led to corruption, a lack of accountability, income inequality, and economic downturn, while political participation was at a new low, and restrictions continued against free speech and freedom of the press. The largest such protest broke out in Manhattan, where a majority of the city’s inhabitants called for free and open elections, prompting both conciliatory and hardline tactics from the country’s government. Finally in September the government ordered a forceful crackdown on protests in the city, in what has become known as the Time Square Massacre, resulting in the deaths of several hundred people. Although the protests were suppressed, the government feared further escalation and made numerous concessions to the protestors. As a result, the 1980 Election saw widespread support for democratic socialism, a separation of powers between the party and the government, and widespread political reform. In 1982 a new constitution would be created which laid out a number of new changes to democratize the nation’s legislative process, and the following year Qualter voluntarily ceded power to newly elected president Simon Valure.
Topography, terrain, and hydrology
The United Commonwealth covers a total area of 3,743,287 square miles (9,695,070 km2) and ranks as the third-largest nation (behind that of the China). The highest elevation in the United Commonwealth is Mount Washington, located in the Northeast Union, at at 6,288.2 feet (1,916.6 m) above sea level. The lowest point in the United Commonwealth is the City of New Orleans at -8 feet (-2 meters) below sea level. Major highland regions include the north to south Appalachian Mountains and the Ozarks (considered a plateau). The United Commonwealth encompasses a majority of the Great Lakes Waterway, the entirety of the Saint Lawrence River and the entire portion of the Mississippi River from the confluence of the Ohio River and Upper Mississippi River to the Mississippi River Delta.
Topographically, the United Commonwealth is divided into six physiographic regions; the Atlantic Plain, Appalachian Highlands, Interior Plains, Great Lakes–St. Lawrence Lowlands, Canadian Shield and the Interior Highlands. It is further subdivided into twelve physiographic provinces; the Atlantic Coastal Plain, Piedmont, Blue Ridge, Valley and Ridge, St. Lawrence Valley, Appalachian Plateaus, New England Province, Adirondack, Interior Low Plateaus, Great Plains, Ozark Plateaus and the Ouachita Province.
From the Atlantic Ocean the land transitions in elevation, from sea level, to the Piedmont, the Appalachian Mountains and then finally into the grasslands and plains of the Mississippi River Basin, Great Lakes Basin and the Hudson Bay Basin. Within the interior of the country a large series of navigable rivers dot the landscape. Besides the Ohio, Saint Lawrence and Mississippi Rivers, several smaller navigable rivers are present; the Illinois Waterway, Tennessee River, Kennebec River, Hudson River, Apalachicola River and several others.
Mount Washington, the highest peak and most topographically prominent mountain in the United Commonwealth
View of the Great Lakes from space during early spring
Lake located in Gaspé Peninsula, Quebec
Swamp in the Atchafalaya Basin, Louisiana
Farms and windmills in Illinois, common scene across the corn belt
View of the largest harbor in the United Commonwealth, New York Harbor
Scenery in the Ozark Mountains
Niagara Falls between Ontario and the Congregationalist States
In the United Commonwealth there are in total eleven climate regions according to the Köppen climate classification and five according to the Trewartha climate classification. It is one of few nations to have both a polar climate and a tropics climate, with the lowest recorded temperature in Quebec at -66 °F (-54.4 °C) and the highest recorded temperature in Arkansas recorded at 120 °F (49 °C). Seasonal weather in the United Commonwealth has a great deal of variation and unpredictability. Within the interior of the country tornadoes form between the months of March and June. Along the Gulf Coast and Atlantic Coast the United Commonwealth experiences seasonal Atlantic hurricanes which commonly occur between June 1 and November 20.
In the northern regions of Quebec, the United Commonwealth has an artic climate (ET) with very cold winters and short much cooler summers. Currents from the Artic Ocean and the Labrador Current create conditions for this extremely cold weather. Kuujjuaq, the largest Inuit community in the Autonomous Republic of Nunavik, experiences a subartic climate (Dfc) with a an average high of 30.6 °F (−0.8 °C) and a average low of 14.2 °F (−9.9 °C). In June, Hudson Bay thaws, resulting in mild maritime air from the cold water moderating westerlies. In the interior of the the Canadian Shield the summers are slightly warmer, with mean highs reaching 36.0°F (2.2 °C) and average lows at 17.8 °F (-7.9 °C)
Portions of Ontario, the Congregationalist States, Michigan, the Maritime Republic and the southern half of Quebec are designated as being a part of the humid continental climate (Dfb) classification. During the warmer months these regions average temperatures below 72 °F (22 °C) with summer highs averaging between 70–82 °F (21–28 °C). Cities in this climate include Halifax, Quebec City and Portland, which experience often prolonged winters, and warm, relatively short summers. The Congregationalist States and Maritime Republic are also susceptible to nor'easters during the winter, where high winds and snowfall totals often measure over a foot. Annual precipitation varies, but averages 47.2 inches (1,200 mm) and is plentiful year-round but with a slightly drier summer.
Portions of the nation's breadbasketand a majority of population and industry are located in the hot summer subtype (Dfa) of the humid continental climate. Republics in this region experience cold winters and hot wet summers. Temperatures average at least 71.6 °F (22 °C) in its warmest month, with August and July being the warmest months. Temperature highs during these months tend to be in the high 80s or low 90s °F. Average temperatures during January are near or well below freezing and frost period normally last 4–5 months within this region. In this transitionary zone the growing season spans approximately 155 to 160 days and lasts between the months of early May continuing until mid or late September. Snowfall is common as is heavy precipitation during Spring. Major urban areas in this climate region includes Chicago.
In the southern portion of the Commonwealth the majority of republics are located in climates classified as humid subtropical (also known as warm temperate). Summers are typically long, hot and humid. Monthly mean summer temperatures are normally betweem 81 °F and 24 and 27 °C (24 and 27 °C). Between July and August high temperatures are typically in the high 80s or 90s °F (20s to mid-30s °C). Daytime highs in winter normally are in the 50 to 61 °F (10 to 16 °C) range, while overnight lows are from 36 to 45 °F (2 to 7 °C). Republics in this climate region are major crop producers in due part to the long the growing season which lasts between 180 to 196 days a year. Snowfall varies greatly in the southern region, with cities such as Orlando, Tampa, Houston and New Orleans rarely seeing snowfall. At the northernmost limits of the climate zone, cities such as Philadelphia, New York City and Indianapolis typically see snowfall during the winter. Precipitation is plentiful, with the northern portions experiencing higher precipitation in the summer while the southern portion experiencing higher precipitation during the winter.
Classifications seen in the United Commonwealth include oceanic (Cfb) and tropical monsson climate (Am). These classifications are designated on a relatively small portion of the country. Oceanic climates are present in Appalachia, Cape Cod, Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket, which experience mild summers and cool but not cold winters. Southern Florida and more specifically the city of Miami experiences high winter temperatures, lasting from December to March, range from 76.4–80.3 °F (24.7–26.8 °C). January is the coolest month with an average daily temperature of 68.2 °F (20.1 °C). The wet season in southern Florida usually begins during the month of May and continues through mid-October. During this period, temperatures range between the mid 80s to low 90s (29–35 °C).
Wildlife and conservation
The United Commonwealth Census reported 250,760,091 residents as of April 1, 2020. According to the U.C.C.S Population Clock, on January 21st, 2021 the U.C population had a net gain of one person every 100 seconds, or about 864 people per day. The United Commonwealth is the third most populous nation in the world, after China and India. In 2020 the median age of the United Commonwealth was 34.3 years.
In 2018, there was almost 65 million immigrants and children of immigrants within the United Commonwealth, accounting for 26% of the national population. The United Commonwealth has a diverse population; 26 ancestry groups have more than a million members. White Americans of European ancestry, mostly German, Italian, English, Irish, Polish and French from the largest racial group at 64.8% of the population. African-Continental's constitute the largest racial minority, comprising 19.3% of the population. Asian-Continentals comprise the second largest racial minority (the three largest Asian ethnic groups are Chinese, Korean and Indian).
In 2019, out of the U.C foreign-born population, 68% were naturalized citizens, 10% were lawful permanent residents and the remainder were lawful permanent residents. Among current living immigrants to the United Commonwealth, the top five countries of birth are China, India, Ukraine, Syria and Egypt. The United Commonwealth has led the world in refugee resettlement since the 1970s, and in the 1980s and 1990s admitted more refugees than the rest of the world combined.
Approximately 85% of Continentals live within urban areas, including suburbs; about a half reside within cities with a population of 75,000. In 2011, 209 incorporated municipalities had populations over 100,000. New York City with 8,804,190 citizens is the largest city in Anglo-America. Chicago, the United Commonwealth's capitol has 3,120,983 citizens, and is the third largest city in Anglo-America. Philadelphia, Columbus and Indianapolis are the only other cities within the country with over a million residents. Many U.C metropolitan areas in the Northern United Commonwealth experienced depopulation during the 1980s and 1990s, with many relocating to the South and to Brazoria. Brazoria has the largest overseas Continental population.
As of 2019, 64% of American age 18 and over were married, 11% were widowed, 7% were divorced and 18% had never been married. As of 2021, the total fertility rate stood at 1.78 children per women. In 2015, the average age at first birth was 24, and 11% of births were to unmarried women. In 2019 the U.C had one of the lowest rates (11%) of children living with a single parent; the rates in Sierra and Japan were 14% and 7% respectively.
Freedom of religion is guaranteed by the Constitution's 12th Article but does not include the free exercise, as certain polities of religion are prohibited. Episcopal polities and all denominations that require an oath or creed to religious organizations are forbidden. Religious institutions or groups that promote the destruction of the state, socialism, or the party's control are prohibited from being organized. All religious institutions must be organized through a congregationalist polity.
The United Commonwealth has the world's second largest Christian population. During the 2020 Census, 58.9% of the population self identified as Christians; of these, Protestants accounted for 47.5%, of which 74.5% claimed to belong to a nondenominational church, and 16.9% of the population identified as Independent Catholics. Another 3.2% of the U.C adult population claimed a non-Christian religion. These included Judaism (2.4%), Islam (0.6%), Hinduism (0.1%) and Buddhism (0.1%). 37.1% of the Continental population reported in 2020 as self identifying as agnostic, athiest, nonreligious or as spiritual but not religious. During a 2017 survey, 89% of the respondents claimed they believed in a 'higher power'. Church attendance fell from 75% in 1996 to 47% in 2020 with much of the decline related to the number of Continentals who expressed no religious preference.
The Constitution establishes the United Commonwealth as a multinational state, with every ethnic group and nationality being provided protections. It is a racially and ethnically diverse nation. In the most recent Continental Census, there are six official "peoples" categories (European-Continental, African-Continental, Indigenous-Continental, Asian-Continental, Biracial-Continentals and Pacific Islander-Continental).
As of 2020, European-Continental's make of the majority group, representing 64.8% of the people. African-Continentals, a designation that includes both descendants of slavery and the African and Caribbean diaspora, make up the the largest minority group with 19.3% of the population.
In 1926, the Continental Census eliminated usage of the words "race" and "ethnicity", and has since instead categorized regions of the world into a single "peoples". The two eliminated terms were abolished within the government and the party as an attempted to destroy the connotations of a racial hierarchy within the nation.
Although all groups are provided equal protection under the law, efforts have been made to provide reparations to the various indigenous groups and black descendants of slavery throughout the nation. Through border delamination six Continental Republics were created where only one recognized group may hold governmental power and must make up the majority of the workforce within any given cooperative. These Continental Republics include Alabama, Mississippi, Georgia, Quebec, Acadiana, Chickasaw Republic, Cherokee Republic and the Muscogee Republic.
The Commissariat for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported that the United Commonwealth had an average life expectancy at birth of 81.4 years in 2020, up 0.2 year from 2019. Since the 1990s the Continental life expectancy has risen. Suicide is major national public health issue, which has improved since 1994, when the suicide rate hovered at 18.3 per 100,000. Opioid distribution is highly regulated and citizens dying from druge overdoses is relatively low. Life expectancy, as of 2020, is highest among non-Hispanic whites and Asians, and lowest among blacks.
Since the 1980s the obesity rate has declined significantly from a high of 27% to the current rate of 8%. Obesity rates have dropped in comparison to other industrialized nations after a series of health reforms were untaken in 1989. Childhood obesity is regarded as a form of child abuse. Harmful risk factors that have plagued the Continental healthcare system have historically included poor diet, tobacco smoking, obesity, high blood pressure and high blood sugar. All these metrics have improved since the healthcare reforms as mentioned prior. Birth control is free and easily accessible to all women of all ages. Teenage pregnancy and abortion rates are some of the lowest in the western hemisphere.
Citizens within the United Commonwealth have access to a universal healthcare safety net through a national health insurance scheme. The Commissariat of Health and Welfare is the national department responsible for the operation and administration of healthcare services within the country. Primary care is available in nearly every county across the county, while facilities for acute care and tertiary care are based out of medium to large sized cities. Prescription drugs and intensive procedures are covered under the national health insurance program. Healthcare providers within the United Commonwealth utilize an electronic health record system accessible through a closed platform.
Universal access to education is guaranteed within the constitution and ensures every citizen access to pre-kindergarten, primary school (1st through 8th grade) and secondary education (9th to 12th grade). Natasha Rosenberger, in 1921, became the first Secretary for Commissariat of Education for the Continentalist States. During the 1920s Continental authorities allocated a significant amount of resources to eliminating illiteracy across the country. Substantial efforts were taken in the South to increase literacy rates, while also pushing political education. Across the country, normal schools were nationalized and teachers were forced to undergo training in political education. In 1928, the Continental States National Normal School was established by the Continentalist Party as the training center for all education administrators. All educators were required by law in 1929 to be members of the Continentalist Party.
Beginning in the 1930s, social mobility increased dramatically as students were being admitted to university based on merit. University enrollment increased dramatically after the Great War, leading to the national government to intervene. University admissions were placed under the authority of the government in 1938 and entrance exams became increasingly difficult. The physical sciences, specifically engineering and mathematics, were placed at the forefront of education in 1949.
Education is compulsory and parents are forbidden from discontinuing a child's education. Entrance examinations are required to enter into university, which are considered highly selective. Union sponsored vocational school are accessible through independent entrance examinations, all of which have various standards and requirements. Rural and urban schools are provided through a base national taxation, Additional funding is provided through grants from the national and republic governments. Underperforming schools are provided grants while also undergoing audits and reorganization. Educators are required by the government to teach for 2 years at an underperforming school if selected.
Government and politics
is a federal one-party socialist republic, characterized by the superior role of landonist-continentalism and the Continentalist Party of the United Commonwealth (CPUC)—constitutionally enshrined as the “leading force of society and of the state”. State power within the United Commonwealth is exercised through the CPUC, the National Congress, and the Presidium of the United Commonwealth. The General Secretary of the Continentalist Party and/or the President of the United Commonwealth often serves as the Paramount Leader of the country. The Constitution establishes the United Commonwealth as a "fraternal union of Continentalist States bound in one supreme United Commonwealth", granting all powers to the working class which operates through democratic institutions to bring about a socialist society as prescribed by Landonism.
The United Commonwealth has been a single party since the conclusion of the Continental Revolutionary War. Prescribed by the Constitution it is necessary for all elected officials to swear allegiance to the ideology of the state and part. Political scientists characterize the political system of the United Commonwealth as authoritarian and non-democratic. Political opposition is suppressed by the ruling Continentalist Party, religious activity is also controlled, and civil rights are curtailed.
The National Congress is the supreme organ of power in accordance with Article 8 of the 1924 Continental Constitution, and functions as the highest state authority and the state’s legislative branch. The 1982 Continental Constitution empowers the National Congress with the ability to deal with all matters within the jurisdiction of the United Commonwealth; its vote is required in the admission of new republics, the creation of new autonomous republics and autonomous regions, the approval of five-year federal budgets for social and economic development, and the creation of new government departments. The law of the United Commonwealth is enacted by the National Congress or by popular referendum. The Presidium of the National Congress, or the offices of the president, is a body of state power elected by a joint session of both houses of the National Congress to act on its behalf. As established by the 1982 Continental Constitution, the Presidium of the National Congress serves as the collective head of state of the United Commonwealth. In all its activities, the Presidium is considered accountable to the National Congress.
The executive branch of the United Commonwealth is known as the Council of Ministers, sometimes nicknamed the Cabinet. According to the 1924 Continental Constitution, the executive branch was headed by the Council of the People’s Commissars, however, after the death of Seamus Callahan in 1947 this body was dissolved and eventually was replaced by the Council of Ministers. The 1982 Continental Constitution made the Council of Ministers the formal executive branch and head of government of the United Commonwealth. The Council of Ministers consists of a chairman, also known as the Premier of the United Commonwealth, a deputy chairman, and anywhere from 11 to 25 ministers, who are each tasked with heading a department of the executive branch. The Premier is tasked with overseeing the running of the government and enforcement of the National Congress’ laws; the Premier is tasked with nominating to the National Congress heads of various departments. Before the first session of the newly elected National Congress the Council of Ministers lays down its powers.
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Supreme authority within the Continentalist Party is granted to the National Committee which is composed of 600 delegates from various cities, counties and influential locales. The National Committee selects every four years the Central Committee which acts as the expedient decision making body within the political apparatus of the country.
The Secretariat, the Chairman of the Continentalist Party, and the Central Commissioner of the Continentalist Party are guaranteed positions on the Central Committee. Within the last thirty years it has become more common within the party to delegate all these positions to the Secretariat, allowing for more lower level local party leaders to ascend to the Central Committee. After Great War II the pendulum of power slowly began to shift towards the National Committee who insisted on diversifying the Central Committee and providing the Secretariat with the additional posts of the Party Chairmen and Central Commissioner. This marked a shift within the party's adherence to democratic centralism which has lead to the National Committee to become more fractured in the late 20th century and the early 21st century.
The Continentalist Party has maintained political and economic dominance within the country through its appointments system and required membership to access public sector jobs and services. Although considered a merit system it requires those seeking positions within any level of the government to belong to the party, along with their children and spouses to be registered as Continentalists. All 1.6 million teachers, 300,000 postal workers and the 2 million members of the active and reserve component of the Armed Forces of the Continental States belong to the Continentalist Party. Some 30 million children within state schools are required to be enrolled within the youth wing of the governing political party known as the Continentalist Youth of America (ages 12-18) and the Young Mountaineers (5-12).
Although the Continentalist Party exerts nearly complete control over the economic and political control over both state and union bureaucracy, the various factions of the party participate in competitive politics among themselves. The various factions are dictated by law to belong to the Registered Sections of the Continentalist Party, pledging loyalty and fidelity to the ideas of Landonism and to openly support the Central Committee in their actions and decisions. This pledge does not include the National Committee or various local committees allowing for members to openly criticize one another in the public sphere. There are currently 4 registered sections, with the largest being the The Labor Front of the Continentalist Party. The Revolutionary Front of the Continentalist Party hold nearly a quarter of the delegations to the National Committee. The most recent addition to the registered section and smallest faction is the Stewards Caucus of the Continentalist Party.
The Continental States has an extensive foreign relations policy objective that seeks to build and establish social democracies through Landonist polices and Continentalist inspired republics. Within the Conference of American States and NATO, it is considered an ideologically aggressive state with a conviction on par with that of the former derzhavist states of Russia and France. Nearly every country has established embassies within Chicago, with many maintaining consulates in Miami and Louisville. Nearly all nations host Continental diplomatic missions with the exception of Saudi Arabia and Bhutan. It maintains close relations with other states on the North American continent, albeit these relations are built upon a long process that has sought to establish peace among the Continental States and members of the Conference of American States. It is a member of the League of Nations, the G7, the G20, the Association of Caribbean States (OECS) and the Organization of American States (OAS). It is an observer of the Bolivarian Alliance for the Americas (ALBA), the Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) and the World Trade Organization.
The Continental States is one of the founding signatories to the Chattanooga Pact, the military cooperative component of the aligning members of the Organization of Mutual Economic Assistance and Development (OMEAD). Members of OMEAD and the Chattanooga Pact include Mexico, Nicaragua, the Union of Burma, Eritrea, Indonesia, Venezuela, Algeria, Guyana, Nepal, Tanzania, Barbados, Ecuador, Ethiopia and North Vietnam. It also belongs to the Continental Organization of North America States (CONAS), a collective defense pact with the Continental Republic of Tournesol.
While the United Commonwealth maintains mostly amicable relations with the nations of the European Community, since early 2016 it has distanced itself from the continent after the Continental States underwent pressure to take in refugees during the migrant crisis of 2015. With the elections of mostly centre-right governments throughout most of Europe, the Continentalist Party began to withdraw support from many of the socialist parties. It was supportive of the establishment of Poland-Lithuania as a free and independent republic although the two countries have since drifted in regards to cooperation. In Asia, the Continental States maintains close relations with North Vietnam, Burma and Cambodia.
In the Americas, diplomatic relations are typically seen from a unionist perspective, where the Continental States maintains de jure that the United Commonwealth was the rightful successor to the United States of America. The Continental States advocates and to establish the North American continent as a federation of Continental republics with Landonism as its central guiding ideology, a stance that has lead to its indefinite exclusion from the Conference of American States. Since the ascension of the Continentalist Party, the government of the Continental States has supported efforts to either politically or militarily install Landonist governments within Canada and Brazoria. It maintains close relations with many Central American states and left leaning republics in South America. Since the 1980s the United Provinces has held a combative stance towards the Continental States after a failed Landonist coup in 1979.
Since the end of the Cold War, the Continentalist States has attempted to mediate global conflicts through diplomatic resolutions and economic incentives. Its relations with Sierra continued to deteriorate throughout the 90s and the 21st century as the neoconservative movement within the country began to heavily favor interventionist policies. While the two nations had historically been at odds, relations improved significantly during and after Great War I, since the fall of communism relations have since returned to being tense. After the 1993 Gulf War, the Continental government began efforts to empower the the Ba'athist regimes throughout the region in order to deter Iranian, Saudi and Pacific aggression. It denounced Sierra during the 2004 invasion of Syria and its involvement in Iraq.
The Continental Armed Forces are subject to civilian control exercised by the Secretariat through the Commissioner (CCP). The Commissioner also serves as the Secretary of the Central Military Commission (CMCUC) which acts as a the formal parallel organization in the government. There are 3 components of the active military force, the Continental Army (CAUC), the Continental Navy (CNUC) and the Continental Air Force (CAFUC). The Continental Revolutionary Guard (CRG) is the reserve component of the armed forces and is under direct control by the Central Committee.
According to the Constitution, the Central Congress of the United Commonwealth is required to maintain the nation's military expenditure below 2.5% during times of peace and below 3.2% during times of heightened tensions. Currently the military budget stands at Ȼ364.3 billion dollars, ranking as the second largest military budget in the world (behind Sierra's $391.985 billion dollar budget and above China's $177.9 billion). Comprised of 719,000 active duty service members and 1,281,000 reserve members it is the world's 4th largest military.
The United Commonwealth is one of the seven recognized nuclear powers, processing a three-pronged military force known as a nuclear triad. It has maintained a no first use policy since 1959 and is a signatory of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Engaged in affairs across the world, the Armed Forces of the United Commonwealth are engaged in global disaster relief, economic construction, peacebuilding, peacemaking and peace enforcement. Since the conclusion of the Second Great War the United Commonwealth has maintained a series of military assets across the world.
|Nominal GDP||Ȼ$13.8 trillion (Q4 2019)|
|Real GDP growth||2.2% (December 2019)|
|CPI inflation||2.5% (December 2019)|
|Employment-to-population ratio||65% (April 2018)|
|Unemployment||4.3% (December 2019)|
|Labor force participation rate||76% (December 2019)|
|Total public debt||$10.5 trillion (74.1% of GDP) (Q4 2019)|
|Household net worth||$8.355 trillion (Q4 2017)|
The United Commonwealth has the world's second-largest economy in terms of nominal GDP, totaling approximately Ȼ$13.8 trillion dollars as of 2019. In terms of purchasing power parity (PPP GDP), the United Commonwealth ranks second behind China. From 1975 to 2008, the Continental compounded annual GDP growth was 2.8%, compared to the 3.2% weighted average for North American nations belonging to the Conference of American States. The nation ranks fifteenth in the world in nominal GDP per capita, with citizens making an average of Ȼ$55,000 and twelfth in the world in GDP per capita at PPP. The Continental Dollar is the reserve currency throughout the Organization of Mutual Economic Assistance and Development, which encompasses fifteen nations.
The Continental States is the world's second-largest exporter and third-largest importer of goods. Its major trading partners include Canada, Sierra, Brazoria. Throughout the 2010s, petroleum was the most imported commodity, while foodstuff and transportation equipment made up the country's largest export. Because of the political nature of the country and the demand by workers for self-management, multinational corporations either avoid employing Continental labor or enter the market because of its production efficiency.
In 2019, the private sector was estimated to constitute 87.5% of the economy, with the central government and its commissariats accounting for 5.5% and local government accounting for the remaining 7%. Considered a postindustrial economy with the service sector constituting 63% of the GDP, the Continental States still remains an industrial power, producing a large portion of the worlds steel, automobiles, ships and electronics. The United Commonwealth is the world's top producer of corn, soybeans, wheat and third largest producer of cotton.
Consumer spending is considered low within the United Commonwealth compared to other Western nations although it made up nearly 59% of the Continental economy. In 2019, the Continental labor force consisted of 149.1 million people. 89% of the workforce is unionized, compared to 30% in the European Union, and 24% in the Pacific States and 9% in Brazoria. During the 2008 Recession, the Continental economy lost two million manufacturing jobs. Only 1.2 million of those manufacturing jobs returned by 2018, although the industrial sector grew exponentially with the government's sponsorship of automation replacing a majority of the mechanical tasks. The Continental States ranks behind Korea and Singapore in industrial robots per capita, for every ten thousand workers there are 486 autonomous machines. These machines are controlled by Continental Electric, a state-owned enterprise, which provides nearly all of its profits to the benefit of the state and pensioners of the labor unions.
Depending on the worker-cooperative and labor union, the minimum annual leave with pay varies, although the average ranges between 16-20 days. All workers outside the realm of emergency services are guaranteed paid leave on five days out of the years. Paid family leave is a near universal right among the worker-cooperatives and women who belong to a a family initiated into the Registry of Valiant Labor are granted a stipend for their childbearing from the central government. The Labor Registry is considered the highest honor among the working-class and has been a source for the nation's high workforce productivity, to which the United Commonwealth ranks 4th in the world, behind Sierra, Luxembourg and Norway. Continental workers rank sixth in productivity per hour, behind Brazoria and the Netherlands. Workers in the United Commonwealth are documented as to having the highest rates of job satisfaction, with job control and positive work atmospheres being the main contributors. This has generated a healthy work–life balance with many Continentals working an eight-hour day. This eight-hour work day is not based on a hourly wage, which the Continentalist Party considers a form of wage slavery, it is instead based on a formula of salaried wage and dividends from workplace profits.
Utilizing a mixed-economy, the specific model practiced within the United Commonwealth is characterized as a form of syndicalism paired with a market socialist economy that holds an ideological alignment to the principles of Landonist economic theory. Nearly 85% of all industries within the United Commonwealth are categorized as being managed by labor, where workers belong to their respective labor unions and participate in the direction of their respected industries. This dispersed social ownership has built a competitive market, where worker-collectives and labor unions seek to produce higher quality goods at an effective rate. Although the Continental government has pushed for the transition from a for-profit system to a production for use system, the various worker collectives have overwhelming continued to practice production models that place profiteering at the heart of production. Continental economists state that this model of profiteering is necessary in a globalized system of capitalism.
Science and technology
The United Commonwealth throughout the 20th and 21st centuries has been a technological leader in innovation and exploration. It pioneer the methods of interchangeable parts as a means to develop streamlined production lines, establishing the nation at the heart of the machine tool industry. Sophisticated assembly lines were deemed to be essentially in generating the amount of surplus necessary to propel the ideological principle of freedom of want. Continental factories were among the first factories to be electrified, spearheading the development of mass production that has generated a relative amount of excess goods. This production scheme has contributed to the United Commonwealth's trade surplus, exporting an array of high quality goods to the world.
American inventors such as Alexander Graham Bell, Henry Ford and Thomas Edison spurred the development of many modern technological innovations. In 1922, the Continental Telephone and Telegraph Cooperative (CT&T) was established through the government acquisition of Bell's corporation. After the acquisition, it was distributed among its various workers and turned into its modern identity seen today. Initially condemned by Alexander Bell, the productivity of his formerly employed scientists excelled in innovation, these criticism subsided prior to his death. Workers belonging to the Ford Motor Company, after collectivizing their workplace maintained Henry Ford's status as the cooperative's leader after settlements were made between management and labor. This agreement ended in 1925 after the company's division for innovation and production saw his position as redundant. Since then, the various artists and engineers who have shaped the course of the automobile have been recognized as the true developers of the Continental automobile. Edison's General Electric in 1923 was transformed into Continental Electric, one of the largest industrial cooperatives in the United Commonwealth. The company has been central to developing some of the worlds most durable incandescent light bulbs and was responsible for the development of the transistor in the 1950s which pushed the nation to the forefront of the global electronics market.
The United Commonwealth has been a leader in nuclear technology and operates the worlds largest array of nuclear facilities in the world. In 1942 developed the worlds first world's first artificial nuclear reactor, known as Chicago Pile-1. Responsible for the majority of exported nuclear reactors, studies conducted by the International Atomic Energy Agency claim that these reactors around the worlds have reduced carbon emissions by 4,293 million metric tons each year. Recent developments in the field of nuclear technology, include the world's first sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor. Scientists at Purdue University have recently constructed the Continental Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, a tokamak nuclear fusion reactor that is set to be fully operational by 2032. Chicago is the world capital for nuclear medicine and was the origin site for medical radiography, spawning the medical community's utilization of radioactive tracers and radiation therapy. It is the largest exporter of PET and Scintigraphy machines in the world. In 1944 and 1945 it raced to develop develop nuclear weapons against Brazoria and the Pacific States, only to have preformed a successful detonation three months after the Pacific Trinity test.
During Great War II and the Cold War, the United Commonwealth rapidly excelled in the fields of rocketry, materials science and aeronautics. It was the second nation to develop the intercontinental ballistic missile and was the first nation to deploy an artificial satellite, the Wabash Cannonball-1. These achievements ultimately pushed the nations of CAS and the EC into a Space Race. It was the second nation to achieve human spaceflight and in 1969 the space mission Odyssey 11 achieved the first manned moon landing. In 1977 it achieved mankind's first lunar settlement, known as the Continental Lunar Laboratory, which has hosted the International Lunar Program since 1985, where astronauts of the Brazorian Commission for Space Exploration (CSE) and the Pacific Pacific Aeronautics and Aerospace Agency (R3A), along with one rotating nation, live alongside Continental cosmonauts. The Commissariat for Cosmological Exploration and Administration (CCEA) currently operates at a budget of $43.2 billion dollars, one of the largest space expenditures on the planet. Tts signature rocket known as the Sea Dragon is a rocket deployed at sea has been at the heart of the Continental space program since its inspection, this is due in part because of its efficient tonnage capacity. Announced in 2012, the CCEA declared that a mission to place the first man on the planet Mars would be completed by 2020. In 1978 the Continetal Air Force launched the satellite based radionavigation system known as the Global Positioning System (GPS). It is the largest and most comprehensive global navigation satellite systems currently operated.
Transportationfreeway system, which has been key to connecting the large country economically. Historically, the United Commonwealth depended heavily upon rail to transport both freight and passengers, this transitioned away in the mid 20th century, with the extensive growth of the Continental Thoroughfares, the colloquial term for all controlled-access highways in the country. The development of thoroughfares came to influence the growth of Continental cities, creating large urban sprawls that ultimately caused a backlash in the late 20th century. The Central Government enacted dirigist policies that developed the state owned corporation known as the Continental Rail Authority, which continues to provide some 5.3 billion passengers with medium to long distance intercity rail service. Although having high rail usage, most citizens still hold driver's licenses, which are necessary to operate a vehicle within the country.
Within cities, light-rail, buses and subway system are readily available, with the Chicago Transit Authority being the largest mass transit operator in North America, servicing around 2.6 billion patrons annually. Some cities, outside of the Midwest, most notably in the South, city transit usage is considerably low and citizens remain dependent on automobiles. The city of Philadelphia has the second largest transit system, and the former United State's capital Washington the third largest. In 2018, the elevated rapid transit of Louisville was completed, which now ranks one of the most technologically advanced systems in the world. Several other cities, such as Pittsburgh and Charleston experienced extensive growth in their transit systems after the Appalachian Urbanization Effort was completed in 2015.
The transportation of freight is carried primarily by barges, or by freight trains, which are controlled by private corporations. Freight rails are independent from passenger lines, and independently compete to ship goods, with Norfolk Southern Railway, CSX Transpiration being the two largest freight companies in the nation. The Ohio River and the Mississippi River carry the most freight of any river in the world, transporting goods to the largest port in the world, the Port of South Louisiana. Around 7,000 vessels pass through the Port of New Orleans, the primary exit of domestically produced goods. Some of the largest storage of corn, soy, wheat, steel, rubber, coffee, fruits and vegetables exist between the ports of South Louisiana and New Orleans. Also concentrated between the two ports is the Continental Strategic Petroleum Reserve, which holds the largest emergency supply of oil in the world, with a capacity of 727 million barrels. The Saint Lawrence is also a major shipping route for Continental ships and barges. Controlling the entry way into the Great Lakes the United Commonwealth has utilized the waterways as a means of exerting political influence. Since the established of the socialist governments of Ontario and Quebec only vessels carrying goods destined for Continental and eastern Canadian ports are allowed entry into the Great Lakes.
Culture in the United Commonwealth is a product of Western culture with influencing elements from African and Native American traditions. Continental culture is distinguishable from other Anglo-American nations, possessing various unique dialects, music genres, art, social habits, cuisines and folklore. Because of the nation's multicultural makeup, the nation has been characterized as both a melting pot and an ethnic salad bowl. Central to the enduring Landonist thought, the Continentalist government supports the nation's ethnic and linguistic diversity in its current form, however, its party's manifest states that its ultimate ideological goal is to eventually dissolve the barriers associated with race, class and gender.
In the aftermath of the Continental Revolutionary War, the Continental Republics were established through a series of boundary delimitation efforts that effectively segregated the various races and ethnicities of the former United States. The delimitation in the 1921 generated a ethnocentric view among the various communities of the United Commonwealth which has persisted to this day. Population transfers caused a complete restructuring of the Continental populace, dramatically changing the composition and culture of the various regions. With ethnic groups segregated by several miles apart from one another, the Continentalist government promoted intercultural competence within these monoculture communities in an attempt to heal racial wounds between European-Americans and former slaves and their descendants. Deprived of a shared religious tradition and common ethnic background, the ideology of Landonism-Continentalism was established, and today remains the core principle of the Continental national identity.
Continental cuisine comprises a variety of beverages, foods, soups and culinary contributions in the United Commonwealth which has derived from several European, African and Indigenous gastronomical practices. Prior to 1917, the United States developed a variety of regional cuisines which continue to hold significance, including, Pennsylvania Dutch, Cajun, Acadian, Louisiana Creole, Cuban, and Québécois cuisines. Some major cities including Chicago, New York City, Philadelphia and Boston have their own distinct specialty cuisines and are internationally renowned for their prominent dishes. Culturally important dishes originating from these cities that are recognized globally include: the New York style pizza, eggs Benedict, Philly cheesesteak, Chicago style pizza and the Chicago style hot dog. Southern cusine is also popular cuisine, with fried chicken, biscuits and gravy and hushpuppies being popular dishes of the region.
American football, baseball and basketball are the most populat spectator sports in the United Commonwealth. The National Basketball Association of Player (NBAP) has the highest average attendance of any sports league in the country and is a multitiered league that incorporates local sports clubs, collegiate clubs and professional clubs. Collegiate athletics are followed closely by millions of viewers; the College Football Playoff and NCAA Tournament both draw nearly 18 million viewers every year. Baseball has has historically been regarded as the American national sport since the late 19th century. After the Continental Revolutionary War, Major League Baseball was disbanded as it was seen exploitative and undemocratic and was reformed into the Continental Baseball League (CBL). In 1929 the Locals Competitive Baseball League (LCBL) was established as an league for union sponsored teams.