|Imperial Realm of Eroea|
Motto: Timor uirtute
Location of Eroea (green) with its colonies in light green.|
Location of Eroea (green)
with its colonies in light green.
|Recognised national languages|
|Government||Absolute monarchy with strong parliamentary elements.|
|Legislature||Parliament of Eroea|
|Chamber of Deputies|
|21 December 1402|
|4 August 2778|
|4 May 4811|
|6 October 3776|
|86,591,102 km2 (33,433,011 sq mi)|
• 4109 estimate
• 4108 census
|Drives on the||left|
Eroea, officially the Imperial Realm of Eroea, is a sovereign country located on the continent of the same name. The kingdom is made up of 8 provinces, located on the continental mainland, and numerous colonies and dependencies across Ut'un. Eroea borders no other nation on its homeland, though it shares borders with 12 other states through its holdings. The country is surrounded by the Eroean Pool, a large ocean that separates the country from the much larger continents of Greater Ut'un and Verriae. The population of Eroea is approximately 1.813 billion people, excluding colonies and dependencies. With the entire empire accounted for, Eroea has a population of 9.2 billion people. The area of the entire empire is around 86.5 million km2 with the actual Eroean Isle amounting to around 29.8 million km2, which is 34.4% of the area of the entire empire.
The government of Eroea is built upon the supremacy of the Crown; an abstract legal entity that acts as the legal representative of the Monarch. The term 'Crown' and 'State' are used interchangeably and both generally refer to the actions of the government carried out on behalf of the reigning Sovereign. According to law and tradition, the Monarch is the sole authority in Eroea and has absolute power. In practice, Eroea is largely democratic, with the State Chancellor and Imperial Cabinet leading the government. They are members of the democratically elected Chamber of Deputies, which consists of representatives for the Eroean Isle, colonies and territories and the galactic hinterland. The Imperial Council is a supervisory body, largely appointed by the Monarch and other members of nobility, though there are a number of seats democratically elected. The council acts as a commission executing the power of the Crown and can only be overrode by a conflicting order issued by the Monarch personally, who does not always take part directly in the day-to-day running of the government. The country is split into 8 provinces; Argnoria, Parallax, Myop, Iserlana, Westerlands, Farah'n, Yuntvar and Rogash. Each one is ruled by a respective noble family, except Argnoria and Yuntvar, which are ruled by the imperial family, House Meera. These respective families used to control all aspects of Eroea but overtime ceded control over to the Imperial Chancellery, which was replaced by the position of Lord Councillor in 3776 and by the State Chancellor in 4145.
The reigning monarch is Austin, the first of his name, who has been on the throne since the 14 July 4153, succeeding Amadeus II; his uncle. Austin is the last Monarch to ascend to the throne under male preference primogeniture. His daughter, Amelia, Crown Princess, will be the first Empress of Eroea and her marriage to William Smyth, Duke of Cranborne, will mark the end of House Meera as the imperial house and will lead to the establishment of House Smyth as the imperial house, the first change in the imperial surname since the War of the Two Crowns in 2776. The Lord Chamberlain is the de jure head of government, power mainly lies with the State Chancellor who appoints the Imperial Cabinet (simply Cabinet) and advises the Imperial Council and by extension, the Monarch, on various issues of governance. The incumbent State Chancellor is Ferghal Smith of the Imperial Party, he has been in power since the 3 June 4180.
The city of Argost in the province of Yuntvar is the capital city of Eroea. The city is the commercial and administrative capital of Eroea, with the Palace of Yuntvar acting as the seat of Parliament; the Varies Center acting as the main offices of the State Chancellor, and the Faerdom Castle, the home of the imperial family. All these buildings are located in the city or in its hinterland. The city of Farahdeen in the province of Farah'n is considered the historical capital of Eroea. It served as the nations capital until the conclusion of the War of the Two Crowns; a war which led to the deposition of House Yalan as the imperial family. Argost has an urban population of approximately 26.4 million, with the wide metropolitan region, known as the Imperial Capital Region, having a population of 30.6 million. Argost, for a time, was the center of the Eroan slave trade. It still retains a slave identity and the multiculturalism brought about by the number of descendants of freed slaves persists to this day since abolition.
The economy of Eroea is strong and well developed, with trading routes to many other nations across Ut'un. The closest trading partners to Eroea is the Republic of Chimera, located on the continent of Verriae. The republic was once a colony of Eroea but after the Chimeran Revolution in 3966, the republic became an independent state. The Chimeran-Eroean Freeze was a period of cold diplomatic relations from 3966 until 4101. After the fall of the long standing revolutionary government in Chimera, they opened trade routes with Eroea and a great trading partnership flourished out of the deal. Now, Chimera and Eroea share common goals in both economics and military prowess, with both nations assisting one another in economic progress and military exercises. Eroea is not a member of the Union of Diplomatic, Democratic and Independent States as it violates its Foreign Holding Charter, which states no state should hold any foreign land outside of its historically defined borders.
- 1 History
- 1.1 Ecological era
- 1.2 Benzi settling
- 1.3 Gregorian system of governance
- 1.4 Commonwealth colonies
- 1.5 First Julian Reforms
- 1.6 Second Julian reforms
- 1.7 First Eroean-Seazarian War (1840 – 1859)
- 1.8 Golden age of Eroea (1859 – 1982)
- 1.9 Galactic colonisation (1982 – 2020)
- 1.10 First Civil War (2200 – 2214)
- 1.11 Eroean Slave Trade (2214 – 2387)
- 1.12 War of the Two Crowns (2775 – 2778)
- 1.13 Second Civil War (2901 – 2907)
- 1.14 Era of Terror (3439 – 3511)
- 1.15 War of the West
- 1.16 Foundations of modern Eroea
- 1.17 Age of Unrest (3830 – 3865)
- 1.18 Colonial freedom (3900 – 3955)
- 1.19 Aishur War (3919 – 3926)
- 1.20 Commoner revolt (3931 – 3961)
- 1.21 Chimeran Revolution
- 1.22 Justinian era (4021 – 4109)
- 1.23 Wester primacy (4109 – 4135)
- 1.24 Levdegard's Secession (4135 – 4144)
- 1.25 The Great Reform (4144 – 4150)
- 1.26 Regalian economic collapse (4153 – 4155)
- 1.27 Sixth Eroean-Seazarian War (4157 – 4060)
- 1.28 Devinicusian Eroea
- 2 Demographics
- 3 Economy
- 4 Politics
- 4.1 Government
- 4.2 Administrative divisions
- 4.3 Colonies and other territories
- 4.4 Political parties
- 4.5 Foreign relations
- 4.6 Military
- 5 Culture
- 6 Geography
The Benzi Settling marked the first colonization of Eroea by a new humanoid species on Ut'un in over 3 millennia. It began in 1331 when on the 28 February, the Benzi people left the Benzi Archipelago off the cost of Verriae in order to find a new home.
At the time, the Benzi people were experiencing discrimination at the hands of the Kingdom of Rotarion, which ruled over the island and was a vassal state to Ergalia. The Benzi people were largely illiterate but were skilled craftspeople and were skilled in shipbulding. Yalan's clan, under the leadership of Gregor the Elder, designed the first inter-continental boat on the 13 January 1331. This was a project instigated by Gregor the Elder in order to allow the Benzi people to escape their homeland. The Benzi Revolutionary War, which had ravaged the archipelago for 125 years from 1187 until 1312, was largely regarded as the final chance at freedom. The war was a failure and the Rotarion people were too technologically advanced in warfare methods to be beaten by the Benzi people. Gregor the Elder, along with senior engineers in his clan, began working on the boat in 1317 and took them years to build. This was largely due to periodic inspections by the Rotarion Security Buro in the archipelago which jeopardized the security of the project.
Overtime, a number of other clans began to build their other boats. Today, these clans are collectively called The Brave Clans. All of the boats were completed by the 10 February 1331, amounting to 16 boats, to hold 904,000 people, all members of 16 diverse clans. Gregor the Elder was proclaimed Captain of the People, and was charged with guiding all the clans to their new home. He was assisted by his son, Gregor Yalan, who would go on to found the modern Eroean state. The trip lasted until 3 August 1331, however, over 113,000 people died on the journey after 3 boats sunk, along with deaths due to disease. The Benzi people landed on the Uragni Peninsula on the 3 August and that date is regarded as the founding date of modern Eroean civilization. By now, it was decided that a number of the clans should merge, mainly into the 4 largest clans; Yalan's clan, the Breadhock clan, Decadeclan and the Makormik clan. This was due to the fact that the leaders of these 4 clans believed that they were stronger together. It was decided that Gregor the Elder would take over the Uragni Peninsula under a system known as the Eroean Benzeens. His Uragni Benzeen would span 300 kilometers north. The remaining clans would travel north together; the Breadhock clan would continue north, Decadeclan would travel east and the Makormik clan would claim land in the west. This led to the establishment of the Hockley Benzeen under the Breadhock; the Decada Benzeen under Decadeclan; and Western Benzeen under the Makormik's.
Each benzeen was led by a Groslen, Gregor the Elder declared himself Groslen of the Uragni Benzeen on the 2 January 1332. He would reign for 15 years, before dying on the 29 July 1346, with his position passing to his son, Gregor Yalan. By the time of Gregor the Elder's death, the Hockley Benzeen and Decadeclan had dissolved into 32 different benzeens between them.
The Uragni Consolidation was a series of wars from 1388 until 1402, that led to the vast expansion of Urgani influence along the southern coast of Eroea. After Gregor's Conquests, which had lasted from 1350 until 1356, the Urgani Peninsula and some other holdings had been secured along the southern coast of Eroea, but the vast majority of the southern coast had not been conquered yet. Gregor Yalan felt it was time to expand his domain and began concocting a military invasion that would eventually lead to the capitulation of all other states on Eroea.
In 1386, Gregor called a meeting of all the lesser families within his benzeen to the capital of Urgani. There he proclaimed the Declaration of Uragni Consolidation and Supremacy; this document stated that all territory south of the most northern point of Urgani was rightful territory of that benzeen and that all leaders within that region had to succumb to Uragni, or be destroyed. These harsh words frightened many of the lesser leaders, who felt that this was an ambitious move that would lead to the death of the prominence of Urgani. Nevertheless, Gregor continued with his plans and soon refocused all efforts of the country on to bulking up its military. He went on to establish the Urgani Chief Warfare Office, which was headed up by Yuri Avart, the first High Marshal of Uragni - who would eventually become the most important figure in the consolidation.
Avart oversaw the mass militarization of Uragni from 1386 until 1388, during this time coal, oil and gas production tripled, while steel processing doubled. Arms manufacturing plants were opened across the peninsula, and soon the country was the fastest growing economy in the world. This mass industrialization was helped by foreign investment and the swarm of innovators into the country, after the end of the conquests. Simultaneously as this was going on, the Chief Warfare Office (CWO), began drawing up plans for an invasion of the southern coast of Eroea.
The military operation for the invasion of the southern regions of Eroea was known as Operation Innovate, and was drawn up by Avart and various other generals. The military invasion was split up into multiple stages: the Port Invasions, the Southron Invasion, Far Western Advance and the Northern Advance. These stages outlined various segments of the southern regions that were to be controlled. The Port Invasions were to be an amphibious-land invasion, with the Southern Islands of Yuntvar to be taken by sea, while mainland Yuntvar would be invaded by land. The Yuntvar Benzeen was the only Benzeen believed to actually be able to withstand an Uragni invasion, so it was decided that swift, decisive military movements were needed to ensure the security of the region, especially the mainland, which would be where the majority of the defenses would be. The other invasions and advances were seen as far easier targets, but Yuntvar would first need to be defeated.
Port Invasions of Yuntvar
The Port Invasions of Yuntvar, also known as the Invasion of Yuntvar, was the first and most important stage of the entire Urgani Consolidation. The Yuntvari were the most advanced civilization on the continent, second only to the Uragni. They were ferocious nationalists, with capable military leaders and strong defenses lining their borders, however, they lacked the navy to defend the southern islands of Yuntvar - their greatest weakness. The Port Invasions would utilize this to their advantage. The Infantry Vanguard would lead the land invasion of Yuntvar, where they would meet the bulk of Yuntvari forces, while the Grand Naval Corps would travel south towards the Yuntvar Southern Islands and secure them.
On the 14 September 1388, Admiral John Chester Winter of the Yuntvar Southern Naval Force reported a large, approaching line of battle cruisers. These cruisers were hoisted with the flag of Urgani; the Groslen of Yuntvar, Marcel Meereuas was informed and the naval forces were deployed. The next morning, the town of Harlong, was under severe shelling by the Urgani navy. This led to panic within Yuntvar and the scrambling of troops to the Urgani border, to back up the ones that had already been placed there, however, this was too late. By the evening of the 15 September, the Urgani vanguard had already broken through the first Yuntvar defensive line and were already 60 kilometers into Yuntvari territory.
Edward Furlong was appointed as Commander of the Yuntvar Defence Forces, and immediately sent to secure a defensive line about 15 kilometers ahead of the advancing vanguard. The city of Longveriesse now stood in the way of the vanguard, and Furlong set up his command center within the city and based his defensive line off this location. He achieved this by the 17 September, by which time the vanguard had already taken 15% of Yuntvar land and were now 10 km outside of Longveriesse. As they advanced, various defensive holdings such as Fort Noc and Fort Winters fell into the hands of the vanguard, who were led by Colonel Ari James Stepehenson. Stephenson was a trusted associate of Marshal Avart, who was travelling at the rear of the advancing army.
During this time, Hutton Island, Garland Island and Winter Island all fell to the naval corps. After the three islands capitulated, the Grand Naval Corps now had decent land for setting up base. They halted their advance and regrouped at Archers Bay on Hutton Island. After this, High Marshal Avart postponed the land invasion of Yuntvar. He wished to capture the remaining Southern Islands and begin a base of operations on the mainland, from where he could launch a dual-pronged land invasion. The Infantry Vanguard were placed under the command of Stephenson, with them being stationed at Fort Winters. heavy shelling of Longveriesse continued but no advances by land were made. However, after 3 days of reconnaissance, the invasion of the Southern Islands resumed on the 23 September. The fight for the Southern Islands continued but deep division within both command and junior officers of the Yuntvar Defence Forces led to them being easily pushed back. The Port Invasions culminated in the amphibious Battle of Winter-Avart on the 29 October, a legendary battle in which Admiral John Chester Winter and High Marshal Yuri Avart took direct control of their flagships and battled each other in the Bay of New Jeru. The battle ended with John Chester Winter evacuating his flagship and scuttling it, with the remainder of the ships under his command returning to the port of New Jeru, with all Yuntvari forces leaving the Bay by the 8 November.
The Southron Invasion began with the shelling of New Jeru on the 21 November. Amphibious infantry landing rafts (AILR) were deployed, over 2,670 of them, carrying 40 soldiers each. These landed on the beaches of New Jeru
Capitulation of the Northern Benzeen
Gregorian system of governance
First Julian Reforms
First Tax Act
Second Julian reforms
Establishment of the Imperial Chancellery
Abolition of the Gregorian system
First Eroean-Seazarian War (1840 – 1859)
Golden age of Eroea (1859 – 1982)
Reign of Cedric the Great
The golden age of Eroea as the name suggests is considered the most successful time period, which started with the ascension of Cedric II in 1870, often called 'Cedric the Great' or 'Cedric the Omnipotent'; his birth name Archibald. Archibald, a lieutenant colonel of the Imperial Army, his reign oversaw the expansion of the Eroean Empire to its greatest territorial extent in 1913. A brilliant military tactician, he was revered among the military community as one of the greatest soldiers to ever come from House Yalan. His father, Cedric I pushed his son towards the military from an early age, this was due to him not being the eldest. Unbeknownst to him at the time, his eldest son, Bertrand, would die young and never ascend to the throne - thus Bertrand was trained in diplomatic and political matters while Cedric the next eldest was trained in the military. By the time he had finished secondary education, Archibald was already attending the Yalan Institute for Military Excellence and was renowned as a highly intelligent and diligent character.
His first engagement in warfare was at the age of 19 in 1838, when he took part in Operation Hummingbird, during which the Republic of Juno was invaded by the Eroean Armed Forces. The ensuing war would go on to become the Junoian War of Resistance, which ultimately led to defeat for the Eroeans. The war lasted until 1840 when Archibald was ordered to return to Eroea as part of a widespread retreat from Juno by Eroean forces. The defeat was an embarrassment for Eroea, a great empire with a territorial extent of 45.8 million square kilometers failed to defeat a relatively new republican nation. The Chief of the Imperial Army, Bartholomew Lardon was dismissed from his position - along with the Chairman of the Central Defense Council, Justin von Levenberg. Cedric I wished to keep a closer eye on the activities of the Central Defense Council and thus appointed close friend and civil servant, Augustus Jameson, to the position of Lords Representative for War. He also asked for his own son, Archibald, to attend the meetings of the CDC to understand the inner workings of the military. This angered many existing members of the council but Cedric I appointed Morgan Ansfield to the position of Chairman of the Council; he was the only imperial officer to lose no battles during the War of Resistance and was considered a young and enthusiastic commander.
Immediately upon joining the CDC as an observer, Cedric attempted to influence the proceedings of the council. He was a highly outspoken critic of the trench warfare and attrition tactics that had become prevalent among the upper command in Eroea of recent decades. Cedric promoted mechanized warfare as the future of Eroean tactics. Ansfield, while not a proponent of the idea, believed that a new approach was needed and thus took on Cedric's recommendations. This rooted Cedric in the upper command of the Eroean military, but it ultimately created a number of enemies within the army, navy and air force - which would eventually haunt him later down the line. By 1841, Cedric was a major in the Imperial Army and thus now commanded his own company of troops, the 5th Infantry Company. His first command was in the Seazar Rebellion from 1842-1845. A number of rebels declared the Seazarian State as a new republic, separate state independent of Eroea. Cedric I was initially unconcerned by this secession but was convinced otherwise by his son and prominent Eroean businessmen. The Eroean Business Magnate Association put great pressure on the Sovereign to authorize retaliation against the rebels; many had poured their entire investments into resource extraction in Seazar and their industries were now under threat of seizure by the new Seazarian government. On the 17 October 1842, Cedric I issued an order for the Eroean Foreign Legion to begin mobilization. Within 8 hours, over 750,000 troops had been loaded on to transport ships and were headed towards Seazar. The Fifth Company were contracted into the 1st Foreign Regiment, thus, this was the first time that Archibald had his own command. He soon garnered attention for being a courageous and competent battle commander, often leading the troops in his command directly into battle. They arrived in Sezar on the 30 October 1842 and initially fighting was low-intensity and soon halted due to winter.
Fighting resumed on the 19 January 1843 with the Assault of Clementstown, the capital of Haxford County. It was the first major battle of the revolutionary war and the actions of Archibald would result in him being awarded the Imperial Honor of Bravery, the highest military order in Eroea. The assault was ultimately a victory for the state forces and Clementstown would be established as the central base of operations for the remainder of the campaign. Archibald would then command his company in the Battle of the River Ur, the Insfort Assault and Operation Skydive. The former operation involved an amphibious assault on the city of Penin in the Upper Seazar Archipelago, Archibald was injured after being shot in the knee and returned to Eroea on the 5 February 1844, he took 5 months to recover and returned to his command but this time as a colonel. After this injury, he did not take a frontline role again and instead focused on purely military tactical planning. Regardless, he was the highest ranking frontline officer in the war and was regarded as a national hero in Eroea.
The rebellion ended on the 10 May 1845 with the capitulation of Seazar forces at the Battle of Monton Ridge; the Treaty of Westerdom was signed on the 18 December 1845 and Archibald played a great role in the signing of this treaty. This was his first exposure to politics and would mark the beginning of his career in the field. He proceeded to become more involved in the governance of Eroea directly, while also maintaining his role in the army. He did resign from the Central Defense Council on the 17 February 1846 to work at the Imperial Chancellery. He was not discharged from the military and would continue to have an active role in the military until his ascension to the throne on the 13 August 1870. In January 1847, as part of imperial appointments, Archibald was made the High Steward of Farah'n, his home region.
Galactic colonisation (1982 – 2020)
First Civil War (2200 – 2214)
Eroean Slave Trade (2214 – 2387)
War of the Two Crowns (2775 – 2778)
Second Civil War (2901 – 2907)
Era of Terror (3439 – 3511)
The Era of Terror is a period that began with the planned assassination of Edward IV, the Emperor, by various members of the Imperial Chancellery in 3439. Leonard Abernathy, the Imperial Treasurer, had been invited to partake in the plot and originally seemed interested in supporting the assassination. He never made efforts to directly involve himself, even though he attended the White Winter Meeting, which took place on the 3 January of the same year. Abernathy soon grew weary of the plan and its executor, Leviticus Cornwall, the Imperial Chancellor at the time. Abernathy decided to report the issue to the most senior servant of the Monarch, the Lord Chamberlain, whom at the time was Augustus Polonus. A close friend of Cornwall, he was deliberated on by the planners of the assassination on whether he should be notified. It was agreed that he was too senior and too close to the Emperor to be informed of the plot and he went unnoticed. Polonus was originally shocked at the allegations and moved for the Imperial Guard to cease and arrest Abernathy, however, he provided irrefutable evidence that correspondence had occurred between various high ranking officials about a possible assassination of the Monarch.
This had all occurred by the evening of the 29 February 3439, 3 days after the coronation of Edward. Cornwall had delayed the assassination, which was meant to occur in late January. Due to an effort to display a fully dedicated image of himself, he fully focused on the coronation arrangements and postponed the assassination until after the new Emperor was crowned. That evening Polonus phoned the Emperor to inform him of the information he had learned. Abernathy was taken into custody by the Internal Investigation Service, while Cornwall was immediately summoned to the Imperial Palace of Uragni, to brief the Emperor. Usually, Cornwall would brief the Emperor every Wednesday evening; under the guise of travelling on Tuesday and Wednesday, the Emperor invited the Imperial Chancellor for an emergency briefing. Cornwall was alarmed as he had not been informed that the Emperor was meaning to travel but he paid no attention. Over 300 Imperial Guards were put on watch to ensure no retaliation from the Chancellery Defence Service, the only militia in the country that did not swear a direct oath to the Sovereign. The meeting began at 21:45 on the 29 February 3439. After an hour of normal discussion, Edward hinted that he had issued an arrest warrant for the Imperial Chancellor. Cornwall, confused, initially chuckled at the seemingly humorous tone of the Emperor. However, after a number of royal attendants entered the room along with IIS officers, Cornwall began to realise the gravity of the situation.
Cornwall was originally acerbic towards the intruders. He stated that he could not be arrested as he was Imperial Chancellor and therefore was immune from being taken into custody. Edward IV simply voided this by using his royal prerogative to rule by decree. In a major constitutional stand off, Edward removed Cornwall from all posts and granted himself the title of Imperial Chancellor, bringing the CDS under his control - they had originally refused to arrest Cornwall. He was subsequently arrested and questioned by the IIS officers. He was formally charged by the Royal Constable for grand treason - the most serious form of treason and one of the few punishments that would lead to repercussions to family members. Cornwall was denied the right to legal counsel and was kept in the Cells of the Benzeen for a number of days afterward. The following day, Edward dissolves the Imperial Chancellery vests all its authority in the office of Lord Chamberlain. He also removes Polonus as Lord Chamberlain, since Cornwall had recommended him for the post. Instead, he appointed Magnus Wester to the post, the Lord Paramount of The Westerlands and the ringleader of the entire plot to assassinate Edward IV.
Wester had planted the seeds for discontent against the Emperor in the Imperial Chancellery. He falsified the image that Edward was a weak ruler, but also narcissistic and wished to destroy the bureaucratic institutions of Eroea at any cost. Wester did not involve himself in any of the activities of the group of planners. The group would become known as the Council of Treason, which was led by Cornwall. Edwards dissolution of the Imperial Chancellery was done on the advise of his multiple advisers, specifically Wester, and mirrored the actions that Wester had foretold to Cornwall. Ultimately, Magnus Wester wished to eliminate Edward IV and install his son instead, who was not of age and his accession would mean the appointment of a High Steward, a position that Wester vied for.
War of the West
The background of the War of the West begin with the passing of the Tithe and State Revenues Reform Act which ended the practice of the noble families from collecting taxes from the subjects within their provinces. While this move was unpopular, Emperor Gregor IV was able to get the noble families to agree to the move in return for guaranteed financial support from the state for time immemorial. The Tithe Council drafted the Act along with the Imperial Chancellery, under Alison Riley; it was passed on the 13th April 3769, on the same day, the Westerlands would declare themselves as an independent nation. Horace Wester, the Lord Primate of the Westerlands, had confided in the Emperor's aide, Jean Marie-Smith, that he would not subject himself to the new Act. Wester was quoted as stating that it 'undermines the very fabric that weaves the governmental and aristocratic structures of our realm together'. On the same day, the Fort Wester Pamphlet was published, outlining the official position of the Westerlands on the removal of House Wester's rights to collect taxes from its subjects.
The Fort Wester Pamphlet was considered a treasonous document and Ingrid Rey, the Imperial Chancellor, contacted Horace Wester in order for them to withdraw the statement. They refused and Rey held an emergency meeting with Gregor IV and other members of the Imperial Council to discuss the course of action necessary in order to prevent a further escalation of the now deepening conflict. Rey recommended that House Wester be immediately removed from their positions, while Gregor argued that they should be coaxed into accepting the Act. However, when the Imperial Army attempted to increase its soldiers stationed in Eroea, they were stopped before they could reach their relevant post and detained by order of Dick Tarantino, general of the Western Ground Militia. This was a serious violation of the Emperor's right to rule by decree and another meeting was held, with Deputy Chief Marshal of the Imperial Forces, Charles G. Taylor, being in attendance. Taylor, along with Rey, convinced to authorize sending in the Imperial Guard along with various legions of soldiers from the Imperial Army to place Horace Wester under arrest. By the time this meeting had concluded, it was approximately 4:50 AM on the 14th April 3769 and action was necessary. Taylor issued a secret order to Lieutenant Colonel Bernie Ken Leesofar to gather 3,000 troops and travel towards the Westerlands borderr. By 07:00 that morning, he had 15,000 troops ready to proceed.
At 08:10, Tarantino received word that Lt Colonel Leesofar was making his way with 15,000 troops to the Westerlands border. This was not entirely untrue, he was making his way with 5,400 troops to the border, with 60% of these being reserve soldiers. Tarantino immediately called all members of the Western Militia to arms and by 09:33, he had amassed a force of 30,000. By 10:05, he encircled the M-69, the road which Leesofar was taking with his convoy towards the Westerlands. They were stopped by a checkpoint at 10:15, under the command of Captain Sean Wester. Sean Wester ordered Leesofar to stop, which he did, and present documents to validate his entry on to 'sovereign Westerlands soil'. The phrasing of this came as a shock as, according to Eroean law, the only truly sovereign entity is the Monarch, and this was considered a treasonous act by official forces under the command of House Wester. Leesofar presented various papers, signed by Gregor IV, which validated his entry into the Westerlands with troops. Sean Wester stalled and took the documents for examination. During this time, he engaged with communication and was ordered to hold the convoy until 11:00. During that time, Horace Wester ordered that the assets of the Imperial Broadcasting and Information Service be seized. At 10:45, Horace Wester presented himself on TV in a provincial address and made the following statement:
Subjects of the Imperial Realm of Eroea, and of the eight provinces of the Westerlands, Yuntvar, Argnoria, Myop, Parallax, Jeru, Argnoria and Rogash, I come to you this morning with a message of discontent. In recent days, His Imperial Majesty The Emperor has began instigating various new reforms to the governmental structures in Eroea. As one of the Lords Primate, I am one of the constituent entities from which the Crown derives its power, unofficially. Without the support of myself, or the 7 other Lords Primate, the monarchy that this nation is built upon cannot function, and will not function. The view of the Western Council is that the recent Act of imperial decree, issued by the Most Excellent Chancellor and her Advisors [Imperial Chancellery] is in clear contradiction of my rights as a Lord Primate. Therefore, this morning, I invoke my noble prerogative and declare that the Monarch of Eroea and the Crown from which they derive their power, be exiled from the lands of Eroea that lie in the West [Westerlands]. I make this decision decisively and absolutely; I declare myself as Sovereign Prince of the Westerlands, free from the subjugation and influence of the imposing throne that is the Sovereign [Gregor IV]. I come to you with this statement in good grace; Imperum Bless.
The statement sent shock waves throughout the system of governance in Eroea. This was the first time that a Lord Primate had openly expressed their disgust to the rule of the Emperor since the War of the Two Crowns. Leesofar received a live feed of the message though was instructed to act unaware by Charles Taylor as he established contingency plans for the convoy. Horace Wester's announcement concluded at 10:48, and Leesofar's convoy remained unmoved on the M-69 as it was surrounded by various guards of the Western Ground Militia. At 10:58, official records state that General Shawn Whelan, Chief Defense Officer of the West, ordered Sean Wester to arrest Leesofar and 3 trucks of the convoy, while instructing the remainder to return home. All air, rail, road and sea links in to the Westerlands were ceased. After the order by Whelan, events contradict each other. The only known fact was that a skirmish, which became known as the Freeway Skirmish, broke out on the highway leading to the mortal wounding of Leesofar and the death of 766 soldiers from both sides.
Foundations of modern Eroea
The Imperial Reformation Decree, which was passed in 3776 by Emperor Gregor IV, reformed the entire political system in Eroea, delegating enormous powers to a newly formed 'Parliament of Eroea' but withholding divine right to the Monarch. The noble families of the various regions on the Isle of Eroea was weakened, with the High Lords of Eroea losing their absolute autonomy and being subject to the control of the supranational parliament. The parliament was delegated to have 620 seats, all elected from constituencies within the Isle of Eroea. The colonies would not have any representation until 3854. The position of Imperial Chancellor was practically disbanded (though still technically exists) and split into two new roles; the Lord Chamberlain and Lord Councillor. The Lord Chamberlain would be an official from the Imperial Family, while the Lord Councillor would be an official from the new House of Councillors.
The Imperial Chancellery, which had acted as the legislative and administrative organ of Eroea since the abolition of the Benzeen was dissolved and replaced with the Parliament of Eroea. The Parliament was to contain two houses, the House of Councillors; a democratically elected body and the Imperial Council; an appointed advisory board, representing the Monarch in Parliament. The organisation pushing through these changes were the Royal Democratic Party (RDP), who had been in existence since the 3720's and had been pushing for the democratization of Eroea for decades. Their leader, Ingrid Rey, had been a close friend of Gregor IV and had significant sway in their decisions. They were eventually appointed Imperial Chancellor in 3758, much to the dismay of the various High Lords of Eroea. With the Partisan Membership Decree of 3760, this allowed for the legal creation of political parties. Parties had always existed before but were never recognized by the Imperial Government, all politicians were seen as subjects of the Monarch.
After the legalisation of parties, the RDP took significant steps to gain political foothold in Eroea. Top ministries were awarded to RDP officials. Meetings of the Royal Court were often heated, with 'democrats' and 'imperialists' standing off against each other. Gregor IV found himself torn between ensuring a good friend was pleased but also ensuring that his feudal kings would not rebel. Eroea overtime became heavily more democratic throughout the 3760's. It culminated in the removal of the power of taxation from the feudal kings in 3769, which led to Horace Wester, King of the Westerlands, declaring independence from the Eroean Empire. Emperor Gregor was enraged by this betrayal and ordered the Imperial Chancellor to do everything to return The Westerlands to Eroea. Rey ordered the immediate mobilization of 650,000 troops to march on Fort Wester. The War for the West took place and lasted 3 months, it ended with the execution of Horace Wester and the appointment of Peregrine Wester, a fifth cousin of Horace, as King of the Westerlands.
The War for the West began the dissolution of the Imperial Chancellery and the expulsion of many royal representatives from the "lesser monarchs". The Imperial Reformation Decree began being drafted and for 6 years was in a constant cycle of debate and re-writing within the Imperial Chancellery. It finally reached imperial assent on the 6 October 3776, which began the dissolution of the old government institutions and the formation of the new ones to take place on the 2 February 3777. The decree was revolutionary as it assigned legislative power to a democratically elected body, something that had never been seen before in Eroea. Gregor had originally been opposed to the idea, but was convinced that a new body would mean he would spend less time as the country's lead administrator. There was some significant opposition from the regional royalty, but nothing on the scale of Horace Wester 7 years prior.
From October 3776 until January 3777, the government institutions were in a cycle of change. The National Election Commission was established to conduct the 3777 parliamentary election, which was scheduled to take place on the 24 January 3777, with parliament convening on the 2 February for the first time. There were three parties running in the election: the Royal Democratic Party, the Conservative Noble Party and the Commoners Party. The Conservative Noble Party was led by Fergal Chrysler, the Lord Paramount of Parralax, from 3755 until 3791. The Commoners Party was the reformed Civil Rights League, under the leadership of Norman Rickard. Ingrid Rey was appointed to the position of Steward for the Transitional Government and tasked with meeting the demands of the Reformation Decree. The Imperial Chancellery, which had once been a bureaucratic mess of officials along with their staff, was organised and structure was formed. Government departments were formed, dedicated staff were assigned to the said departments, a new cabinet with all department leaders was also legalized to run the affairs of the government. The upper and lower house were also decreed and tasked with replacing the legislative function of the Imperial Chancellery, while the Cabinet was tasked with replacing the administrative/executive function of the Imperial Chancellery.
The 3777 election was a landslide election for the Royal Democratic Party, with the Conservative Noble Party and Commoners Party pretty much tying. The CNP would dominate the Imperial Council with Magnus Wester, the Lord Primate of the Westerlands, being appointed as Deputy Lord Chamberlain; Crown Prince Heinz was appointed as Lord Chamberlain and this would set the precedent for all future Lord Chamberlain appointees. The Imperial Council was also made up of RDP members but no Commoner Party members were appointed to the council. Without the control of the Council, the first term of Ingrid Rey was troublesome due to constant vetoing by the Imperial Council in an effort to destabilize the government. Rey served as Lord Councillor from 3777 until 3792; with Magnus Wester served as Deputy Lord Chamberlain from 3777 until his death in 3791. He had been hospitalized since 3788 and this pacified the Imperial Council as it had lost its loudest proponent and spokesperson. The last term of Ingrid Rey was marked by strength of the Parliament and a rapid decline in the power of the Imperial Council as it began to be regulated more heavily by internal protocol and procedure. The main opposition leader in the House was Fergal Chrysler, Lord Primate of Parralax and Leader of the Conservative Noble Party. He began using the title of Shadow First Minister to refer to himself as leader of the opposition.
The Rey premiership had a significant effect on the Parliament and the Royal Cabinet. The constant in-fighting between the House of Councillors and the Imperial Council led to a series of regulations being passed, such as the Veto Rationalization Memorandum in 3789, which removed the power of non-reasoned vetoing i.e. the Imperial Council couldn't veto a bill purely because they didn't like it, but it had to fall under grounds of violating the imperial structure or was too controversial in Eroean society. This seriously weakened the power of the Imperial Council and made it impossible for disruption of the legislation far harder. These reforms had both positives and negatives for the Royal Democratic Party. The reforms rooted the RDP in power and allowed them to pass any legislation through Parliament as long as it pleased the Monarch but it also turned many borderline nobles against the party and strengthened the power of the Conservative Noble Party. This led to the Conservative Noble Party eventually catching up with the Royal Democratic Party in the 3801 parliamentary election and winning by a small margin. The 3800's were marked by "switcharoo" governments, where a government rarely ever lasted more than 1 term. This led to economic downturn, colonial and citizen frustration with the government and the lowest slump in the empires history. It also brought about the colonial devolution, which would significantly change the course of Eroean history for centuries.
Age of Unrest (3830 – 3865)
The period from 3830 to 3890 is often referred to as the 'Age of Unrest' or the 'Eroean Decline'; modern political scientists often call it the Scanlon-Thornton Era after the periods two major Lord Councillors; Maria Thornton and Eamon Scanlon. These two terms were coined in the research paper, The Sociological, Political, Geographical and International Impact of Eroea on the 39th Century, often shortened to The Eroean 39th Century. The research paper was written by Friedrich van der Linde, a prominent Eroean sociologist and political analyst. The paper was written between 3893 and 3901, and was published in 3902. While the paper did not exclusively focus on the actions of the various governments throughout the 3800s, it did allocate a large portion to analyzing the political instability in Eroea at the time. The governments of the time were unstable, with 12 government changes occurring in the 3800s, which compared to the contemporary era, is a massive number of transitions of power.
Between 3811 and 3829, power switched between Atticus Smith and Peregrine Wester, leaders of the Royal Democratic Party and Conservative Noble Party respectively. Both led relatively stable governments and they are considered the last stable government leaders of the 3800s. In 3816, the vote share of the Conservatives declined rapidly and they were eclipsed by the Commoners Party and the Liberal Party. Together with the Royal Democrats, they would form the basis of all governments in Eroea up until Augustus Wester led his party to power again in 4038. The Conservatives lost the remainder of their middle-class vote, which had been dispersed among the Royal Democrats and Liberals; this eclipsed them from any form of governance for the foreseeable future. With the middle-class vote (which is considered essential to govern) dispersed among the Liberals, Royal Democrats and Commoners, this led to a number of weak governments who either did not have a majority or one that was very slim.
Atticus Smith resigned as Lord Councillor in 3829 in lieu of rising internal tensions between his party. He had been Leader of the Royal Democrats since 3790, a period of 39 years. He had served as Lord Councillor on 3 occasions and won 7 cumulative parliamentary elections. Incredibly popular as a politician, his party had slowly veered leftward during his tenure. This was due in part to an increase in membership of left-wing factions within the party. By 3829, Smith had been in power for 13 years and many newer members pushed for a new leader to take over the party as it continued to evolved; many frontbench ministers opposed this but Smith obliged. This tendency towards the left was led by Eamon Scanlon, a new face in his Cabinet who had entered politics in the 3821 election. He had been elected as First Secretary of the Executive Bureau in 3826 and took over as Leader on the 4 August 3829 after winning the subsequent leadership election. He was able to command a majority in the House of Councillors and was appointed Lord Councillor on the 5 June 3829. Scanlon's appointment as Leader caused mass hysteria within many circles of the Royal Democrats. Scanlon controlled the Executive Bureau and had the support of two-thirds of all backbenchers. However, he did not have the approval of the frontbench and many other party leaders at the time. Many seen him as a democratic socialist, more in tandem with the policies of the Commoners Party and was unable to lead the party. Further division of the party was caused by the appointment of his first ministry, which removed all element of Smiths tenure as Lord Councillor.
Scanlon, with his new Cabinet, pushed on with their agenda. Despite being appointed in the middle of a parliamentary session and having no mandate for his own propositions, Scanlon continued with their implementation with widespread critcism from the opposition benches. By convention, any Lord Councillor who takes up the position during a parliamentary session should either call a parliamentary election to earn a mandate or continue their predecessors policies and election promises until the next parliamentary election is due. Scanlon, while a prominent member of the 3829 election campaign, did not agree with some of the promises laid down by the Smith premiership and thus diverted his course. Maria Thornton, Shadow First Minister and Leader of the Liberal Party was the most virulent opponent of Scanlon's policies. She suggested that a parliamentary election be held for Scanlon's diversions from the Royal Democrat mandate to be justified. Scanlon dismissed these demands and blamed what he called liberal opportunism as the reason for such demands. This claim does have some substance as it was believed by many that Thornton was simply attempting to capitalize off her party's growing popularity.
This political standoff would encapsulate the country until Thornton's resignation 3843. Scanlon and Thornton, despite being largely similar in political views, would become known as the greatest political rivalry in Eroea for decades. On the 14 October 3829, Scanlon announced to the House of his intention to introduce what would become the Affordable Tertiary Education Act, which sought to abolish tuition fees at third level institutions and also establish a government agency to assist low-income families in attending tertiary education institutions. The plan, while popular, was panned for its apparent lack of insight into raising the funds. Scanlon announced upon request that he had the intention of raising tax on upper-class members of Eroean society. This proved to be hugely unpopular, especially with many members of Scanlon's own party and the Conservatives. Thornton agreed to the plan albeit hesitating that it would be unsustainable. The bill was debated in the House for 4 months, the final vote came on the 29 February 3830. By this time, 104 councillors from the Royal Democrats rebelled against the party whip in preliminary votes on the bill. Scanlon, not wishing to risk an election or a divide in his party, did not withdraw the party whip from the rogue members. Instead, he secured the support of 112 councillors from the Commoners Party to support the bill. Thornton allowed members to vote on it as they wish, 79 Liberals voted with the government. The bill passed 611 to 239.
This divide would curse Scanlon over the next 4 years and would make the implementation of his budgets quite difficult. Many of his conservative members of the party would not support measures that led to a rise in income tax to compensate for capital intensive government programs. Thus, Scanlon required the support of the Liberal Party or Commoners Party. The Liberals distrusted Scanlon and Thornton was a virulent opponent of him and his policies. Affiliation with the Commoners Party was also risky as they were often seen as increasingly socialist and such stances were not as tolerable in Eroea at the time. Scanlon would go on to introduce a number of new reforms, such as introducing free health checkups for all minors (under 18). He also introduced the AT Card, which modernized the transport system and allowed all students who were currently attending third-level institutions to use public transport for free. This system came under fire due to possible abuse and by 3833, the program was withdrawn after a number of scandals that involved excessive use of the card. Scanlon also commissioned the construction of 6,500 new educational institutions between the period 3831 and 3834, his government also oversaw the introduction of discretionary items tax (DIT) on cigarettes and alcohol. Along with this tax, Scanlon cut funding to the tourism division of the Department of Transport and Tourism in an effort to reallocate funds elsewhere. This led to a strike by the National Travel Agent Union (NTAU) in 3832 in Argost. Metropolitan Police were ordered to fire pepper spray and water cannons at protesters. It was rumoured that this order came from Minister for the Interior, John J. Swanson; while these allegations were never proven to be true, all opposition leaders denounced the governments actions and demanded Swanson's resignation. Between the 5 October and the 9 Octboer 3832, a committee of the whole house into the matter was held. An motion of no confidence in Swanson was held and it passed. While these motions have no legal binding, Scanlon requested his resignation which Swanson refused. Swanson cited that Scanlon had also signed off on the actions of the Met Police and was equally responsible and thus should resign. Such a resignation would most likely lead to a government collapse, thus, Scanlon sacked Swanson from his position. This severely embittered Swanson and would lead to his resignation from the party and from Parliament. Soon after, Swanson would join the Liberal Party as a campaign adviser, many Cabinet ministers, including the Lord Councillor, accused Swanson of having a personal vendetta against the government since his sacking.
The strike of the NTAU and the Swanson scandal damaged the Liberal-Royal Democrat relationship, however, Scanlon was able to maintain power through his relatively friendly relations with the Commoners Party. Scanlon, despite lacking in pragmatism, maintained a good working relationship with Winifred Abernathy, the First Officer of the Commoners Party (Leader). Due to the volatility of many of Scanlon's backbenchers, he developed a informal agreement with the Commoners Party for support in important government motions. Throughout 3833, Scanlon would consult with Abernathy on various issues of government policy. Such consultations were criticized in the media, by backbenchers, Liberals and Conservatives; many felt that Abernathy had no right to intervene on government matters but the members of Scanlon's cabinet and Scanlon himself thought otherwise. The 3834 budget proved controversial and there were significant signs of Commoners' influence over the budget. One of the most controversial cuts was to STOG plc (State Oil and Gas) to make way for the introduction of the Scanlon Provincial Highway System and the hiring of 12,000 new teachers for second level institutions. The cuts to STOG included 3,000 job cuts, the closing of 6 facilities and a 15.6% pay cut for all executives in STOG. These actions were hugely unpopular and led to the revolt of 59 Royal Democratic councillors on the 16 October 3833. All 59 councillors refused to vote with the party whip, many of these were the councillors who rebelled against the Affordable Tertiary Education Act.
Colonial freedom (3900 – 3955)
Aishur War (3919 – 3926)
Commoner revolt (3931 – 3961)
The commoner revolt is a period of Eroean history centered around the early stages of Nelson Varies' premiership and his Commoners Party. The 3931 election was a landslide win for the Commoners Party due to the high turnout of voters. Traditionally, higher voter turnouts indicated that the Commoners Party were going to capitalize on it. In this case, 79.5% of people turned out to vote and the Commoners Party, with a strong manifesto for change, took 581 seats in the House of Councillors; the single largest majority in Eroean history. The implementation of mandatory voting in Varies' first term would ensure that turnouts were kept high; huge money was also pumped into the new Central Electoral Authority, which aimed to ensure that all people around Eroea got their say in the way the country was ran.
Justinian era (4021 – 4109)
The Justinian era is a loosely defined term for Eroean history during the reign of Justinian I, II and III. As the name suggests, the era began with the accession of Justinian I to the throne upon the death of his father, Claudius IV. The Justinian era is considered an era of further democratization and liberalization of Eroean society. Justinian I was the first Monarch not to have an active role in the running of the military. Unlike his father, he did not include the title Chief Marshal of the Imperial Forces in his style. While he remained the nominal head of the Imperial Forces, this was not part of the image Justinian I was attempting to project and thus he thought best if it went unmentioned. At the time of his accession, Eroea was under the leadership of Jeremy Smith, the Leader of the Commoners Party and Lord Councillor. Smith had only just secured a stable majority, despite years of unstable leadership which marred the end of Claudius' reign. Smith, a virulent populist and
Westers premiership (4038 – 4083)
Emergence of the Commoners Party
Wester primacy (4109 – 4135)
The term the Wester primacy is used to refer the influence of House Wester over Eroean society since the death of Justinian III. This is largely due to Justin Wester, the Lord Primate of the Westerlands from 4041 until 4099 and his influence over the current Monarch. Amadeus II spent the vast amount of his childhood living with his grandfather and mother in the Westerlands. Also during his fathers and grandfathers reign, the Westers held a number of notable positions. Frederick Wester, a first cousin of Amadeus, has served as Lord Chamberlain since Amadeus' ascension. Norman Wester also served as Lord Chamberlain from 4089 until 4102 under Justinian II. Other notable figures include Augustus Wester and Vernon Wester, both Lord Councillors; Albert Wester, Deputy Lord Chamberlain and member of the Imperial Council; Kenneth Wester, Imperial Steward from 4090 until 4103; Benedict Wester, a member of the Imperial Council. This coupled with the fact that the Westerlands are one of the most prominent regions in Eroea due to their military prowess and strong economy often leads to the conclusion that House Wester have the greatest influence in Eroea behind only that of House Meera, the present composition of which is heavily descended from House Wester through Juliana Wester, the Empress of Eroea and consort to Justinian III.
Levdegard's Secession (4135 – 4144)
Levdegard's Secession earns its name from its leader, Vernon Levdegard. During this period, Eukatosia, which had long been a major component of the Eroean Empire, seceded to form its own independent entity. This began on the 19 December 4135, with the passing of the Extended Powers Act in the Eukatosian House of Councillors; this act gave unprecedented powers to First Secretary of Eukatosia, the leader of the colony. This caused a number of political deadlocks with the central Eroean government and culminated in the issuance of National Order 12A, commonly known as the 'Declaratory Statement', which was released on the 1 January 4136. Eroea refuses to declare war on the newly formed State of Eukatosia, citing that it is not a legal sovereign entity and therefore cannot be warred with. General Richard Hermang of the First Land Corps is dispatched to the region with a force of 50,000 men on the 2 January 4136, he is ordered to arrest Levdegard and the entirety of the government of Eukatosia and impose martial rule in Eukatosia, which was declared through incurring provisions of the Emergency Provisions (Central Government) Act 4033.
Within the first number of days, Admiral Kenneth Governor attacks the seaside city of Lerodve in the Verona Province of Eukatosia. He is the captain of the IS Erwin and a large collection of smaller ships, he is ordered to begin the barricading of Eukatosia from outside contact. Lerodve goes on to become the center of Eroea's operational command throughout the war as it attempts to remove Levdegard from power. The Eukatosian Defence Division, which was a unit of the Eroean Armed Forces that was permanently stationed there, swore loyalty to the new government of Eukatosia and would form the core component of Eukatosia's defensive mechanisms. The Eroean Colonial Expeditionary Forces were also mobilized and set to the colony under the command of Field Marshal Leonard van Rutte.
By the middle of 4136, Hermang and his First Land Corps were forced to retreat from the Caledonian Corridor, after being heavily defeated by forces led by James Brandburry. van Rutte led the invasion of Verona, which began on the 3 July 4136 and ended on the 31 November 4137. Movement was slow for the first 4 years of the war as the Eukatosian Defence Division utilized stolen equipment from the Eroean Empire to combat the highly stretched expeditionary forces. Imperial forces made small gains but their progress beyond Verona Province was poor. The Regalian Foreign Legion joined the war in August 4140 and provided much needed support to the exhausted imperial forces. Operation Burning Hawk was launched on the 6 February 4141 and involved a pincer movement around Eukatosian forces in the city of Caswell and its hinterland. The operation was a huge success with Eukatosian forces under the command of Field Marshal Archibald Smith capitulating on the 19 March 4141. With both Caswell and capital of Verona Province, Harholdsecured, a massive assault was launched on the Graffian Plain, which lay between the two urban centers. The Graffian Offensive began on the 1 June 4141 and lasted until 16 May 4142, when the forces of James Brandburry surrendered in the city of Becksen.
The Great Reform (4144 – 4150)
Regalian economic collapse (4153 – 4155)
Sixth Eroean-Seazarian War (4157 – 4060)
New Seazarian Deal
The Benzeen Church is the dominant religion in Eroea by far, with 60.3% of Eroeans claiming to be a member of the Church in the 4108 census. Despite this, only 23.4% claim to be active participants in the Church, the remainder are either lapsed or do not see religious activities as an integral part of their life. The Benzeen Church over the years has lost foothold in Eroean society due to religious reform and social liberalization. During the reign of Cedric I, the High Cleric of Eta've was removed as the supreme head of the Church and replaced by the Monarch. This ended the principle of the Twin Primacy of the Crown and Spirit, which placed the Crown and the Spirit (High Cleric) as equals on religious matters. Since then, the Benzeen Church has been formally headed by the Marquess of Eta've, which is a subsidiary title of the Crown. This change was codified into law by the New Primacy Statute passed on the 4 May 1859. Since then, the Church no longer plays a strong role in Eroean politics and atheism and agnosticism continue to grow in popularity. The Imperial Family are still members of the Benzeen Church and many prominent members of the family and connected branches still actively promote the interests of the Church. The only noble family which does not comply with the teachings of the Benzeen Church is House Jeru, who follow the teachings of the Rotarioan Church.
The Rotarion Church is headed by the Monarch of Rotarion and up until 3056, it was illegal to practice Rotarionism in public as it was seen as treason against the Crown. Since then, laws around public practice of foreign religions have been relaxed, however, a stigma around practicing Rotarionism outside of official grounds in all provinces except Rogash remains. Rogash is the only province which has no laws against the practice of any foreign religion. Parallax is also considered liberal in terms of religious freedom but outright bans all public festivals which commemorate any religion, except those hosted by the Benzeen Church; William Smith, the Prime Minister of Parallax from 4046 until 4109, was blocked in his attempts to ensure that the Benzeen Church was treated like any other religion when within the bounds of Parallax. His moves were blocked by Augustus Wester and his Conservative government in 4042 who disagreed with Smith and argued that he could not ban the state religion. This led to the Wester-Smith Standoff in 4042 and this led many political commentators in Eroea to push the Monarch to advocate for a more secular political sphere, however, their critiques went ignored.
The Healthcare Administration Act 4030 is the main piece of legislation that governs healthcare in Eroea and sets out the rules and regulations of how the health system should function. The act reformed the healthcare system in Eroea, which had been governed by the Varies National Health Act since 3934. The Healthcare Administration Act set out that healthcare is a matter for the provincial legislatures and that the central government would provide subsidies for regional health organisations and also perform audits and standard checks. This move was to help reduce the burden of health expenditure on the central government but proved very unpopular with all provinces except Farah'n at the time of its introduction. Ultimately, the act permitted for provincial legislation to decide whether provinces wished to govern their own health system. Subsequently, all provinces except Farah'n legislated to keep healthcare a national matter, not a provincial one. This proved to be a major defeat for Sean Chandler who had been in office as Lord Councillor for only one year and his lack of control over the health system led to a destabilization in his authority.
Regardless, Parallax would take control of their health system in 4039, with the Westerlands following suit in 4041. The Farah'ni government agency responsible for healthcare administration is the Central Health Bureau; in Parallax, the Smith Health Service (SHS) administrates healthcare and in the Westerlands the Western Health Commission is the executive body for healthcare. All of these agencies are supervised by the Imperial Medical Service (IMS) which retains the right to intervene in all matters of provincial health, however, its most common function is to maintain health standards and provide training to staff and provincial health organisations. In the other provinces, the IMS acts as the authority responsible for healthcare and thus is responsible for the efficient functioning of the hospitals in these provinces in conjunction with the Department of Public Health, which provides funding to all health agencies. There have been failed attempts to forcefully devolve healthcare, the most recent in 4097 by Arthur Hermang, who was aiming to cut government expenditure through the Healthcare Reform (Expenditure) Bill 4097.
Healthcare in all provinces is paid for through the Universal Societal Services Contribution (USSC) and according to the Imperial Exchequer, has one of the highest revenues of any tax in Eroea. The charge was introduced by Nelson Varies in 3934 through his revolutionary health act. Initially, it was highly unpopular but over the course of his first term, the benefits of free healthcare were felt and the USSC was accepted by the majority of citizens in Eroea. Varies would serve as Lord Councillor for a consecutive 55 years before retiring and by the time he had left office, the USSC was considered a national institution in tax policy. The Conservative Noble Party by that time had dropped their opposition to USSC and the tax remains a stalwart component of government tax policy with very few political parties every proposing major changes to it. The VW Medical Assistance Program is a program designed for low-income families to make health insurance more accessible. Health insurance is still required to avail of certain public services and almost all private practices require patients to have an active health insurance policy. Other than the Imperial Medical Service, the Society and Order of Yalani Healers is the largest private health provider in Eroea. Before the IMS was established in 3934, the order was the most prevalent health organisation in Eroea, being endorsed by the Imperial Family. While the order was renowned for its healthcare and had been certified by the Ut'un Standards Commission, it was quite expensive and often led to people being indebted to the order for life if they required extensive medical assistance. Lower-income families were provided healthcare free of charge, however, surgeries would require a loan to be taken out that would be paid by the patient over his/her life until it was paid, or it would be passed on to their next of kin to be paid for.
Education in Eroea is considered a provincial matter, with oversight by the Department of Education and Skills. The Department does not take part in the direct running of school, it simply appropriates funds and carries out inspections to ensure that the funds appropriated are spent accordingly. It also ensures that educational institutions meet the base line that the Department wishes to set for education in Eroea. The National Examinations Bureau and Guild of Academia and Scholars state bodies that engage in examining students progress and constructing the curriculum at primary and secondary education levels, respectively. The Department enforces that all children must attend school between 6 and 16, however, states may opt to expand the range to as far as 4 and 18. The Conclusionary Final Examination is taken by all students after 2 years of study when they are 17-19 in secondary education.
The Eroean Isle is covered in about 11.2 million kilometers of public road networks, most notably the 401,500 km Yalan Provincial Freeway System, the largest highway network on Ut'un. The system began construction in 4040 to replace the insufficient Imperial Road Network. In the first 15 years of construction, 3,000,000 km was built and was expanded again between 4069 and 4073, then again from 4079 to 4085, when it reached 8.4 million km in length. The freeway system was expanded between 4090 until 4096 to its current extent before funding to the expansion of the project was cut by the government of Arthur Hermag. Since 4109, 850 billion over 3 years to redevelop massive sections of the highway as part of the VVT Scheme. Today, the Imperial Road Network is part of the primary route system, which is the next class under the freeway route network, but above the secondary route system.
The government of Eroea composes of elements of representative democracy in a quasi absolute monarchy. This is the most accepted definition of Eroea's governmental structures. Since the passing of the the Imperial Reformation Decree 3776, the responsibility of governing Eroea has been largely delegated to the Parliament, with the day-to-day affairs of governance being handled by the Imperial Cabinet. The Parliament of Eroea consists of two organs: the Chamber of Deputies; and the Imperial Council. The latter acts as the Monarch's personal advisory council. The Monarch is also the third component of governance in Eroea, along with Parliament and the Cabinet.
Under Eroean custom, the Crown is the corporation sole that exercises authority over the Eroean people. It, as an entity, is supreme. It manifests itself, in physical form, through the Monarch. Thus, as the Monarch is the physical embodiment of the Crown, they have absolute power. This has been a principle of Eroean jurisprudence since the establishment of the Eroean state in 1402. In practice, the power of the Monarchy depends on its ability to command the Imperial Forces, or Armed Forces. If the Monarch is unable to command these forces, they are largely irrelevant and the real Monarch is normally the person who commands the most effective army. Historically, this has always depended on the support the Monarch receives from the Lord Primates. This has waned in the last number of centuries, due to the centralization of power, however, it is still important for the Monarch to enforce their rule of law over the provinces. The main function of the Monarch is not to rule directly, or alone, that is a precedent established soon after the ascension of Gregor the Mighty, the first Monarch. Instead, the Monarch should take an role of their choosing, whether it be active or advisory, in tandem with appointing a number of advisers. Traditionally, the Imperial Council and its sub-unit, the Imperial Chancellery, carried out the functions of advisers to the Monarch. Since the abolition of the Chancellery in 3776, the Imperial Council has been slowly eclipsed by the House of Councillors, and later, the Chamber of Deputies – both democratically elected institutions.
The Chamber of Deputies is the more powerful lower house in the Parliament of Eroea. It is democratically elected at the periodic parliamentary elections and consists of a number of representatives, depending on the population of Eroea at the time of each election. The Great Reform Act, the Imperial Reformation Decree and the Monarch's recognition of Parliament gives these elected officials legislative powers. These legislative powers are set by precedent, law and the Monarch's own views on the power of Parliament. Customarily, there is almost always a clear bloc of similarly aligned deputies that win the largest number of seats in the Chamber – these blocs are traditionally known as political parties. The leaders of these political parties are usually the leaders of governments in Eroea. When a party wins a majority of seats at an election, the party leader is invited by the Monarch to the Royal Chambers of the Palace of Yuntvar to accept an offer to become the State Chancellor, the head of government; if they accept, they are appointed as State Chancellor by the – this is done by communicating the decision to the Imperial Council, provincial governments and noble houses. The next day, the State Chancellor submits a list of names who they wish to become members of the Imperial Cabinet. By convention, this is the traditional protocol that occurs and Monarch's very rarely openly object to a State Chancellor or their cabinet, normally, objections are sorted privately between the Monarch and party leader. If the Monarch approves, they issue a writ of royal appointment, which formally appoints all ministers to their respective roles and forms a new Imperial Cabinet under the leadership of the State Chancellor.
Legislation is usually passed by the Parliament. However, the State Chancellor, Imperial Council and Monarch can all approve their own types of legislation. Imperial decrees are pieces of legislation that are only enacted by the Monarch and Imperial Council. Imperial decrees passed by the Monarch (known as an edict) are supreme and cannot be annulled by any other institution except the Monarch themselves. Decrees passed by the Imperial Council (known as decrees-of-council) can be annulled by the Monarch or itself – it cannot be nullified by the Chamber of Deputies. However, the State Chancellor has the power to issue what are known as state orders. These are considered more authoritative than decrees-of-council and can only be nullified by the Monarch or the State Chancellor. By tradition, these state orders are only used in times of emergency, such as during public health crisis and war. These are all examples of primary legislation. The most common form of primary legislation are parliamentary acts, these are pieces of legislation passed by Parliament that have approval of both houses. Royal charters are secondary legislative instruments passed by the Monarch or Imperial Council, they often give specific powers to certain people or corporations. Statutory instruments are legal instruments that are usually passed by government ministers who have been delegated powers under a specific piece of primary legislation. The use of statutory instruments are extensive.
Eroea has a complicated structure but the main political division are the provinces, which each are the dominion of the noble families; there are 8 provinces and 7 noble families. All provinces are subject to the supremacy of the Crown, while in reality they are simply under suzerainty of the Crown. While the Monarch could theoretically take control of any one of the provinces by imperial decree, this power has never been exercised since the foundation of Eroea in 1402. Control over the provinces lies with the noble families, the provincial legislatures and the Parliament. Apart from the Westerlands, all provinces of Eroea are ruled by democratically elected legislatures which may or may not have members of the province's noble family involved. Noble families still collect a tithe but are no longer directly involved in the running of their province unless they are elected to a position of government. There have been various pieces of legislation and statutory instruments published over Eroea's existence that delegate responsibility over domestic matters to provincial legislatures, however, the principle of parliamentary prerogative means that only the national parliament is supreme. After the provinces there are the regions of Eroea, which play a very little administrative role other than to facilitate census'. The most numerous political division are the counties. Each county is theoretically under the dominion of a baron, however, multiple counties are often ruled by a single person and this leads to the ranks in the Peerage of Eroea (baron, earl, marquess, duke, archduke). Baronies do not have any control over their respective counties, except the civil tithe which is paid to them on an annual basis.
Provinces are historic boundaries of the various benzeens that were united during Gregor's Conquest and the Uragni Consolidation. There are 8 provinces, each having their own regional autonomy, but are all still inferior to the Monarch, who delegates power to the central Imperial Government. Much like national level whereby the Monarch has absolute authority over all government actions, the noble families have absolute authority over all government decisions in their region. However, this power is delegated to the provincial legislatures and their respective cabinets, which take the majority of administrative tasks into their hands. The noble families also collect a personal tax called the tithe, which is paid annually. The only region to deviate from this convention is The Westerlands, in which House Wester refuses to accept the legitimacy of any other political power and maintains complete control over all matters in the region.
As Argnoria is considered part of the crown demense, it is directly administered by the Monarch of Eroea and their subordinates. By convention, every 5 years the ruling government appoints the Commission for Argnoria, which is led by the Lord Lieutenant. The Commission acts as the executive and legislative body for Eroea, which each Commissioner handling legislation relevant to their own department. Prior to 4075, the region was directly controlled by the Secretary for Argnoria, but this post was abolished in favour of a commission due to widespread protests in Argnoria. Many viewed the secretariat position as being easily abused and essentially mimicking the office of Lord Primate of Argnoria, which is a subsidiary title of the Crown.
House Yalan is the only noble family in Eroea to be democratically elected to run their own constituent region. The citizens of Farah'n elects the House of Peers, the unicameral legislature of the region. The House has 903 members and has elections every 8 years, the last being in 4109,
Parallax has a unicameral legislature called the Assembly of State Deputies, this assembly has been controlled since Common Folk Party leadership election, 4109 by the government of Leslie McBride, who took over the role from longstanding Prime Minister, William Smith. Despite the Common Folk Party dominating Parallaxian politics for a number of decades, the province is considered the most democratic out of the other 8. House Chrysler have ceded almost all control over Parallax to the Assembly; they now receive a dividend each year from the Assembly, take part in ceremonial procedures, retain a number of private estates and holdings in state companies. The Prime Minister of Parallax is the most senior government official and is elected by the Assembly after each subsequent legislative election. Since 4046, the Common Folk Party has ruled Parallax. The Common Folk Party was the precursor to the Commoners Party and retains its own individual identity as the Parallax wing of said party. Many of the founders of the Commoners Party came from Parallax and wished to push the democratization of Eroea further than that of the reforms by Ingrid Rey, the first Lord Councillor and the Imperial Reformation Decree.
The Westerlands is the only region not to have a democratic government; Argnoria is seen as having a democratic government since the House of Councillors is made up of democratically elected officials. The Westerlands are controlled solely by House Wester, and more specifically, the Lord Primate of the Westerlands. The Lord Primate appoints the members of the Western Council, a council of advisers which handles the administrative and bureaucratic duties of the Westerlands. Due to the fact that the council is appointed by the Lord Primate, the Westerlands scores the lowest in democratic reviews of the province compared to the other 7 regions. Successive administrations of the Westerlands have argued that the centralized control over the nations affairs ensures that the government functions efficiently as possible.
On the Western Council, there is a number of Lord Secretaries, each in charge of an area of policy through their respective secretariats. The Lord Secretary for Internal Affairs is considered the head of government in the Westerlands and has supremacy over all other Lord Secretaries. The Lord Secretaries normally do not consult each other on legislative matters that strictly relate to their secretariat, however, the Western Council meets twice weekly to discuss cross-secretariat legislation and also a general briefing about the legislative agenda of the council at the time. This model of government has often been highlighted as one of the most efficient autocratic governments in the world and is often attributed to the Westerland's economic supremacy, behind that only of Yuntvar. The independence of the Lord Secretaries, coupled with the lack of legislative bureaucracy has led to changes being drafted and implemented quickly.
Colonies and other territories
Often the country of Eroea is incorrectly called the Eroean Empire, however, this term is incorrect. The Eroean Empire refers to the colonies and territories under the administrative control of the sovereign nation of Eroea, the empire itself is not a sovereign entity in international law. All colonies are considered personal dominions of the Monarch who delegates the vast majority of administrative tasks to the Parliament, which then delegates power to regional authorities. These colonies and territories are not considered a unitary state with the Eroea and are in essence separate nations under the suzerainty and administration of Eroea, recognising the supremacy of the Monarch and the Parliament.
- Crown territories – Only Eukatosia and Seazar fall into the category of crown territory. This operate similarly to the provinces and have very little involvement from the government, especially in Eukatosia. Both territories have their own devolved legislatures, cabinets and create their own policy in most areas bar foreign affairs, defense and some areas of taxation.
- Crown colonies – Often simply called colonies, they do not necessarily have autonomy like the territories. Some do have devolved legislatures, but all colonies have a representative on the cabinet who actively partake in the colonies' affairs.
- Crown dependencies – These are smaller colonies who are ruled directly by the government. Most dependencies are ran by the Department for Colonial Administration, while others are ran by independent commissions appointed by the government. They are the most numerous and all uninhabited colonies of Eroea, along with external military bases, are considered crown dependencies.
There are three dominant political parties in Eroea; Royal Democratic Party, Conservative Noble Party and Commoners Party. The Royal Democratic Party, commonly called the 'Royal Democrats', were formed on the 28 June 3720 after the merging of the Progressive Royalists and the Democratic Party. The party has been described as a centrist party, often with populist and big tent policies. Their motto since the passing of the Imperial Reformation Decree 3776, which was spearheaded by their leader at the time Ingrid Rey, has been 'The trusted founders'. On the 6 October 3776, the Conservative Noble Party was founded by Fergal Chrysler and Peregrine Jebediah Wester, the Lord Paramount of Parallax and Westerlands. The party's aim was to ensure continued involvement of nobles in the government process. It pushed for a strong Monarch, opposed regional legislatures, supported low taxes on corporations and nobility and wanted to increase the power of the Imperial Council; they are generally considered a right-wing party. The Commoners Party was founded on the 28 October 3776. It originates from the Civil Rights League and the Common Folk Party. The party does not advocate for the abolition of the Monarchy as that would disqualify it from registering as a party, instead, it advocates for the establishment of a democratic nation with imperial consent. The party has not been able to achieve full democratization but has often spearheaded programs to further establish democratic institutions in Eroea. The Liberal Party was once a major player in Eroean politics, especially in the 3800s under the leadership of Maria Thornton and Ned van Sprang. It was dissolved in the 3920 after being out of power for 40 years and losing the vast majority of its voting base it had; it had 4 spells in government, its most successful leader being Phillip de Bruene.
Foreign relations in Eroea are managed by the Office of the State Chancellor, Imperial Foreign Directorate and the Department of External Affairs. The Imperial Foreign Directorate directs missions to the Monarch directly, while the other two often conduct government business abroad; the most active of these agencies is the Department of External Agencies, led by the Minister for External Affairs. It is a member of the Central Committee of the International Ut'un Society. It is also a member of the International Trade Co-ordination Board (ITCB). Almost all sovereign nations have embassies in Eroea, the vast majority of which are located in the city of Argost, though some are located in Farah'n and Alexandria City. The Republic of Juno is often considered to be Eroea's closest diplomatic partner, formerly being the Principality of Juno within Eroea. The Regalian Empire is another close trading partner of Eroea, however, has often clashed with Eroea in various diplomatic disputes. The Socialist Republic of Faedor has been at war with Eroea since 3995 as part of the Faedor-Eroean conflict; this conflict has been fought on a number of issues but the stark ideological differences between the two countries is the main factor. The Seazarian Far East has also been at war with Eroea on a number of occasions, the most recent being the Sixth Seazarian-Eroean War from 4057 until 4060. The conflict was fought on issues such as Eroean expansion in Seazar through its colony of Eroean Seazar and its reluctance to demilitarize the zone and grant independence to a number of border states in the region. The New Seazarian Deal was ratified on the 3 June 4062 and aims to pacify tensions in Seazar.
In recent centuries, especially since the rapid democratization of Eroea under Gregor IV, the country has moved away from its traditionally conservative and imperial roots. While the Imperial Family and the empire remain a popular and important aspect of Eroean life, their significance has been downplayed in recent decades as many members of royalty have decided to step back from direct involvement in the nations affairs and instead to maintain a more ceremonial stance in various situations. Regardless, the power of the Crown is still omnipotent in Eroea and its supremacy is still respected by many of the citizens of Eroea. The Horace Doctrine has a significant indirect influence on Eroean culture; Joseph Horace Smith, a close personal adviser to John V (2043–2057), recommended that the creation of economic prosperity would ensure that the institution of the monarchy would survive. This directly led to John and his successors adopting a system of benevolent autocracy in governing Eroea. This, however, led to an increased delegation of powers and subsequent tolerance of commentary contrary to the political establishment. This tolerance allowed for Eroean culture to diversify and the reign of John V is considered the beginning of modern Eroean culture that moved away from the Gregorian philosophy that had dominated Eroean life since the foundation of Eroea in 1402.
Marriage, customs and traditions
Marriage and premarital sex
The societal unit of family is considered an integral part of Eroea. While only the Monarch is considered sovereign, the family unit is considered semi-autonomous. This is in conjunction with the Imperial Family who are widely known in Eroean society and often seen as an example for citizens to live up to. The fundamental principle that family is built upon is marriage, specially between male and female. While homosexuality has been decriminalized since 4089 and same-sex marriage since 4109, there is still a stigma around homosexuality in the country. The Imperial Family still take an active stance that homosexuality should not be encouraged and campaigns by government organizations to encourage acceptance have all been shot down by members of royalty and nobility. A notable exception to this is Parallax, which is considered the most liberal and democratic province in Eroea and is active in promoting LGBTQ+ rights.
While religious marriage is encouraged, preferably through the Benzeen Church, secular marriages are becoming increasingly popular. Eamon Scanlon was the first Lord Councillor and prominent government member not to be a member of any specific religion, he however never identified as an atheist as such a belief would be indicative of no supreme deity which contradicts the very foundation of the Eroean monarchy. If a marriage is recognized by the Benzeen Church, it is automatically recognized by the state through the Department of the Interior. Any Benzeen priest can administer marriage, however, the power to annul a marriage lies with the Monarch (the Monarch has delegated powers to the Imperial Council who have further delegated them to an annulment commission). A civil marriage may take place in the presence of any civil administrator of the Department of the Interior, civil marriages can be annulled by certain internal procedures of the Department and do not require approval from the Monarch. Specifics of wedding ceremonies such as attire, celebratory events, wedding cuisine and other aspects vary widely from community to community, however, Benzeen marriages traditionally consist of a tuxedo being worn by the groom (male) and a white dress being worn by the bride (female); celebrations often include drinking and a reception at a venue selected prior to the wedding. Cuisine depends on the province in which the wedding is held. Traditional members of Eroean society believe that once a couple have been married, they must consummate the marriage. Another traditional view is that no person should marry more than once and widowhood is a natural part of the human condition. This view has become increasingly unpopular in society and marrying after divorce/widowing is allowed, however, polygamy is explicitly outlawed under the Fundamental Beliefs Act 4101, which codified the longstanding Eroean convention of rejecting polygamy. Since then, polygamy can lead to a criminal record and hefty fines.
Premarital sex is no longer frowned upon in Eroea, this changed largely during the Thornton-Scanlon Era, when both Lord Councillors did not believe that premarital sex was immorally wrong. This was further reinforced during the premiership of Nelson Varies who believed that premarital sex in relationships was a healthy foundation for marriage. Adultery and other forms of cheating are frowned upon immensely by Eroean society; until 4055, it was possible to initiate legal proceedings against a spouse who was suspected of cheating. Despite calls for federalization, the power to legislate for matters relating to marriage is still solely vested in the Parliament and provincial legislatures have little to no say in the matter.
Death is considered a celebration in Eroea and attempts are made to inject optimism into the ceremony. It is seen as the movement of life from one world to another and is considered part of the natural progress of life. Prior to death, members of a religion are usually blessed by their respective ecclesiastical representatives in an effort to ensure that their travel to the afterlife is safe and enjoyable. Many religions such as the Benzeen Church celebrate death, however, secular societies of Eroea do not and it is a particularly sombre for all involved. All funerals consist of practicing the tradition of lying in repose to allow for family members and friends to pay respects, the time allocated to lying in repose is the choice of the immediate family but usually lasts no more than 2 days. For state officials, this is usually conducted in a local state building; for ordinary citizens, the family home is often used. Donations to the family are frowned upon, however charity towards organizations that attempt to make a persons death more comfortable (e.g. hospices) are encouraged and considered some of the most honorable acts for Eroean citizens to perform; however, since the Wesleyan scandal in 4103, faith in hospices and other institutions has been rocked. The scandal was far reaching and led to the Terminal Care Regulation Act being introduced by Joseph Xao, the Lord Councillor at the time.
There are a number of public holidays, officially called imperial holidays, in Eroea. These holidays are include the vast majority of businesses except emergency services from shutting down. The Department of Public Health and HM Policing Service offer bonuses to employees who work on public holidays and this allows for such essential services to continue functioning even though the day is designated to be a voluntary day of work i.e. a day where no citizen is legally obligated to attend work. Prior to the codification of public holidays in 4067, they were based on precedent and usually imperial decree. For example, Gregor's Day, which is held on the 21 December of each year, celebrates the foundation of the modern state of Eroea and was established through the First Imperial Decree issued on that date. Other days such as the Annual Day of Rest came about during the mass strikes of 1805 when the majority of public sector employees refused to show up for work over pay disputes. Their argument was consolidated by sympathy strikes by private sector workers and the government soon came under pressure to resolve the issue. The strikes began on the 3 June 1805 and since then the 3 June 1805 has been declared the Annual Day of Rest and is taken off by the vast majority of the labour force in Eroea. There are also provincial public holidays but these are strictly monitored by the government and must be approved by relevant legislation in the House of Councillors. Since 4067, the Working Week (Reform) Act has dictated public holidays in Eroea. The act was sponsored by the government of Augustus Wester who were aiming to reduce industrial disputes in Eroea and to boost economic growth. The act was popular and was amended by the so-called Hermang-Workers Cooperation Act in 4089.
Spring Festival and Spring Sorrowing
The Spring Festival is held during the first two weeks of March after a good winter, the decision to hold the Spring Festival falls to the Imperial Council who look at the agricultural outputs the 8 Eroean provinces over the winter and judge them according to a precedent set for the 2 decades previous. If the harvest is deemed successful, a festival is held, otherwise, it is up to provincial legislatures to decide if they wish to hold an event known as the Spring Sorrowing. Unlike centuries ago in Eroea, the harsh realities of winter very rarely have affects on the food supply in Eroea. Before the automation of agriculture in 2089, it was common for harvests to fail after a very rough winter. While this did not always lead to famine, it did lead to economic and social hardship. The festival is ran by the Benzeen Church but has gathered a following outside of the church and by many its celebration is essential to ensure that the oncoming year goes successfully. The festival usually involves prayer to the Benzani Hyperions (deities) for their generosity. Another common tradition is also sending letters of gratitude to the Imperial Family for them blessing the country with a good harvest. The latter of these traditions has waned in recent centuries, especially after the Great Eroean Famine in 3711; this saw nearly 2.3% of the population of Iserlana die due to a terribly harsh winter and poor government intervention. Many casual followers of the Benzeen Church questioned why the Imperial Family would wish such a fate upon Iserlani's, this caused a public relations storm and ecclesiastical figures within the Church had to defend the Imperial Family and recuse any direct involvement with the issue. This led to the practice of sending letters of gratitude to the Monarch falling out of favour, however, a vast majority of traditionalist citizens in Eroea and the nobility continue this practice.
The Spring Sorrowing is the opposite of Spring Festival and involves lamentation over previous Spring Festivals and prayer for the return of good weather. Like the Spring Festival, the decision to hold a Spring Sorrowing is now purely ceremonial and is used as an indicator of the harshness of winter. The Spring Sorrowing is not vibrant like the Spring Festival and often includes various forgiveness ceremonies, where citizens of Eroea beg for their forgiveness before the gods for the misdeeds. The often gloomy nature surrounding the Spring Sorrowing has led to many figures calling for its discontinuation. The event is no longer officially supported by the Monarch or the government, organizations such as the Association for Spiritual Growth have also been established to replace the event with more positive events. However, the practice is still extremely popular in the Westerlands and Farah'n, where traditionalism is seen as having a stronger presence there. The last national Spring Sorrowing to be held was in 4080 under the government of Vernon Wester. His successor, Arthur Hermang ended government endorsement of the tradition with the Cultural Rethinking Act 4083 which stated that it was a matter for provincial legislatures to decide whether the tradition of Spring Sorrowing should take place.
The practice of Spring Festival is still formally endorsed by Eroea and is considered a major event in the Eroean cultural calendar. Each day, sectors of the workforce are allowed annual leave with full pay to attend events. Parades, party's, barbecues and firework displays are among the various forms of celebration that take place. The Monarch, or one of their representatives, also make a speech to the nation during this time called the Spring Address. There is also a minor increase in social welfare benefits and a number of state sponsored celebrations are held in various communities around Eroea. Themed television programs also take place and the famous TV gameshow known as New Dawn is also held during this time. Due to the cost to the Treasury of holding this festival, the government also intervenes on whether it should be held or not, especially during times of economic downturn. During the Hermang Economic Crisis in the 4090s, there were many years that had winters which were considered positive, however, due to cuts in public expenditure, the festival did not take place.
Eroean cuisine is rich and diverse, encompassing various types of food and beverages. Cuisine varies from province to province and in many cases, county to county. The Gregorian Agricultural Age was when Eroea began developing its own unique culinary identity. This occurred during the 1420s when various governmental reforms encouraged new farming techniques which brought about various new foodstuffs and items. Prior to this, Proto-Eroean cuisine dominated the Eroean diet. This was mainly based upon various varieties of Rotarion cuisine and drew heavily from the culinary and food traditions in the Kingdom of Rotarion.