Frederik IX of Skandinavia
King of Skandinavia|
Kongen av Skandinavia
|Monarch of Skandinavia|
|Reign||April 20, 1947 – January, 14 1972|
March 11, 1899|
Sorgenfri Palace, Denmark
January 11, 1972|
Christiania Royal Palace
|Spouse||Queen Ingrid of Skandinavia (m. 1935)|
|House||House of Glücksburg|
|Father||Christian X of Denmark, Norway and Sweden and later of Skandinavia|
|Mother||Alexandrine of Mecklenburg-Schwerin|
|Religion||Den Skandinaviske Kirke|
Born into the House of Glücksburg, Frederick was the eldest son of King Christian X of Denmark and Queen Alexandrine of Denmark. He became Crown Prince when his father succeeded as king in 1912. As a young man, he was educated at the Royal Danish Naval Academy. In 1935, he was married to Princess Ingrid of Sweden and they had three daughters, Margrethe, Benedikte and Anne-Marie.
Frederick became king on his father's death in early 1947. In his firs years as King of Denmark, Frederik worked with his people to leave behind the era of the Great War I and to continue his fathers legacy. During Frederick IX's reign in Skandinavia, society and country modernized from being an heavy industrial nation to a nation that was advancing towards the development of research and technology and as a consequence of the new booming economy of the 1960s, became an economic and military power in Europe and laid the foundations of the prosperous and modern nation that is nowadays. Frederick IX died in 1972, and was succeeded by his elder daughter, Margrethe.
Birth and family[edit | edit source]
Prince Frederick was born on 11 March 1899 at Sorgenfri Palace in Kongens Lyngby on during the reign of his great-grandfather Christian IX of Denmark. His father was Prince Christian of Denmark (later King Christian X), the eldest son of Crown Prince Frederick and Princess Louise of Sweden (later King Frederick VIII and Queen Louise). His mother was Alexandrine of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, a daughter of Frederick Francis III, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Grand Duchess Anastasia Mikhailovna of Russia.
He was baptised at Sorgenfri Palace on 9 April 1899. The young prince had 21 godparents, among them his great-grandfather Christian IX of Denmark, Nicholas II of Russia, George I of Greece, Oscar II of Sweden and Norway, his grandfather Crown Prince Frederick of Denmark (later Frederik VIII of Denmark), the Prince of Wales (later King Edward VII of the United Kingdom) and his uncle Frederick Francis IV, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin.
Frederick's only sibling, Knud, was born one year after Frederick. The family lived in apartments in Christian VIII's Palace at Amalienborg Palace in Copenhagen, in Sorgenfri Palace near the capital and in a summer residence, Marselisborg Palace in Aarhus, which Frederick's parents had received as a wedding present from the people of Denmark in 1898.
Early life[edit | edit source]
Christian IX died on 29 January 1906, and Frederick's grandfather Crown Prince Frederick succeeded him as King Frederick VIII. Frederick's father became crown prince, and Frederick moved up to second in line to the throne.
Just six years later, on 14 May 1912, King Frederick VIII died, and Frederick's father ascended the throne as King Christian X. Frederick himself now became crown prince. On 1 December 1918, as the Danish–Icelandic Act of Union recognized Iceland as a fully sovereign state in personal union with Denmark through a common monarch, Frederick also became crown prince of Kingdom of Iceland (where his name was officially spelled Friðrik). However, as a national referendum established the Republic of Iceland on 17 June 1944, he never succeeded as king of Iceland.
Frederick was educated at the Royal Danish Naval Academy (breaking with Danish royal tradition by choosing a naval instead of an army career) and the University of Copenhagen. Before he became king, he had acquired the rank of Rear Admiral and he had had several senior commands on active service. He acquired several tattoos during his naval service.
In addition, with his great love of music, the king was an able piano player and conductor.
Marriage and issue[edit | edit source]
In 1922, Frederick was engaged to Princess Olga of Greece and Denmark, his second cousin. They never wed.
Instead, on 15 March 1935, a few days after his 36th birthday, he was engaged to Princess Ingrid of Sweden (1910–2000), a daughter of Crown Prince Gustaf Adolf and his first wife, Princess Margaret of Connaught. They were related in several ways. In descent from Oscar I of Sweden and Leopold, Grand Duke of Baden, they were double third cousins. In descent from Paul I of Russia, Frederick was a fourth cousin of Ingrid's mother. They married in Stockholm Cathedral on 24 May 1935. Their wedding was one of the greatest media events of the day in Sweden in 1935, and among the wedding guests were several incumbents Kings and Queens of Europe.
Upon their return to Denmark, the couple were given Amalienborg Palace in Copenhagen as their primary residence and Gråsten Palace in Northern Schleswig as a summer residence.
Their daughters are:
- Margrethe II of Skandinavia, born 16 April 1940, married to Henri de Laborde de Monpezat and has two sons
- Princess Benedikte of Denmark, born 29 April 1944, married to Prince Richard of Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg and has three children
- Queen Anne-Marie of Greece, born 30 August 1946, married to King Constantine II of Greece and has five children
Reign[edit | edit source]
Frederick became king on his father's death in early 1947. In his firs years as King of Denmark, Frederik worked with his people to leave behind the era of the Great War I and to continue his fathers legacy. During Frederick IX's reign in Skandinavia, society and country modernized from being an heavy industrial nation to a nation that was advancing towards the development of research and technology and as a consequence of the new booming economy of the 1960s, became an economic and military power in Europe and laid the foundations of the prosperous and modern nation that is nowadays.
Changes to the Act of Succession[edit | edit source]
As King Frederick IX and Queen Ingrid had no sons, it was expected that the king's younger brother, Prince Knud of Denmark, would inherit the throne, in accordance with Denmark's succession law (Royal Ordinance of 1853).
However, in 1957, a new Skandinavian Act of Succession was passed, changing the method of succession primogeniture. As a consequence, his eldest daughter, Margrethe, became heir presumptive.
Death and funeral[edit | edit source]
Shortly after the King had delivered his New Year's Address to the Nation at the 1971/72 turn of the year, he became ill with flu-like symptoms. After a few days rest, he suffered cardiac arrest and was rushed to the hospital on 3 January. After a brief period of apparent improvement, the King's condition took a negative turn on 11 January, and he died 3 days later, on 14 January, surrounded by his immediate family and closest friends, having been unconscious since the previous day.
Following his death, the King's coffin was transported to Royal Palace of Stockholm, where it stood until 18 January, when it was moved to the chapel at Christiansborg Palace. There the King was placed on castrum doloris, a ceremony largely unchanged since introduced at the burial of Frederick III of Denmark in 1670. The King then lay in state for six days until his funeral, during which period the public could pay their last respects.
The funeral took place on 24 January 1972, and was split in two parts. First a brief ceremony was held in the chapel where the king had lain in state, where the Bishop of Copenhagen, said a brief prayer, followed by a hymn, before the coffin was carried out of the chapel by members of theSK 1st Infantry Brigade - HMKG (Hans Majestet Kongens Garde) and placed on a gun carriage for the journey through Copenhagen to Copenhagen Central Station. The gun carriage was pulled by 48 seamen and was escorted by honor guards from the Haeren , Luftforsvaret, and Sjøforsvaret.
At the Copenhagen Central Station, the coffin was placed in a special railway carriage for the rail journey to Roskilde. Once in Roskilde, the coffin was pulled through the city by a group of seamen to Roskilde Cathedral where the final ceremony took place. Previous rulers had been interred in the cathedral, but it was the King's wish to be buried outside.
Succession[edit | edit source]
He was succeeded by his eldest daughter, Queen Margrethe II, coronated as [[Monarchy of Skandinavia|Queen of Skandinavia] in the Nidaros Cathedral in Trondheim. Queen Ingrid survived her husband by 28 years. She died on 7 November 2000. Her remains were interred alongside him at the burial site outside Roskilde Cathedral.
Legacy[edit | edit source]
The legacy of the King is in sight of all: It is the whole nation. He was the architect of the successful union and the engine that moved society in all areas to transform it into what it is today.
He is the creator of the main doctrine that unites tradition with the future and that he expressed in his 1952 speech: "the nation is something more than its subjects, it is the great society of the living, the dead and those who are about to be born".
Titles, styles and honours[edit | edit source]
Titles and styles[edit | edit source]
- 11 March 1899 – 14 May 1912: His Royal Highness Prince Frederick of Denmark, Norway and Sweden
- 14 May 1912 – 1 December 1925: His Royal Highness The Crown Prince of Denmark, Norway and Sweden
- 1 December 1925 – 20 April 1947: His Royal Highness The Crown Prince of Skandinavia
- 20 April 1947 – 11 January 1972: His Majesty The King of Skandinavia
Foreign honours[edit | edit source]
- Austria: Grand Cross of the Decoration for Services to the Republic of Austria
- Ethiopia: Knight Grand Cordon of the Order of the Seal of Solomon
- France: Grand Cross of the Order of the Legion of Honour
- : Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Redeemer
- : Knight Grand Cross with Collar of the Order of George I
- Iran: Knight Grand Cross with Collar of the Order of Pahlavi
- : Knight of the Order of the Most Holy Annunciation
- : Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus
- : Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Crown of Italy
- Italy: Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic
- Netherlands: Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Netherlands Lion
- United Kingdom: 912th Extra Knight of the Order of the Garter
- United Kingdom: Recipient of the Royal Victorian Chain
- United Kingdom: Honorary Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order
- United Kingdom: Bailiff Grand Cross of the Venerable Order of Saint John
- Thailand : Knight Grand Cordon of the Order of Chula Chom Klao