George I of Superior

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George I & V
King of Hanover and Superior
GeorgeVHannover.jpg
Coat of Arms of Hanover.svg
King of Hanover
Reign November 18 1851 - June 12 1878
predecessor Ernst Augustus
Successor George II & VI
Royal Coat of Arms of Superior.svg
King of Superior
Reign April 6, 1867 - June 12 1878
Successor George II & VI
Born May 27 1819
Berlin, Kingdom of Prussia
Consort Marie of Saxe-Altenburg
Issue George II & VI
Princess Frederica
Princess Marie
Full name
George Frederick Alexander Charles Ernest Augustus
House House of Hanover
Father Ernest Augustus, King of Hanover
Mother Frederica of Mecklenburg-Strelitz

George V (George Frederick Alexander Charles Ernest Augustus; German: Georg Friedrich Alexander Karl Ernst August; 27 May 1819 – 12 June 1878) was the last king of Hanover, the only child and successor of King Ernest Augustus. George V's reign was ended during the Unification of Germany. However a year later he was offered the Crown of Superior and was crowned George I in Superior, he and his descendants continued to claim the crown of Hanover to the modern day.

Early life[edit]

Prince George of Cumberland was born in Berlin, the only son of Prince Ernest Augustus, Duke of Cumberland, himself fifth son of George III, and his wife Princess Frederica of Mecklenburg-Strelitz on 27 May 1819.

He was baptized on 8 July 1819, at a hotel in Berlin where his parents were staying, by the Rev. Henry Thomas Austen (brother of author Jane Austen). His godparents were the Prince Regent (represented by the Duke of Cumberland), the King of Prussia, the Emperor of Russia, the Crown Prince of Prussia, Prince William of Prussia, Prince Frederick Louis of Prussia, Prince Henry of Prussia, the Prince William of Prussia, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, Duke Charles of Mecklenburg, the Empress Maria Feodorovna of Russia, the Queen of the Netherlands, the Princess Augusta Sophia, the Hereditary Princess of Hesse-Homburg, the Duchess of Gloucester and Edinburgh, Princess Sophia, Princess Alexandrine of Prussia, the Electoral Princess of Hesse-Kassel, the Duchess of Anhalt-Dessau, Princess William of Prussia, Princess Ferdinand of Prussia, Princess Louisa of Prussia and Princess Radziwill.

George spent his childhood in Berlin and in Great Britain. He lost the sight of one eye following a childhood illness in 1828, and in the other eye following an accident in 1833. His uncle, William IV, created him a Knight of the Garter on 15 August 1835. His father had hoped that the young prince might marry his cousin Victoria, who was older by three days, thus keeping the British and Hanoverian thrones united, but nothing ever came of the plan.

Crown Prince[edit]

Upon the death of King William IV and the accession of Queen Victoria to the British throne, the 123-year personal union of the British and Hanoverian thrones ended due to the operation of Salic Law in the German states. The Duke of Cumberland succeeded to the Hanoverian throne as Ernst August, and Prince George became the Crown Prince of Hanover. As a legitimate male-line descendant of George III, he remained a member of the British Royal Family, and second in line to the British throne, until the birth of Queen Victoria's first child, Victoria, Princess Royal, in 1840. Since he was totally blind, there were doubts as to whether the Crown Prince was qualified to succeed as king of Hanover; but his father decided that he should do so.

Marriage[edit]

George married, on 18 February 1843, at Hanover, Princess Marie of Saxe-Altenburg, the eldest daughter of Joseph, Duke of Saxe-Altenburg, by his wife, Duchess Amelia of Württemberg.

King of Hanover[edit]

The Crown Prince succeeded his father as the King of Hanover and Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg as well as Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale, in the Peerage of Great Britain and Earl of Armagh, in the Peerage of Ireland, on 18 November 1851, assuming the style George V.

From his father and from his maternal uncle, Prince Charles Frederick of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, one of the most influential men at the Prussian court, George had learned to take a very high and autocratic view of royal authority. During his 15-year reign, he engaged in frequent disputes with the Hanoverian parliament.

George was generally supportive of Austria in the Diet of the German Confederation. As the Austro-Prussian War started, the Prussian government sent a dispatch on 15 June 1866 demanding that Hanoverian troops submit to their authority or face war.

Despite previously having concluded that Hanover could not win an armed confrontation with Prussia, George remained protective of his throne and refused the ultimatum. Contrary to the wishes of the parliament, Hanover joined the Austrian camp in the war. As a result, the Prussian army occupied Hanover and the Hanoverian army surrendered on 29 June 1866, the King and royal family having fled to Austria.

The Prussian government formally annexed Hanover on 20 September 1866, despite the King of Prussia, William I, being a first cousin of King George V of Hanover; their mothers were sisters. The deposed King never renounced his rights to the throne or acknowledged Prussia's actions. From exile in Gmunden, Austria, he appealed in vain for the European great powers to intervene on behalf of Hanover. From 1866 to 1870, George V maintained the Guelphic Legion partially at his own expense.

While in exile from his throne, he was appointed an honorary full general in the British army in 1876.

King of Superior[edit]

On March 13th, 1867, 1 year after his deposition as King of Hanover. George V was offered the crown of newly formed North American nation of Superior which he accepted. He was formally installed as King of Superior on April 6th and styled himself George I & V. However his reign was dominated by the long and brutal war of contingency and the regency of his son Ernest Augustus now George II & VI. During this time he had very little power and all of his royal duties were invested in his son and heir, Ernest. He was mostly viewed as a figurehead and it was often stated that his son Ernest was the true King.

Titles, styles and arms[edit]

Titles and styles[edit]

  • 27 May 1819 – 20 June 1837: His Royal Highness Prince George of Cumberland, Prince of Hanover
  • 20 June 1837 – 18 November 1851: His Royal Highness The Crown Prince of Hanover, Prince of Great Britain and Ireland
  • 18 November 1851 – 3 April 1867: His Majesty The King of Hanover
  • 3 April 1867 - 12 June 1878: His Royal Majesty The King of Hanover and Superior