Republic of Tondo

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Republic of the Tondolese Islands
共和國的呂宋
Republika ng Tondo
Motto: 
敬虔,人類,環境和民族主義
"Maka-Diyos, Maka-Tao, Makakalikasan at Makabansa"
"For God, People, Nature and Country"
Anthem: 
提名土地
Lupang Hinirang
(English: "Chosen Land")
File:Luzon (orthographic projection).svg
Capital
and largest city
Manila
Official languages Tondolese
Demonym Tondolese
Government Unitary presidential constitutional republic
TBD
TBD
Legislature National Assembly
Senate
House of Representatives
Independence from Sierra
May 8, 1942
June 6, 1946
February 2, 1990
Area
• Total
1,043,330 km2 (402,830 sq mi) (28th)
• Water (%)
0.61% (inland waters)
Population
• 2020 estimate
160,421,124 (9th)
• 2010 census
148,538,078
• Density
153.8/km2 (398.3/sq mi) (76th)
GDP (PPP) 2020 estimate
• Total
$6.477 trillion (4th)
• Per capita
$40,376 (34th)
GDP (nominal) 2020 estimate
• Total
$4.471 trillion (5th)
• Per capita
$27,872 (31st)
Gini (2010) 44.4
medium
HDI (2020) Increase 0.896
very high · 25th
Currency Tondolese dollar (TD$) (TND)
Time zone Manila Standard Time (UTC+8)
Date format mm-dd-yyyy
dd-mm-yyyy (AD)
Drives on the right
Calling code +2
ISO 3166 code HN
Internet TLD .hn

Tondo (通多; Tondo), officially referred to as the Tondolese Republic (共和國的通多; Kiyongukok ng Tondo or Republika ng Tondo), is an archipelagic country in Southeast Asia. Situated in the western Pacific Ocean, it consists of an excess of ~8,000 islands, that are categorized broadly under five main geographical divisions from north to south: Luzon, Visayas, Mindanao, Borneo, and Micronesia – moreover, the provinces of North Sulawesi and Gorontalo constitute an exclave. Its location in the Pacific Ring of Fire, alongside its proximity to the equator renders the country prone to both earthquakes and typhoons; however, it also endows it with abundant natural resources and some of the world's greatest biodiversity. Tondo has an area of approximately 1,043,330 km2 (402,830 sq mi), and a population of exceeding ~150 million. As a result, it is the eighth-most populous country in the world, and is ranked twenty-third in area. An additional 15 million Tondolese live overseas, comprising one of the world's largest diasporas. The capital and most populous city is Manila, with the surrounding urban agglomeration being the most extensive in the world, with over forty million residents. Tondo is bound by the South China Sea to its west, the Tondolese Sea to the east, and the Celebes Sea to the southwest. It shares maritime borders with Taiwan and China to the north, Japan to the northeast, North and South Vietnam to the west, the Kingdom of Sierra (specifically, the constituent state of Hawaii) to the east, and Malaysia and Indonesia to the south.

Excavated stone tools and fossils of butchered animal remains have pushed back evidence of early hominins in the archipelago to as early as 709,000 years; however, the metatarsal of the Callao Man, dated to 67,000 years ago, is the oldest human remnant found in the archipelago. The Aeta (also referred to as the Negritos), constituted the archipelago's earliest known inhabitants. However, they were eventually displaced by successive waves of Austronesians peoples, who in-turn introduced agriculture, weaving, pottery, primitive metallurgy and other Neolithic cultural practices. By the first millenia, various competing maritime city-states known as "barangay" were established – fostered by early exchanges with the Malay, Indian, Arab and Chinese civilizations. In 1294 or 1295, China under the Yuan dynasty occupied Luzon and established its central government in Manila. However, the territories were administered as vassals rather than directly; nevertheless, it resulted in the sinification of the Manila Bay region, which decisively placed the archipelago under Chinese culture influence. Christianity in the form of Nestorianism would also become established during this period, thus aiding interactions with foreign merchants coming from Arabia, and later, Europe. By 1500, the Kingdom of Tondo – just one of many such states in the region – was attacked by the forces of the Bruneian Empire. While it ultimately failed, it marked the beggining of a century-long process of "modernization", aided by the establishment of closer ties with the Ming dynasty and continued sinification. Both the increasing territorial extent and legitimacy of Tondo were solidified by victories in the First and Second Castillian Wars, fought against the Bruneians and the Spaniards, respectively. The 17th century was the most definitive period of Tondolese history; during this period, which coincided with the Ming–Qing transition, hundreds of thousands of Chinese immigrated – including numerous high-profile Ming pretenders and royalists. By 1685, one-tenth of the population was foreign-born; yet this demographic upheaval fostered an unprecedented level of socio-economic development, which was increasingly critical in resisting Spanish encroachment. Following the fall of Kingdom of Tungning in 1683, Tondo was left as the last vanguard of the Southern Ming movement. In 16XX, Lakan TBD, whose mother was Princess TBD of the House of Zhu (the ruling house of the Ming dynasty), assumed the Mandate of Heaven and promulgated the establishment of the "Southern Han dynasty"; viewed by contemporaries as a legitimate successor state of the Ming, modern historiography instead ascribes the title "Tondolese Empire" to it to differentiate it from the preceding one based on mainland China. These acts were consolidated through various intermarriages between the Lakandula and the House of Zhu, thereby absorbing the remnants of the latter into the former.

The Tondo achieved its height during the Tondolese Golden Age, during which its economy grew due to ballooning trade with European colonial powers under the Compact of Manila – which established the city as the western hub of the trans-Pacific trade. A wide variety of lucrative cash crops were cultivated and exported overseas, including cotton, abaca, sugarcane, coffee, cocoa, indigo, and tobacco; often on large plantation estates manned by dozens of serfs. In addition, fine cloth, ceramics, and jewelry were also traded. This openness to trade was a stark contrast to the Qing dynasty, which established a policy of Haijin, which imposed a ban on all maritime trade except coming through the port of Canton. Confucianism became the state philosophy and institutions of bureaucratic government, including imperial examinations and the Six Ministries system, were institutionalized. Driven by a need for more land, and encouraged by massive naval expansion, the empire annexed large swaths of the Malay archipelago and effectively blocked European expansionism for a century and a half. This process commenced with the conquest of the Spanish East Indies in 17XX, exploiting Spain's pre-occupation with the concurrent War of Spanish Succession. Thus, Mindanao and Palawan were under placed full Tondolese control, while Borneo and Micronesia were incorporated as new possessions; the Spaniards recognized these new changes in-exchange for continued control of the ports of Puerto Princesa and Zamboanga (albeit under a lease), and the islands of Basilan and Guam. Additionally, Java, Sulawesi, Lombok, Bima, Perak, Johor, Palembang, Aceh, and portions of Papua were all conquered as semi-independent dependencies, with a revised version of the Chinese tributary system being appropriated for this purpose. During the reign of the TBD Empress (1739–1801), the empire reached its apogee after achieving victories against two of its traditional enemies, the Qing and the Spanish Empires, in the Second Northern War and the Third Castillian War, respectively. In spite of resistance from the conservative scholar-gentry and a papal bull prohibiting Confucian ancestor worship, Christianity (spread primarily by Jesuit missionaries) continued to grow in prominence; today, most Tondolese profess Tondolese Nestorianism (which is in communion with the Roman Catholic Church) and there are numerous fine examples of late baroque architecture.

The Batavian War, which was fought against the Dutch in 18XX, saw the cession of Java and other minor islands. This event highlighted the technology disparity that had developed between Tondo and its European rivals; conflicts against the latter over the course of the 19th century saw the loss of other overseas possessions. Towards the end of the century, Tondo became subjected to unequal treaties and it was forced to cede even its core territories: Borneo was partitioned between the British and the Dutch, the French purchased Basilan, and the Spaniards acquired sovereignty over the Caroline Islands, Palawan, and the Zamboangan peninsula. Brewing discontent with the conservative Confucian elite and foreign influences led to the Tondolese Revolution, which spawned the short-lived First Tondolese Republic, followed by the bloodly Tondolese–Sierran War (1898–1902). Sierran rule saw numerous cultural changes, most prominently the disestablishment of the Catholic Church as the state religion and the introduction of English as a secondary language of government, education, business, industry, and among upper-class families and the literati. Tondo, then referred to as the "Sierran East Indies", was administered as an unincorporated organized territory. It achieved a moderate degree of independence following the Precursor to Independence Act of 1930, which established the Tondolese Commonwealth. The Second World War devastated the country, resulting in the death of an eighth of the population (~5,000,000) and left Manila as the second-most damaged Allied city. Following its independence, Tondo became a staunch supporter of Sierra, and actively opposed communist movements in Asia. It played a controversial role in Malaysia–Indonesia confrontation (the Konfrontasi), during which it forcibly reasserted its control over Borneo despite both Commonwealth and Indonesian opposition. In 1971, however, the League of Nations – under the pressure of the Anglo–American powers – recognized it as rightful Tondolese territory. It had a tumultuous experience with democracy, with the rule of infamous dictator TBD marked with the often brutal repression of political dissent (often leftist sympathizers), and the pursuit of fostering stability and economic growth at the expense of civil liberties. He was overthrown in 1986 by the now-famous People Power Revolution, which was renowned for its non-violence and established a precursor to the later June Struggle in Korea and the Revolutions of 1989 in Eastern Europe.

Due to the Pasig–Marikina Miracle, Tondo is now the fourth-largest economy by both nominal GDP (after China, the United Commonwealth, and Japan) and power purchasing parity (after China, the United Commonwealth, and India). It is considered part of the Six Asian Tigers and is by far the largest economy in Southeast Asia. It is a multicultural country, with numerous ethnolinguistic groups including Tagalogs, Visayans, Ilocanos, Bicolanos, and Hui Tondolese. It is unique in being one of the two Christian-majority nations in Asia, though it has also significant Muslim (20%), and Buddhist minorities (5%). Due to its potent economic projection, its rapidly growing military (especially naval) capabilities, and regional soft power projection supplented by a large diaspora, Tondo is classified by analysts as a regional power and as a potential great power; however, numerous contemporary issues remain, including pervasive regionalism, lingering wealth disparities, secessionist sentiments within the Muslim minority coupled with resurgent jihadist movements, and the aftermath of recent natural disasters such as Typhoons Ondoy and Yolanda, and the 2019 Luzon Earthquake.

History[edit]

Prehistory[edit]

Archaic period[edit]

See also: History of the Tondolese Republic (900–1292)

Formative period[edit]

Main article: Middle Archaic period of Tondolese history
Naturales 4.png
Binondo Arch.jpeg

A wide variety of proto-states developed before the Yuan invasion. The most prominent was the "Kingdom of Luzon", which in reality was just a loose alliance network (confederacy) of city-states that recognized the primacy of Tondo; however, the term is misleading, as Tondo did not claim nor exercise territorial sovereignty. The island of Luzon was invaded by the Yuan dynasty (led by Kublai Khan) in 1294 – a move initiated by the refusal of Tondo to pay tribute. At the start of the invasion, the archipelago in its entirety had just approximately 750,000 inhabitants, of which ~200,000 resided within the present-day borders of Manila. Due to the inability of the natives to effectively protect the islands (owing to their lack of centralization and low population), the campaign was a resounding success; by the end of the campaign two years later in 1296, the entirety of southern and central Luzon had been taken – an area spanning from the southern Cordilleras to the Bicol peninsula. The Yuan exploited the aspects of the local socio-political structure to assert their rule, most notably: the emphasis on the suzerain-vassal relationship, the allegiance of less populous city-states to more populous ones, and the substantial enslaved-population. As a result, while the local leaders readily-submitted to Yuan suzerainty while remaining autonomous. Despite the Yuan controlling the area (at least nominally) under its fall in 1368 (though the outflow of tribute ceased in 1351 – around the start of the Red Turban Rebellion), there are no surviving records of any appointed official presiding over the archipelago – though it is noted that if there was indeed one, their powers would be largely ceremonial.

There was a substantial influx of ethnically-Chinese settlers; mainly from the southern provinces of Fujian and Guangdong. Since the majority of these were merchants, they seldom brought their family members (which characterized later Chinese migration to the archipelago – especially in the 17th and 19th centuries), and thus, intermarried with local women. At the start of this period, the economy was a backwater. The overwhelming majority of individuals were subsistence-level farmers, engaged in rice cultivation. As there was a marginal surplus, there was a negligible class of craftsmen or artisans (that were of native extraction). Trade overseas was minimal, and the main medium of the commercial transaction was through bartering (though for high-value transactions, gold beads are used). The main products traded overseas were: gold, hides, and skins, (dyed) cotton cloth, wine, honey and beeswax, and date palms. At the close of the period, however, the economy achieved a moderate degree of commercialization. Bullion bars made of gold and silver became common (especially for purchase/sale of luxury goods), with an emergent mercantile class – mostly of Chinese descent – present in developing urban cores. Cash crops and agricultural commodities (cane sugar, cotton, abaca, indigo, and copra oil) were produced on medium-scale plantations utilizing the labor of bondsmen.

The growth trade overseas – especially with China – led to the second wave of acculturation. The nobility (maginoo) began to wear apparel typical of Chinese and Japanese nobility, though laws were promulgated prohibiting the usage of silks by commoners. They also used imported porcelain jars in-addition to locally-crafted jars known as tapayan, which continued to be prized (both domestic and in foreign markets) for their ability to enhance the fermentation process in alimentary goods such as tea, fish sauce, and shrimp paste. More efficient kiln technology was introduced, thus prompting a shift from earthenware to stoneware within locally-produced ceramic wares. The first use of Japanese and Chinese gunpowder weapons and artillery was recorded, though no large-scale revolts or battles were occurring during the period. While the phenomenon of miscegenation was certainly widespread (albeit varied significantly on a regional basis), those of mixed-race ancestry did not form a distinct community. With the influx, however, of Buddhist clergymen, Buddhist practices were reinforced and evolved to become distinct from the Hindu–Buddhist syncretism practiced prior. Islam waned in influence within Luzon – although it was further consolidated in the southern regions, while Christianity in the form of Nestorianism (then Roman Catholicism, the predominant faith now) was introduced. However, their followers remained negligible. Anito (idolatrous animism) continued to be the religion of the masses.

The end of Yuan rule in 1368 did not disrupt the socio-cultural and economic development of the archipelago. The principalities of Tondo, Manila, and Namayan all further cemented their primacy; all three collectively had about 100,000 inhabitants (albeit spread between multiple centers) and thus became the first true characteristically-urban or semi-urban entity within the Tondolese archipelago. The population was also recorded to have doubled to 1.5 million based on the interpretation of collected tribute. Despite the progress, records remained sparse – much of information about the era is derived from archaeological sources or interpreted from oral traditions.

Luzon League[edit]

The "Luzon League" is considered a neologism. Though the various barangay in the area aligned with the paramount settlements of Tondo and Manila, scholars consider this to be more of an "alliance network" as the latter two did not have nor claim to have territorial sovereignty over surrounding lands.

There was much progress under Yuan suzerainty. Under Yuan suzerainty, Tondo became further intertwined with mainland Asia - especially China (though relations with China already began during the Song dynasty. Similarly, customary law - which had been passed down orally - was codified. This included components of civil law (such as laws on property, inheritance, marriage, etc.) and criminal law (i.e., what are the crimes and their punishments); it also listed who was in the privy council and outlined their respective roles and duties. China sent about one or two junks annually - though this was sufficient to provide the islands with a supply of porcelain wares and scrap iron. The cities of the Pasig River: Tondo, Manila, and Namayan grew rich from the practice of reselling Chinese goods to other islands - an enterprise which they would later monopolize. Other sources of revenue were tributes, trading tariffs, and customs duties/anchoring fees. Nevertheless, Tondo remained an economic backwater compared to its mainland neighbors. The population was low - 1.5 million. This prevented the full exploitation of the archipelago's resources and hindered economic development. About of the estimated 200,000 people who lived in Manila Bay, about 6,000-43,000 people lived in the areas comprising Manila's historic core. Other urban or semi-urban settlements were far smaller: perhaps 20,000 people lived in Panay's capital, while estimates for Cebu were around ~2,500 - half the threshold for an "urban" settlement.

The Abrahamic religions were introduced to Luzon during this time. Islam, which already had a hold over southern Mindanao, competed with Christians (Nestorians from both China and Arabia) in Luzon. However, both faiths incorporated native beliefs and practices - thus resulting in very syncretic and heterodox forms of both. Orthodox Christianity would only spread starting the sixteenth century, with European contact (and interactions with the Jesuits and Dominican orders) and the influx of Chinese and Japanese Christian refugees fleeing persecution. As Tondo was under the cultural influence of India and Indianized states in Malaya and Indonesia, Hindu-Buddhist tradition continued to be dominant among Luzon's aristocracy.

Interactions with Brunei[edit]

  • Sultan Bolkiah sought to expand influence in the Tondolese archipelago (esp. Tondo & Maynila itself, who were wealthy)
    • marriage to Laila Menchanai (Sulu Sultan)
    • attack on Tondo > refounding of Maynila as a satellite, Kota Selurong (now a walled settlement w/ a wooden palisade, & raised earthworks)
  • Salalila, son of Dayang Kalangitan, became Rajah
    • he converted into Islam
  • Salalila ruled over Maynila, Tondo, and Namayan under a personal union
  • Christianity and Islam competed for converts
    • however, they were recognized by the populace as the same religion (until the late 16th century, when Christianity would "win out" due to decline of Brunei)
  • after death of Salalila, realms were split between Lakandula and the Mother of Ache
    • non-Muslim Tondo now shared its political influence w/ Maynila (it already shared the monopoly on Chinese goods: Tondo had the port, but Maynila had the ships)
    • both polities had close familial ties to Brunei
  • Ache would have a territorial dispute w/ Lakandula
    • he would be sent by his mother to Brunei, to serve as a commander
  • by the time of Spanish contact, the realms were ruled by Rajah Matanda & Sulayman, and Lakandula

Castillian Wars[edit]

  • Portugese would arm Tondolese with arquebuses and naval guns (native lantaka too few in number)
  • Tondolese would win out, due to higher numbers
    • Spaniards cannot mobilize much locally, despite superior weapons
  • Spanish influence would be limited to Visayas, Mindanao, and several outposts in Borneo
    • asides from Puerto Princesa and Zamboanga, and other garrison-towns, Spanish colonization would be limited in scope (meta = far less extensive than irl, but more intensive in said two cities)
  • independence of Luzon affirmed
    • it would strengthen relations with the Ming to deter Spanish advances

Luzon Rajahnate[edit]

Consolidation[edit]

Rajah TBD the Great
  • Manila, Namayan, and Tondo fell under his control
  • he asserted his claim over Luzon
    • tribute
  • rajah's household troops are expanded
    • becomes his 'army'
  • datu
    • obliged to lead their vassals (maharlika) into battle
  • 'six ministries' appropriated from China
    • however, filled w/ Chinese appointees
  • infrastructure
    • at the time, Manila was surrounded by a palisade on raised earth-works
    • settlements organized under urban grid lay out, use of Chinese-style courtyard houses by some of the elite

Koxinga's Invasion[edit]

  • Koxinga invaded Tondo shortly before his death
    • aided by Ming royalists who fled to Manila
  • Tondo would thus become a client state of the Kingdom of Tungning (based in Formosa)
    • Rajah's aided Ming royalist cause by giving supplies and men – ostensibly as tribute
  • Chinese settlement would accelerate due to the Qing–Ming transition
    • mainly along the coast (especially in Manila Bay area and Pangasinan)
    • they would establish the core of many cities
    • Chinese would quickly acculturate, and many would marry native women
  • reforms during this period:
    • household registry (intended to monitor movement of Chinese settlers, natives were underreported)
      • all Tondolese given surnames, usually of Chinese (Hokkien) origin; some adopt surnames from native languages (usually originating as epithets) or from the full name of their ancestors (i.e., "Cojuangko")
    • coinage was standardized, as to stabilize the economy
    • sugar was cultivated (as in Formosa), which was then sold to Europe
    • imposition of the Great Ming Code (not necessarily enforced)
  • eventually, Qing would reconquer Taiwan in 1683
    • seeing the fight as futile, Zheng Keshuang would voluntarily surrender, and would later be ennobled; his descendants would serve under the Eight Banners
    • pro-war faction – led by Zheng Dexiao, Huang Liangji, Xiao Wu, and Hong Gongzhu, would flee to Tondo, along w/ a large part of the navy
    • Ming remnants would also flee to Tondo (though some would already live in Tondo prior to this point)
  • Rajah TBD would reassert his full powers w/ the dissolution of the Kingdom of Tungning
    • however, the House of Koxinga – now in exile – would be given the position of "Great Commandant"; they'd continue to be influential in Tondolese affairs
  • while Tondo would regain full independence, there would still be a large and potentially-restive Chinese element
  • invited by Rajah TBD, Jesuits would become a major component of the court
    • they would mediate relations w/ the Spanish (and to a lesser extent, other Europeans)
    • transmit European technology & hasten Christianization
    • help counterbalance Chinese elements within his court

Imperial era[edit]

Establishment of the Jian dynasty[edit]

Politics during this period would be dominated by a fear of conquest by a foreign power – either by the Qing (unlikely given its isolationism), or by Spain (which could be emboldened by the loss of Tondo's patron, Ming China). The debate over the status of ethnic Chinese, who comprised around 10% of the population – certainly the majority in towns and cities, would also be prominent.

In 1686, Rajah TBD wed off his only child and daughter, Dayang Luwalhati, to Prince Zhu TBD – the Xnd-generation descendant of Zhu Shugui (the last Ming pretender), and the head of the House of Zhu in Tondo. The following year, Dakila – the later Dawu Emperor, would be born. As kinship was bilateral (both maternal and paternal lineages are recognized) in Tondolese culture, he was thus recognized as the heir of both the Lakandula and the Zhu families. Dakila was initially conferred the era name "Jianji" (meaning "firm base").

Upon his birth, Rajah TBD proclaimed the Jian dynasty (大堅王朝; Dàjiān wángcháo, Tākian Ôngtiâu). The term "jian" (堅) means "resolute" or "unyielding", and is composed of the phonetic component meaning "firm" or "strong", while the semantic component means "ground". The latter is important, as in Chinese ..., the earth element defeats the water element (the term "qing", which means "pure", is associated with the water element).

However, the state was also referred to as 大南 (Dànán / Tāilam) or the "Great South", and 大境 (Dàjìng / Tāikéng) or the "Great Frontier"; both of the terms stressed its supposed status as a new region of China.

  • his grandson, Dakila, becomes the Jianji Emperor ("firm base")
    • Rajah TBD becomes the regent until he becomes of age
  • Rajah TBD then embarks on a bunch of reforms – aided by Koxinga TBD, as well as his other ethnic Chinese allies in his court
  • elite adopt Chinese dress and customs
  • economic reforms
    • taxation reform (land tax, corvée – which was commutable to a poll tax, tariffs)
    • government monopolies on iron, salt, and foreign trade (which must pass through Manila)
  • military reforms
    • maharlika caste is abolished, as they are obsolete
    • a Chinese-style army made of peasant conscripts is established, and headed by career officers (at this point, the veterans of Koxinga's wars)
    • Chinese-style junks replace native warships
    • Tondo purchases, and later, produces a lot of gunpowder weapons
  • administrative
    • adoption of Six Ministries
    • adoption of imperial examinations
    • four-tiered system of adminstration (province, circuit, prefecture, and lastly, the barangay)
    • status of maginoo became tied to civil service, with the duties of the datu now equivalent to a Ming county magistrate
  • caste system, which was in a system of differentiation/weakening, was modified
    • maginoo = landed gentry
    • timawa = freemen (merchants, craftsmen, smallholders, etc.)
    • alipin = serfs

Portrait of the Dawu Emperor.
  • in 1707, Jianji would reach majority (21 years)
    • he would rename himself the Dawu emperor ("Great Martiality")
    • headed by Bureau of Chinese Affairs
  • The population of pure ethnic Chinese, most of whom arriving during the Ming–Qing transition, was believed to be 5–10%. This meant their population was 500,000, out of a total of 5 million. The number of those with partial Chinese ancestry was even higher, owing to a long history of immigration dating back to the Yuan. It is believed perhaps 16–25% of the Tondolese genetic makeup could be traced to China – equivalent to having one grandparent of Chinese ancestry.
  • Under the Bureau of Chinese Affairs, thousands of ethnic Chinese were relocated (sometimes forcibly, others through incentives) from the coast to the interior to stimulate the economy. The Chinese were recognized for their dexterity in commerce; even to this day, ethnic Chinese – separate from those who have intermarried and assimilated with native Tondolese, dominate the economy in Sarawak. The relocations also served to weaken the affinity to mainland China, and acclimatize them with their new home and the natives; similarly, miscegenation was also promoted though there was an issue of conflicting marital and familial customs.
  • continued sinification
    • enforcement of Great Ming Code
    • Tondolese Mandarin becomes court language; however, Tondolese Hokkien would become lingua franca
    • Chinese characters begin to be used to write Tagalog and other regional languages
    • affected largely only the urban population
  • names
    • first names = calqued (nobles) or transcribed (masses)
    • surnames = transcribed (nobles) or given, usually from master (masses)
  • under Jesuit influence, Tondolese Church of the East agrees to enter sui iuris communion w/ Roman Catholic Church
    • supported by Dawu Emperor
  • 1720s – Chinese Rites Controversy
    • Tondolese Church of the East complies w/ ruling (largely unenforced, with many continuing ancestor worship)

Tondolese Golden Age[edit]

Zhide Empress (r. 1740–1801) in old age. Under her rule, the Tondolese Empire reached its zenith – spanning from Borneo from the South, to the Batanes Islands to the North.
  • Zhide Empress ("supreme virtue")
    • born 1719, died 1801
    • was wife of the TBD Emperor, after he died, she ruled as regent for her son – and then after his death, as Empress regnant

Despite the Bourbon reforms, Spain's Asian colonies continued to be rather unprofitable. Much of the land was overgrown with jungle (making them unsuitable for plantation agriculture), and due to the region's low population (the population of the region probably did not exceed a million inhabitants) the Spanish could not mobilize enough labor to convert these lands into farmland. Similarly, christianization efforts were in vain: asides from the colonial towns and their environs, the majority of the population continued to adhere either to Islam or native folk religions.

In the mid-18th century, the Spanish became embroiled in the Seven Years War - thus putting their already poorly-defended Asian colonies in a poor defensive position. In 175X, the Zhide Empress discussed the idea of invading Spain's colonies to reunify the archipelago and to expel the Spanish menace once and for all; despite the protests of the Jesuits, she decided to go forth with the plan under the encouragement of Sir. TBD, a British diplomat who was also a member of the Tondolese court. Tondo amassed an army of XX,XXX soldiers and XXX ships - which were armed with cannons bought from the British and Portugese. The Tondolese quickly conquered Visayas and Mindanao, and established their claim to Borneo (which was nominally held by the Spaniards). The cities of Puerto del Rey, Zamboanga, and Pasangen were briefly-occupied by the British; however by the end of the war, it was retroceded to the Spanish without the input of the Tondolese. Hostilities between the Spanish and Tondolese were concluded in the Treaty of TBD (176X), which saw the recognition of limited Spanish sovereignty over the Sulu archipelago and the Zamboanga peninsula, and the continuation of Spanish rule in Puerto del Rey under a lease.

The Spanish did not consider the loss of Visayas and Mindanao a critical loss, as their Asian colonies' main source of income - the trans-Pacific trade, continued unperturbed. The Spanish also did not have to spend money controlling a restive Muslim/pagan majority. However, the withdrawal from the Spanish from the region resulted in many of the colonial towns being deserted, with the few Spanish and mestizos who remained being expelled and resettled in territories leased to the Spanish. The expulsions marked the end of centuries of Spanish rule in the region - with the only testament to Spanish presence being the town centers, which were built in the colonial baroque-style. Some of these deserted towns, however, would form the nucleus of future cities - such as Iloilo, and Sugbu. While freed from Spanish rule, the Visayans and Mindanaoans found themselves under the rule of the sinified, Luzonese elite.

  • many of the captured territories saw the reassertion of indigenous culture; nevertheless, the colonial towns survived and served as the core of the new cities
    • expulsion of Spaniards and mestizos from areas not controlled by the Spanish (settlement atl was less extensive – being limited to garrison-towns and the two major ports; Mexican elements were assimilated early on and Spanish settlers being segregated from the population)
    • return to native dress (though the Spanish style of dress was limited to the elite, and town-dwellers
    • in Mindanao, many crypto-Muslims converted back to Islam, but would go into conflict with their new overlords (who are also Christian – albeit Nestorians)

In 176X, the Zhide Empress declared a campaign to 'pacify' the island of Borneo. About 200 junks, and 10,000 troops (half of which were musketeers) were sent to Borneo during the first expedition. They succeeded to take the city of TBD, as a result, the northern half of the island fell to Tondolese rule. The first settlers described Borneo as an island 'full of head-hunters and cannibals', and doubted the viability of a commercial colony on the island. On the second campaign, which occured in the following year, the Tondolese managed to take the ports of Banjarmasin, Pontianak, and TBD.

  • 1770s – conquest of Borneo
    • Borneo was rich in resources and land; ethnic Chinese settlers were sent there to help develop the economy
    • Borneo was administered by a bunch of vassals, which relinquished control over their diplomatic and military affairs to Tondo but otherwise maintained their autonomy
  • the arts would flourish:
    • export porcelain and glassware (as local demand for porcelain was relatively low)
    • baroque painting (very strong religious themes)
    • Chinese-style landscape painting and calligraphy
    • "earthquake baroque" architectural style emerges
  • religious upheaval

Under her reign, tobacco and coffee began to be cultivated. Together with sugar, abaca, and indigo, they formed the five primary trading goods of Tondo.

  • economic development
    • coffee and tobacco started to be cultivated; together with sugar, they constituted the primary trading goods of Tondo (abaca, indigo, coconut products, and tropical fruits would emerge as other major cash crops starting in the 19th century)
    • Manila would grow from 200,000 inhabitants at her ascension in 1740, to 500,000 by the time of her death (the population in 1700 was 100,000 – half of whom were Chinese)

sugar, abaca, tobacco, coffee, indigo

Spread of Christianity[edit]

Main article: Christianity in Tondo, Catholic Church in Tondo, History of Christianity in Tondo
Original Image of the Santo Niño de Cebu.jpg
Front view of The Cathedral in Intramuros, Manila.jpg

Christianity was introduced into the Tondolese Islands during the period of Yuan suzerainty – specifically, sometime during the early 14th century. However, the form of Christianity introduced was Nestorianism, as opposed to the Roman Catholicism practiced today. In addition to emphasizing the split nature of Christ, Nestorians also practiced the Syriac rite as opposed to the Latin rite. Inevitably, many of these early Christians incorporated elements from both native animism and Chinese folk religions (such as the practice of ancestral veneration), despite the early church condemning these as examples of idolatry. By 1500, it was estimated perhaps 10,000 people within the archipelago were Christian – mainly ethnic Chinese trading colonies in the Manila Bay area. The majority of these were members of the Church of the East, though a few were possibly Catholics converted by Franciscan friars.

However, under the influence of the Ming dynasty, which the primordial Tondolese state sought to consolidate its ties with (as a deterrent against European aggression), Christianity became illegal. Christianity nevertheless persisted, as these edicts (as with the majority of laws in the early years) were not enforced. Sporadic localized persecutions did occur – however, this was more prominent among those of East Asian heritage. The vast majority of the populace would not only tolerate Christianity but would be receptive to it due to its attractive doctrines. Under the Treaty of Jolo (which concluded the First Castillian War), the Spaniards were guaranteed the right to proselytize within select ports – most prominently, the capital of Manila. This move effectively legalized Christianity within these regions, and as a result, many crypto-Christians chose to relocate to them. Many Chinese and Japanese Christians also fled to these regions, owing to the general tolerance of Christianity. A combination of these factors was responsible for why Manila became a firmly Christian city by the late 17th century, exacerbated by higher population growth among converts (who had rejected abortion) and the influx of Chinese Christians due to the turbulent Ming-Qing transition.

In 1700, the Church of the East in Tondo was believed to have constituted about 20% of the population. This figure was perhaps 30–50% in Central Luzon. One of the major reasons why the religion was so successful was because missionaries would claim that both Chinese and indigenous cultures had always believed in the Christian God, and therefore, Christianity would represent the "completion" of their faith. By this point, however, the primary form of Christianity practiced had shifted to folk Catholicism. The influence of Spanish missionary groups had led to the near-marginalization of Tondolese Christianity's Nestorian origins. The only major differences between it and Roman Catholicism were a lax attitude to clerical celibacy (permitting the ordination of married men to the priesthood) and the usage of the Peshitta instead of the Latin Vulgate; the Syriac rite was rendered obsolete far earlier. Also, native Tondolese mythology and some rituals remained. Confucian beliefs and terminologies were also sometimes used in the interpretation of Catholic doctrine – which was encouraged by the Jesuits. In spite of their theological convergence, it was only until the end of the Third Castillian War and the church's prohibition of Confucian-style ancestral veneration (in according to the papal bull), did a sui iris communion with the Roman Catholic Church occur.

Decline and modernization[edit]

The Barong Tagalog, and the Baro't saya, were developed in the 19th century from native 'proto-types' under the influence of Western dress.

In the early 19th century, the Dutch East India Company began to settle the southern coast of Borneo, which was sparsely-populated at the time.

  • beginnings of opium crisis
    • was ignored
  • Sultan of Brunei is pressured into giving land to Thomas Brooke
    • to avoid offending the British – one of their main trading partners, Tondolese accept this
  • Thomas Brooke founds the Raj of Sarawak; it becomes a separate vassal under (nominal) Tondolese suzerainty
    • Sarawak Raj would grow at expense of Bruneian Sultanate, due to territorial concessions
    • only in 1888 would it become British territory
  • Dutch–Tondolese War (of TBD)
    • a Dutch squadron would defeat a numerically-superior Tondolese force (comprised of outdated ships)
  • progressive loss of southern terrritories:
    • southern Borneo (Tondolese vassals) to the Dutch
    • rest of Sarawak to the White Rajahs (British protectorate starting 1888)
    • Brunei proper secedes, accepts British protectorate status
    • Sabah (from Sulu Sultanate) ceded to the British
    • sale of Basilan to the French
    • leased territories Puerto Princesa, Sulu Islands, and Zamboanga ceded to Spain
    • numerous concessions made to European powers (in Manila Bay Area)

Defeat in the Dutch–Tondolese War of 18XX marked the progressive decline of Tondolese control over Borneo. Humiliating treaties with European powers (known as "unequal treaties") led to the loss of prestige, weakening its sway over the region and its self-image as the true successor of the Ming dynasty.

However, Tondolese statesmen - unlike their counterparts in China or Korea, were quick to realize the importance of Western institutions in consolidating the state's socio-political foundations. Under the guidance of the TBD Emperor, Tondo saw the modernization of its government, economy, and education. Tondo adopted the 18XX Constitution, the first in Asia. It affirmed the sovereign power of the Emperor, and his supreme command over the army and navy. The TBD Emperor also allowed all men and women of age, and of property, the right to vote for public offices. However, only less than 2% of the population (the wealthy) exercised this right, due to general political apathy and a required poll tax. Tondo also adopted a form of the Napoleonic Code, which replaced the Great Tondolese Code (which itself is based on the Great Ming Code).

It became increasingly clear that for Tondo to modernize, it needed to also westernize. The government compelled the nobility to adopt Western attire and for males, to cut their top-bun - instating a hefty tax on those who refused to. In order to distance itself from its Chinese roots, the government renounced Confucianism as its official ideology. While imperial examinations continued to be held, its content emphasized modern legal and political theory, rather than Confucian canon. This ultimately resulted in widespread cheating and a low passing rates (as the test candidates knew almost nothing about Western social and political systems), and imperial examinations were abolished altogether in 185X. In 184X, the TBD Mission was sent to Europe - primarily France and Spain. The mission traveled Europe in hopes of learning more about its social and economic systems, so they can be replicated in Tondo. In order to educate the populace, a public education system was created in 185X and primary education (which spanned six grades) was made mandatory. While school attendance remained low as many poor families only sent their children to school a couple days a week, by 1900, about 85% of the population was literate. The government also invited thousands of Westerners (European and Anglo-American) to teach in Tondo's schools, and to serve as 'government advisors'. The number of 'government advisors' peaked at ~3,000 in the 1870s, and by the time of the program's abolition, there were only 500 government advisors left.

The government also pursued aggressive economic reforms. The Bank of the Tondolese Islands (BTI), was established in 185X. It also began to print a new paper currency, called the Tondolese 'cash' (文). Previously, transactions involving money used either silver taels, or pieces of eight. The land tax and the practice of corvée was abolished; instead, an income tax, a sales tax, and an excise tax on certain goods (such as alcohol and tobacco), were implemented - bringing in the government substansial revenue. The government also reluctantly abolished serfdom in 186X - though to conform to the wishes of the nobility it did not give the serfs land or capital. As a result, most ex-serfs continued to work for their former masters under a system of sharecropping (which remained the dominant form of land tenure until the 1950s).

In 185X, the government opened all Tondolese ports to foreign trade - not just Manila. As a result of this openness and the oepning of the Suez Canal (halving the travel time from Europe to Tondo), foreign trade boomed. Despite the government's effort to establish a modern capitalist economy, Tondo continued to be a typical plantation economy characterized by minimal manufacturing and a large landholding elite. Tondo's exports were dominated by four products: sugar, abaca (also called 'Manila hemp'), tobacco, and coffee. Sarawak, a Tondolese vassal until 188X, was also a leading producer of peppers and natural rubber. Apart from cotton, Tondo imported little from overseas - resulting in a substansial trading surplus. By 1898 - at the eve of the Tondolese Revolution, Tondo had a per capita GDP (in 1990 Geary-Khamis dollars) of $1,050 - the highest in Asia. Tondo's wealth was evident in the greater number of infrastructure projects it had undertaken during the 19th century, which put its economy and standard of living far higher than its Asian neighbors and even some European countries at the time. This included a railway system in Luzon (18XX), a tramcar network for Manila (18XX), and Asia's first steel suspension bridge (18XX). The government also undertook 'beautification' projects, most prominently in Manila, wehre they constructed Western-style edifices and restored the older portions of the city. Underpinned by this peace and prosperity, the population boomed: in 1800, the population was 7.5 million; by 1900, it was 30 million.

Despite this, Tondo's territorial contraction continued. In 184X, the White Rajah's forced the Tondolese government to increase the territory given to them. Under British pressure, the TBD Emperor acceded to this demand. Tondo's borders remained stable until the 1860s, when the French pressured Tondo to give up the island of Basilan. Tensions culminated in the Franco-Spanish Expedition of 186X, resulting in Tondo's defeat. The Treaty of Zamboanga (186X) saw the island of Basilan placed under a Franco-Spanish condominium (later becoming fully French), and the ports of Puerto del Rey and Zamboanga City placed under direct Spanish rule. Humiliated by this defeat, the already-old TBD Emperor abdicated and placed his son TBD Lakandula, onto the throne. He adopted the regnal name 'Kaiming' (开明), which meant 'enlightened'. The Kaiming Emperor continued his father's reforms, but emphasized addressing Tondo's military deficiencies. He ordered the establishment of the Manila Arsenal in 186X, and later, the Lingayen Arsenal in 187X. Matchlock muskets were replaced by modern breachloading guns (such as the Dreyse needle gun) and repeaters; initially these were imported, by later on Tondo began domestic production. Tondo also began buying Western ships, eventually producing its own. Backed by British and Anglo-American technical expertise and guidance, the Imperial Tondolese Navy or 'Manila Fleet' would become the ninth-largest navy by tonnage by the 1890s (and second-largest in Asia after the Beiyang Fleet). Its two flagships, the pre-dreadnoughts TBD and TBD would be among the two most advance ships at the time of its commissioning.

In 188X, an incident involving a French ship erupted into the Second Franco-Spanish Expedition or the TBD War. While Sabah was occupied by the French and Spanish, the two powers failed to occupy Mindanao and their attempted blockade of the capital was broken by the Manila Fleet. Despite this, international pressure led to Tondo ceding the entirety of the Zamboangan peninsula and Sabah to Spain, and the Sulu archipelago to France. Furtherore, Spanish and French nationals were also conferred additional privileges within Tondo - in regards to extraterritorial rights and trade. The following year, the White Rajahs renounced Tondolese suzerainty and became a British protectorate. With the loss of Sarawak and Sabah, Tondo's presence on Borneo was ended for nearly a centurty - with Tondo only regaining Borneo in the Konfrontasi. The Madrid Accords (188X) would finalize the division of Borneo between the British, Dutch, and Spanish, and also lead to the mutual recognition of their interests in Tondo.

While Tondo's territory was smaller, the Tondolese state was more centralized and stronger than ever. Nevertheless, the constant feeling of 'national humiliation' lead to the frustration of reforms and rising nationalistic sentiment. Most nationalists were members of a rising class of wealthy men and women educated in Europe, who referred to themselves as the 'Illustrés' (or 'the Enlightened'). Having been educated in Europe, they espoused liberal ideals and engaged in freemasonry. The Illustrés were instrumental in the events leading up to the Tondolese Revolution, by disemminating liberal ideals and inciting revolt against an 'inept' monarchy.

Tondolese Revolution[edit]

The final Emperor, the TBD Emperor, rose to power in 188X after the death of his father. However, it is under his reign that Tondo finally crumbled to external pressures.

The Madrid Protocol of 1885, ratified by Spain, France, and Britain,

The Franco–Spanish Expedition to Tondo...

While the British were not directly involved, the North Borneo Company helped the Franco–Spanish effort by providing material aid.

Tondo achieved a tactical victory, decisively defeating the Franco–Spanish forces on land.

The Treaty of TBD, which concluded the war, resulted in the cession of Palawan and Zamboanga (which were already under de facto Spanish administration) as well as the lands of the Sulu Sultanate in the Sulu archipelago and Sabah. France was given the island of Basilan. During this time, the Raj of Sarawak – eager to renounce Tondolese suzerainty – became a protectorate of Britain; the Tondolese reluctantly recognized transfer of power over Sarawak as to not anger the British.

The Madrid Protocol of 1885 was ratified between Britain, Spain, and France. It formally recognized each other's claims in the region, and divided the Tondolese Empire into spheres of influence.

The war was viewed as the coup de grâce to the declining Tondolese Empire, which – in spite of its successful modernization campaigns, and economic growth – was able to assert its independence. The war further frustrated reforms, and ruined public trust in Britain (which came to be viewed as a betrayer).

It was during this time that the nationalist movement reached its height. JR published the Noli Me Tángere (Latin for "touch me not") and Le Filibusterisme (often called "The Reign of Greed") – both of which were originally written in French. These books sharply criticized the monarchy and the government's failures to protect the dignity of the Tondolese people – instead catering to foreign interests. These books are believed to be the reason why the movement gained a distinctly republican attitude, which led to further scrutiny of the movement among the government and the ultraconservative elements of Tondolese society.

  • Emperor killed, Imperial family flees
    • revolutionary republic thus established
  • Spanish–Tondolese War = brief, largely inconclusive
    • results in storming of Spanish quarters in Manila, reconquest of ceded territories
  • Spain sells rights over territories to Sierra, after Spanish–Sierran War

Tondolese–Sierran War[edit]

Sierran East Indies[edit]

Main: Sierran East Indies

The Tondolese archipelago (with the exclusion of Palawan and Basilan, the latter of which remained under French rule), together with the exclave of northeast Sabah, was re-organized into a territorial government under the jurisdiction of the Sierran Bureau of Insular Affairs. The Tondolese Organic Act, promulgated in 1902, served as the territorial constitution; it established an elected lower house, the Tondolese Assembly, as well as the office of Governor–General, who was appointed by Sierra. While the territory was recognized as under the administration of the Kingdom of Sierra, the other participants in the Anglo–Tondolese War, specifically Brazoria and the United Commonwealth, are guaranteed business rights in the regions of Mindanao and Visayas, respectively. To solve the issue of foreign friars, the Sierran government negotiated with the Vatican; the church agreed to the gradual substitution of native Tondolese priests for the foreign friars, and agreed to relinquish ownership over their properties (though with financial compensation). As a result, about 166,000 hectares (410,000 acres) of land – of which, one-half is in the vicinity of Manila – had been transfered to Sierran control, and were eventually resold to Tondolese farmers and land-owners as a bid to weaken the influence of the Catholic Church.

The Tondolese archipelago (with the exclusion of Palawan and Basilan, the latter of which remained under French rule), together with the exclave of northeast Sabah, was re-organized into a territorial government under the jurisdiction of the Sierran Bureau of Insular Affairs. The Tondolese Organic Act, promulgated in 1902, served as the territorial constitution; it established an elected lower house, the Tondolese Assembly, as well as the office of Governor–General, who was appointed by Sierra. While the territory was recognized as under the administration of the Kingdom of Sierra, the other participants in the Anglo–Tondolese War, specifically Brazoria and the United Commonwealth, are guaranteed business rights in the regions of Mindanao and Visayas, respectively. To solve the issue of foreign friars, the Sierran government negotiated with the Vatican; the church agreed to the gradual substitution of native Tondolese priests for the foreign friars, and agreed to relinquish ownership over their properties (though with financial compensation). As a result, about 166,000 hectares (410,000 acres) of land – of which, one-half is in the vicinity of Manila – had been transfered to Sierran control, and were eventually resold to Tondolese farmers and land-owners as a bid to weaken the influence of the Catholic Church.

In 1907, two years following the completion and publication of a census, a general election was conducted for the choice of delegates of the popular assembly; an elected "Tondolese Assembly" constituted the lower house of a bicameral legislature, while an appointed "Tondolese Commission" served as its upper house. Since its formation, the Tondolese legislature would pass annual resolutions (aimed at the Sierran public) expressing the desire for independence; this was partially realized with the passage of the Jones Bill of 1916 (also referred to as the Tondolese Autonomy Act), which were enthusiastically endorsed by Tondolese nationalists led by Manuel L. Quezon and Sergio Osmeña. While a draft which sought to establish independence within a period of eight years was to pending in 1912, it was retracted due to concerns that other European powers (such as Germany) or Japan would instead fill the void left by the Anglo–Americans; as a result, the bill was re-written to emphasize the conditions of independence such as guaranteed Anglo–American support, both in military and foreign affairs. The The Tondolese archipelago (with the exclusion of Palawan and Basilan, the latter of which remained under French rule), together with the exclave of northeast Sabah, was re-organized into a territorial government under the jurisdiction of the Sierran Bureau of Insular Affairs. The Tondolese Organic Act, promulgated in 1902, served as the territorial constitution; it established an elected lower house, the Tondolese Assembly, as well as the office of Governor–General, who was appointed by Sierra. While the territory was recognized as under the administration of the Kingdom of Sierra, the other participants in the Anglo–Tondolese War, specifically Brazoria and the United Commonwealth, are guaranteed business rights in the regions of Mindanao and Visayas, respectively. To solve the issue of foreign friars, the Sierran government negotiated with the Vatican; the church agreed to the gradual substitution of native Tondolese priests for the foreign friars, and agreed to relinquish ownership over their properties (though with financial compensation). As a result, about 166,000 hectares (410,000 acres) of land – of which, one-half is in the vicinity of Manila – had been transfered to Sierran control, and were eventually resold to Tondolese farmers and land-owners as a bid to weaken the influence of the Catholic Church. Tondolese Autonomy Act served as the new constitution of the territory, with its eventual independence becoming a Sierran policy; the Sierran government became responsible for the ensured establishment of a stable democratic government. While the office of Governor–General was maintained, and the King of Sierra – as the head of state – continued to hold the title of "Emperor of the Tondolese", the Tondolese Commision was replaced with an elected senate, reflecting the heightened role of the Tondolese within managing their domestic affairs.

During the First World War, the Tondolese supported the Anglo–Americans (as well as their allies) against Germany; factories and naval bases were constructed. Although the Sierrans joined Japanese forces in the conquest and occupation of German possessions in the Pacific and in China, the Treaty of Versailles stipulated that the Caroline Islands – despite having a Tondolese majority – are to be transfered to the Japanese as a C-class mandate. In spite of this this "setback", the following two decades saw a period of intensive economic growth due to postponed spending, the retooling of munitions and armament facilities into commercial factories, and the instillment of a consumer culture; in 1895, foreign trade had amounted to $655 million, rising to nearly $2 billion by 1930 (and doubling by 1940). Part of this was fueled by continued foreign demand for lucrative Tondolese cash crops, specifically: sugar, abaca, coffee, tobacco, cocoa beans, and copra oil. In addition, the production of cotton and silk fiber was protected by the Sierran government, as it reduced its reliance on imports from the American South and East Asia, respectively. There was also a boom in infrastructural development, with an extensive electric grid, railway system, telephone lines, being built. Additionally, a comprehensive health care system was established, which reduced the mortality rate from all causes – the most important being from various tropical diseases – to a level similar to the United States itself; by 1940, the life expectancy reached 48.3 years. Despite clear socio-economic progress, members of the maginoo (landed gentry), retained their prominence in Tondolese affairs; the lack of comprehensive and meaningful land reform meant the tenant–landlord relationship contiued to dominate the relationship between the upper and lower classes. Serfdom, as well as piracy within the Muslim South and headhunting among the highland indigenes, were suppressed at varying degrees of success, but were not entirely extinguished.

Tondolese Commonwealth[edit]

World War II and Japanese occupation[edit]

Modern period[edit]

Third Republic[edit]

Macasaet era[edit]

Fifth Republic[edit]

Geography, climate and environment[edit]

See also: Geography of Tondo and Climate of Tondo

Tondo is an archipelagic nation composed of 7,XXX islands. The three largest islands in the Tondolese archipelago are Borneo, Luzon, Mindanao - despite being much smaller in area than Borneo, Luzon accounts for nearly half of the total population and economy. Asides from being the political and demographic center of the country, Tondo's capital, Manila, is also in Luzon. With a total area - including inland bodies of war - of XXX,000 km2 (XXX,XXX square miles), Tondo is the second-largest island country in the world after its neighbor, Indonesia. The 3X,XXX kilometers (23,XXX) of coastline would also make it have the fourth-longest coastline in the world. The Tondolese archipelago is bordered by South China Sea to the west, the Tondolese Sea to the east, the Celebes Sea to the south, and located directly north is the island of Taiwan. The Moluccas and Sulawesi - parts of Indonesia, are located to the south-west.

Flora and fauna[edit]

See also: Flora of Tondo and Fauna of Tondo

Demographics[edit]

As of 2019, Tondo is estimated to have a population of XXX million, making it the Xth most populous country in the world. The population of Tondo increased from XXX million in 1990, to XXX million by 2015 – a net increase of XX%. The population of the Tondolese archipelago at the time of independence (1946) was XX million; while at the time of Sierran annexation (1902), it was around 36 million. Half of its population lives on the island of Luzon, with about thirty million people living in the Manila and the surrounding satellite cities alone. Net growth in 2019 was estimated to be X.X%, a sharp decrease from the X.X% average from the period 1960–1969. Despite a significnant fall in population growth rates, Tondo will remain one of the few industrialized societies expected to experience positive population growth; this is due to a relatively high fertility rate (near-replacement) and moderately-high inflow of immigrants from neighboring countries such as China, Indonesia, and Malaysia. Tondo is a multiethnic and multicultural society. There are 150 recognized ethno-linguistic groups – the largest of which is the Tagalog people who reside primarily in central Luzon and account for 40% of the population. Approximately 4% of the population is foreign-born, the majority being transient workers, ethnic Tondolese of foreign or dual nationality, or the extended family of minority groups (especially of Chinese or Indonesian origin).

Citizenship and nationality is determined through the principle of ius sanguinis ("right of blood"), with nationality law deeming any person of Tondolese ancestry – regardless of place of birth or nationality – eligible for citizenship. Dual citizenship is permitted and even encouraged. Naturalization laws are relatively strict. Foreign nationals must reside in the country for a period of 15 years, achieve competency in Tagalog, and contribute $XXX,XXX to the economy in order to acquire citizenship. There are exceptions. Members of certain minorities (ethnic Chinese or ethnic groups indigenous to Borneo) with family ties to Tondolese citizens and stateless persons would only have to reside in the country for five years – but they would still have to learn and attain fluency in Tagalog. In the special province of Palawan and Cuyo, citizenship laws are considerably laxer as they were written based on the Sierran model. Asides from a shorter naturalization period of only five years, any and all individuals born on the island are automatically conferred Palawaneño citizenship (an example of the principle of ius soli, or "right of the land"). Those with Palawaneño citizenship are considered Tondolese nationals, which entitle them the right to work and live on the mainland; however they are not necessarily considered Tondolese citizens, and thus they cannot participate in politics (such as elections) at a national level. Only those born or residing on the island prior to the transfer of sovereignty are conferred Tondolese citizenship. A special case is given to those who have been granted asylum, or stateless persons, in which case they are conferred citizenship but they must acculturate themselves into Tondolese culture.

Language[edit]

Main article: Tondolese language
See also: Languages of Tondo, Tondolese Hokkien, Tondolese Mandarin

Religious affiliation[edit]

The interior of the Taal Basilica, cannonically known as the Minor Basilica of Saint Martin of Tours. It is considered the largest Church in Asia – measuring 291 ft (88.6m) long and 157 ft (48m) wide.

According to the National Constitution, Tondo is a secular state with no officially-designated state religion. It also affirms the principle of the separation of church and state, and guarantees the free exercise of religion. The National Assembly is prohibited to pass any legislation that either regulate, or promote specific religious practices.

Christianity is the majority religion, with its adhering representing 80% of the population. Out of this, about 60% are Catholic – mostly members of the Syriac-rite Church of Tondo, which is in a sui juris union with the Roman Catholic Church. Christianity was thought to have been introduced under Yuan suzerainty, and the first sizeable Christian community (descendants of Nestorian Christians that fled to Manila, to escape Ming persecuton) was first documented in the 15th century by Chinese merchants and explorers. Protestants represent 15%, with leading denominations including the Seventh-day Adventist, Methodist, and Evangelical churches. While Protestant missionaries first arrived in the 17th century, Protestantism did not become a major faith until Sierran colonial rule. Lastly, non-trinitarian denominations such as the Church of the Latter-Day Saints (LDS), the Unification Church, and Jehovah's Witnesses account for the remainder (~4%) of the Christian population. Church attendance and religiosity rates are very high – especially when compared to other developed countries. However, it is higher among Protestants and non-Trinitarians.

Islam is practiced by 15% of the population. Most Tondolese Muslims are Sunnis adhering to the Shafi'i school of jurisprudence. The rest of the population consider themselves spritiual but not religious, irreligious, agnostic, or atheist; there are also a few adherents of Buddhism, Hinduism, and folk religions (especially among the indigenous peoples of Borneo).

Government and politics[edit]

Main: Government of Tondo

  • multi-party democracy
    • Christian Democrats
    • Liberals
    • Federalists
  • presidential republic
  • legislative branch is bicameral Congress
    • upper Senate, lower House of Representatives
  • lower house apportioned per population, equal representation in upper house

Administrative regions[edit]

Tondo is divided into 2X provinces – X in the mainland, X in Borneo, and X in Sulawesi (the exclave of Gorontalo). It also has one special city (Manila), and one special province (Palawan and Cuyo). Tondo is a unitary state; thus power is concentrated in the central government in Manila (formally designated as the "National Capital Region"). However, Palawan and Cuyo wields a large degree of autonomy under the Palawaneño Basic Law. While is military and foreign affairs are handled by the central government, Palawan and Cuyo has its own currency (the Palawaneño dollar), its own immigration policy, and its naturalization law. It also has its own legislature, consisting of the elected Palawaneño Assembly (the lower house) and the appointed Palawaneño Commission (the upper house).

Tondolese territories are disputed with Indonesia and Malaysia. Until the 1960s, Malaysia controlled Sarawak and Sabah, while Indonesia controlled Kalimantan. They were only reincorporated into Tondo during the TBD War.

Economy[edit]

Economic indicators
Nominal GDP $5.278 trillion (2017 est.)
Real GDP growth 2.8% (2017 est.)
CPI inflation 1.6% (2017 est.)
Employment-to-population ratio 67.5% (2017 est.)
Unemployment 0.2% (2017 est.)
Labor force participation rate 61.6% (2017 est.)
Total public debt $1.900 trillion (36% of GDP) (2017 est.)
Household net worth $24.133 trillion (2017 est.)

Tondo is usually considered a developed country, having graduated from the status of a newly-industrialized country by the turn of the 21st century. Its economy boasts a high credit rating score, though current tensions with surrounding countries (including China, South Vietnam, and Taiwan) over the Spratly Islands dispute may damage it. According to estimates from the World Bank Organization, the Tondolese economy stood at $X.XX trillion at power purchasing parity, whereas its economy at nominal, market exchange rates stood at $X.XX trillion. This would make it the fifth-largest or fourth-largest economy depending on the metric used – behind the United Commonwealth, China, Sierra, and Japan for nominal GDP; and behind China, the United Commonwealth, and India for PPP. It is thus the second-largest economy in Asia (after China), and easily the largest within Southeast Asia: the Tondolese economy accounts for close to half of the regional economy, and the Tondolese economy is larger than Indonesia's, South Vietnam's, and Thailand's combined. Due to the sheer size of its economy, its large (both in size and scope) and influential diaspora, and an emphasis on foreign trade, Tondo is a major economic power. Thus, it is a member of many economic organizations including: G20, G7, the Asia–Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the World Trade Organization (WTO), and the Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD). Its capital, Manila, also is the seat of the multinational Asia Development Bank (ADB).

The Tondolese economy is considered to be industrialized. The primary, secondary, and tertiary sectors account for, 2%, 33%, and 65% of the total GDP, respectively. Tondo's heavy industries are well-developed, with major exports including ships, automobiles, heavy machinery, and refined steel. However, Tondo – though to a lesser degree than other Asian Tigers – also specializes in high-tech industries such as the production of electronics, computers, appliances, semiconductors, fine machinery, and aerospace products; as well as the refinement of oil into refined oil, plastics, chemicals, and other derivatives. Productivity per worker is relatively high – which can be attributed to a high degree of industrial mechanization. Despite being a developed economy, Tondo still boasts a large agricultural sector, with many households (particularly in the South) still engaging in agriculture. Exported produce include rice, sugar, abaca, coconuts, pineapples, and cocoa beans.

Tondo has the world's third-largest trading volume – behind only China and the United Commonwealth. It is the world's third-largest exporter (after China and Germany), and the world's fourth-largest importer (after the United Commonwealth, China, and Germany). Exports account for 20% of the economy, while imports account for 16%. Its main trading partners (not in order) are Sierra, China (including Hong Kong), Japan, Germany, Korea, Singapore, Thailand, and Indoneisa. Typical of other Asian Tiger economies, Tondo historically had strong protectionist policies – placing high tariffs and trading quotas on foreign-made goods, especially agricultural produce, to foster and protect the growth of its own industries. However, while the liberalization of trade during the nineties has since led to an increase of imports, a large trading surplus remains due to Tondo's abundance of raw materials (especially in the island of Borneo). As its coal deposits have been exhausted, and lacking any large oil or gas fields, Tondo heavily relies on imported fossil fuels (mainly coal and raw petroleum) to satiate its enemy demands. However, roughly one-fourth of Tondo's energy demands are from renewable resources, with 20% from geothermal energy.

Unique among other Asian Tiger economies, the Tondolese economy is considered more in line with Western capitalist economies such as Sierra. This can be attributed to the fact that the basis of the Tondolese economy was created under Sierran administration and during its economic miracle, under its expertise and guidance. The military–industrial complex (including related sectors such as steel production and mining) are placed under state-owned monopolizes. Asides from this, however, the economy is comprised of private firms. While large family-owned business conglomerates comparabled to Korean chaebol's and Japanese keiretsu exist in Tondo (where they are known as 財閥; tsayhuwat), they are concentrated in the industrial sector. This is due to the practice of granting generous grants and loans to large, already-established corporations (to ensure success, and payment of said loans) and to the businesses of political cronies, which occured during the TBD regime. In practice, however, this helped develop the industrial sector rapidly. The tertiary sector is dominated by small to medium-sized businesses, while the agricultural sector is still largely in the hands of small family farms.

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