Great War II
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|Great War II|
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Great War II, also called World War II, was a global conflict that lasted from 1961 to 1965. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving 100 million people from over 30 countries. The major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. Aircraft played a major role in the conflict which included the use of terror bombing, strategic bombing and the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Tens of millions of people died, and unprecedented war crimes were committed against civilian populations.
Great War I had altered the political landscape of Europe, with border changes and the emergence of several new states. The dissolution of Yugoslavia led to the emergence of independent Serbia, Montenegro, and Croatia, and the creation of a larger state of Croatia at the expense of Serbs created resentment between the two nations. The war itself largely ended in a stalemate with many parties remaining unsatisfied by their gains. The Treaty of Verdun in 1947 created peace between the Great Powers of Europe, returning the situation in Western Europe to the state before the war (status quo ante bellum). France remained dissatisfied with the German possession of the Alsace-Lorraine region, while Russia was forced to give independence to the Baltic republics of Lithuania, Estonia, and Latvia.
Despite the human losses of Great War I leading to a rise of pacifism, the unresolved border disputes led to irredentism and revanchist nationalism to reacquire lost territory. These were especially prevalent in France and Russia, which had either not not regained what they wanted or had lost territory.
Asia and Africa
The process of decolonization was underway starting from the early 1950s, with rebel pro-independent movements fighting insurgences in Africa and Asia against European colonial rule. At the outbreak of the war in Europe, there were insurgencies in British West Africa, German Equatorial Africa, French North Africa, the Dutch East Indies.