Sierran soldiers escorting displaced Hans to refugee camps
Li dynasty |
|Casualties and losses|
|40,000||600,000–1,000,000 (including civilians)|
The Han–Sierran War (Han: 「战争」⼟「塞拉」; 加へ尼久へゟ⼟弋�兰, tr. Janjoung no Serra), known within Hani as simply the Sierran War, was an armed conflict that lasted from 1900 until 1905, and was fought between the Li dynasty of Hani and the Kingdom of Sierra, who sought for the incorporation of the former as a colony.
Hostilities first occurred when the progressive Emperor Li Huang died, and Empress Dowager Mei Ling became his successor, becoming regent for their seven-year old son. A well known member of the conservative faction of the Han imperial court, she quickly ceased modernization programs and refused the entry of foreign ships. She demanded the nullification of unequal treaties made with foreign powers, threatening to re-establish the isolationist Sarado policy. Seeking rapprochement with their former ally, Sierra sent a group of emissaries to Hanyang to sort out relations. The subsequent execution of the emissaries provided a casus belli for the Sierrans to annex Hani.
While Hani at the time faced massive decentralization (though feudalism was quelled), and the factionization of the imperial court into two distinct factions, it had also experienced rigorous modernization under the bago reforms. Furthermore, to motivate the people, Mei Ling formulated the ideology of Han nationalism based on the idea of racial purity and superiority, forming the catalyst of Han colonial resistance. Due to these, the war was lengthy and far from what the Sierran coalition thought it would be–however, a war of attrition steadily drained Han forces.
At the end of the war, Hani, via the Hanyang Convention, would become a de jure protectorate, but a de facto directly-controlled colony (with numerous concessions being given to Sierran allies). Facing defeat, Mei Ling commited suicide to escape charges against her.