House of Representatives of Kalșeri
|House of Representatives of Kalșeri |
|48th House of Representatives|
Liberal Democrats (60)
New Kerry Party (6)
New Lothianers (2)
Length of term
|March 19, 2017|
|March 20, 2022|
|West Wing, Mecklenburg House, Evalria|
The House of Representatives of Kalșeri (Kalhan: Flagiageri), colloquially referred to as just the House, is the lower house of the Congress, the legislative branch of Kalșeri, with the Senate being the upper house.
As the House of Representatives is the lower of the two houses of Congress, most bills originate from here, and, if approved, are sent to the Senate.
At the moment of creation, only males who had either completed primary education or worked for more than 15 years were allowed to vote. The electoral base was subsequently revised twice: the Base Act 1871 expanded the electoral base to any male citizen aged 25 or older, and the Charter, ratified in 1934, extended the right to vote to any citizen aged 18 or older, regardless of sex. The Charter also codified the number of Representatives for each canton, setting it at the number of people living in the canton at the last Census, divided by 150,000, plus six Representatives for Kalșerians abroad.
The House of Representatives is composed of 200 seats, which are elected directly by the citizens. The election of the High Council takes place on the third Sunday of March of a year ending in 2 or 7, unless otherwise stated in an emergency bill.
The number of seats allocated for Kalșeri proper is 194, which is the sum of all the results of the population of each canton divided by 150,000; the results are reviewed every ten years, after the publication of the Census of the year prior, and the borders of the House of Representatives districts are changed accordingly by a non-partisan body, to avoid gerrymandering. Kalúen, the most populated canton, has 31 seats, while Cape Sundervale, the least populated canton, has one. The remaining six seats are reserved to Kalșerians living abroad (North and Central America, South America, Europe, Africa, Western Asia, and the Eastern Asia-Pacific seat).
|Canton||Inhabitants (2019 est.)||Number of HoR Districts|
|Representatives for Kalșerians abroad||6|
As the House of Representatives is one part of the national legislature of Kalșeri, bills and laws may originate from either the House of Representatives or the Senate, except for bills concerning the national economy. A simple majority is required for a bill to be forwarded to the Senate, which then forwards it to the President, who then may either sign the bill into law or veto it; the House of Representatives may override the veto after the third rejection.
The House of Representatives, along with the Senate, is also the sole wielder of the power to incapacitate the President, a member of their Cabinet or an official from the judiciary branch.
As per tradition, the Social Cooperationists sit on the left, while the Liberal Democrats sit on the right of the High Summoner's dais. For smaller parties, their place is often determined based on their ideology.
The High Summoner is the presiding officer of the House of Representatives. The High Summoner's duties include regulating and monitoring discussion held during the daily session of the House of Representatives, ruling on points of order, announcing the results of votes and executing disciplinary actions: the High Summoner has the power to suspend Representatives for the rest of the day's sitting or expel them from the current legislature.
The High Summoner is a Representative, a primus inter pares chosen by the House to monitor debate. Upon nomination, the High Summoner's former constituency seat is occupied by the leader of the local section of the Party of the High Summoner. The High Summoner, perceived as a neutral figure, is also expected to suspend their membership of the party during their stay as High Summoner. Most of the time, the High Summoner is chosen among the governing party or coalition.
Father of the House
Unlike the High Summoner, the Father of the House (Mother of the House for female Representatives) is a largely ceremonial role bestowed upon the longest-serving Representative. Some actual benefits include raised retirement benefits, a higher role in the order of precedence and presiding over the election of the High Summoner. The current Mother of the House is Liberal Democrat Patty Garnier, Representative for Falșak since 1977.
Each party with three seats or more in the House of Representatives is entitled to a Spokesperson, or, colloquially, a Whip. The Spokesperson reports the proceedings of their party to the High Summoner, and may tell the party's Representatives to vote for or against a specific bill, or call a motion of abstinence for said bill.
- Social Cooperation Party: William Kusznieski (Kalúen; since 2017)
- Liberal Democrats: Ashley Moriarty (New Lothian; since 2017)
- Libertarians: Rick Gosling (Janval; since 2020)
- Kalșerians for Change: Natasha Cordell (Lág; since 2017)
- New Kerry Party: Clive O'Hanrahan (New Kerry; since 2020)
The requirements for holding the office of Representative are codified in the Charter. To run for Representative, a citizen must meet the following requirements:
- be a Kalșerian citizen;
- If a foreigner is elected to the House of Representatives, they must first pass the Citizenship Test, a quiz about general culture, history and political life in Kalșeri; they may not sit in the House of Representatives until they have passed the Test.
- be 25 or older at the time of confirmation (April 1st);
- not have been accused of any felony for the last 15 years;
- be legally sane;
- have resided inside the electoral district for at least five years.
On April 1st, after the candidate has been elected, the Representative-elect is confirmed to the post via a public ceremony in which the oath of allegiance is uttered before the High Summoner, in either Kalhan or English:
- I, [full name], do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will support and defend Kalșeri from all enemies, that I will bear allegiance to the Charter, that I will express the needs of my people before my own, and that I will perform the duties bestowed to me faithfully, consciously and professionally. So help me God.
The last sentence may be omitted, and the Representative-elect is given the option to swear on either a copy of the Bible or a copy of the Charter.
After the oath, the Representative-elect, now a full-fledged Representative, is invited to attend a brief conference held by the High Summoner, explaining how the House of Representatives works and reminding the rights and duties of a Representative; the conference is then followed by a State Luncheon, a tour of the House of Representatives building for newcomers, and then the welcoming ceremony.
Suspension and expulsion
The High Summoner may suspend or expel a Representative. Suspension, applied motu proprio and after concrete instances of unparliamentary behavior, is far more common than expulsion, and applies for the rest of the day's sitting.
Expulsion is traditionally applied after a Representative has been suspended seven times, and is applicable to the rest of the current legislature. To expel a Representative, the High Summoner announces an emergency vote on the matter; a two-thirds majority of the Representatives present in the chamber is required for the expulsion to take effect.
Until 1996, the Charter also contemplated invalidation, defined as "a permanent expulsion from the House of Representatives". Invalidation of a Representative required a unanimous vote, and could be achieved for several reasons, such as:
- the incriminated Representative introduced weapons of any kind capable to kill a person in the House of Representatives room;
- the incriminated Representative maimed or killed a colleague, the High Summoner or the President, or threatened to do so;
- the incriminated Representative uttered a disloyal or otherwise extremely inappropriate statement;
- the incriminated Representative performed an act contrary to moral decency.
Invalidation has only been applied once, in 1977, when Representative Frank Hanway Jr. threatened to kill President Raimund Terșet, as a means to end the controversy around the bribes by Lockheed, and brought his own Beretta 92, reloading it.