History of Ancient Sillas

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Ancient Sillas refers to Sillenic civilization from the founding of the Sillenic Republic in 32X, to the Fall of Sillas in 145X. It could be divided into four periods: Classical, Occidentalizing, ante-Anystessean, and Imperial. The Imperial period itself could be divided into the early Imperial period (or the Diarchal period), and the late Imperial (or the Monarchal period).

Early ante-Anystessean era[edit | edit source]

Silleno–Yannian Wars[edit | edit source]

Reign of Adriano the Great[edit | edit source]

Sillenic Wars[edit | edit source]

Main article: Sillenic Wars, Unification of the Sillenic peoples

The Sillenic Wars were waged from 84X to 92X and saw the invasion of East Makuku, Teninukal – and later, the Exhulan colony of Kaloma. The Sillenic War was sometimes known as the War of the Seven Nation Alliance since it pitted seven nations (Makuku, Teninukal, Exhula, Beraba, Mohejaro, Qaryaat, and Cazekorom) against Sillas. It ended with a Sillenic victory – thus resulting in the unification of the Sillenic peoples into one state, for the first time in the region's history. The enfranchisement of the remaining Makuku, the Teninukalese, and the Kalomans resulted in the complete cultural and linguistic sillenization of the region. The war also affirmed Sillas' status as the regional hegemon and displayed the superiority of the Sillenic economy and military. The Silleno-Yannian Wars which preceded it ended in a pyrrhic victory, with the Yannian forces repulsed from Ettytia (continental Exhula) but at the cost of thousands of Sillenic lives. Sillenic intervention in the conflict between Exhula and Yannis (on the side of the former), did not yield any territorial or financial gain – as Empress Mariana had hoped. Thus, many in the military viewed their assistance of the Exhulan cause as having been in vain. To avoid criticism from the Popular Assembly (which had opposed Sillas' involvement in the conflict from the beginning), Mariana pursued an expansionist policy against Sillas' northern neighbors: Teninukal and Makuku. Conquest was motivated both by perceived common descent (both languages were – to a certain degree – mutually intelligible with Sillenic), and the economic value of these respective regions. They shared with Sillas a humid tropical climate, and predictable weather patterns – both conducive to plantation agriculture.

Both the invasions of Makuku and Teninukal were met with initial success. The Sillenes successfully captured territory up to the TBD River, though the crossing was defended at the Battle of Nahalu. Similarly, the two-pronged invasion of Teninukal saw the Sillenic army advance through the southern half of the country – though, under peasant leader Yakunalam, they were beaten back just XX kilometers east of the capital. The tide of war changed in 86X when General Rukuanalani defected to the East Makuku, which promptly appointed him the head of their military. With the defection of its leading commander (along with thousands of his troops), the Makuku campaign faltered. At the same time, both Teninukal and East Makuku tried to enlist the help of their neighbors – contacting Beraba, Qera, and Exhula. Okemos, the Dictator of Beraba, responded positively to this request – declaring war against the Sillenes and mobilizing up to 30,000 soldiers to assist the Eastern Makuku cause. He believed Sillas' recent expansionism could threaten Beraba's political and cultural autonomy, as the loss of East Makuku as a buffer would allow Sillas to launch incursions into Beraban territory should it want to. He also sent ships to terrorize and raze settlements along the Sillenic Coast. Central to this was the island of Kuaku (which became a small island kingdom under the nobleman Kuhani), which became the base of operation for maritime raids and a major transit point for refugees fleeing north to the Beraban peninsula. Nevertheless, in 87X, the Sillenes had managed to overrun Teninukal – though many Teninukalese leaders refused to surrender and defected to the Makuku and Berabans. Under the tight leadership of Rukuanalani, the Makuku forces were able to resist Sillenic attempts to land on Makuku's remaining coast. In the summer of 87X, Mariana sent XX,0000 troops in hopes of decisively annihilating the joint-Berabo–Makuku Army once and for all. Believing their cause to be futile, the Makuku Council elected to surrender; Rukuanalani, however, defied orders to lay down his arms, and together with his followers retreated to area around the TBD Lake. The Sillenic advance northwards was stopped at the Battle of Mahua, which resulted in a decisive victory of the anti-Sillenic Coalition (the Berabans and Makuku were joined by a detachment from Cazekorom) which was under the command of Okemos himself. The battle resulted in the deaths of XX thousand troops – many more died due to disease and starvation brought upon by inadequate food supplies.

Despite the northern front in the verge of collapse, and Okemos' reputation as a capable commander weakening troop morale, Empress Mariana decided to nevertheless go ahead with the annexation of Teninukal and East Makuku. This marked the "second foundation" of the Sillenic Republic, with Mariana declaring that "the Sillenes of the Metropole, the Sillenes of Olmac, the Sillenes of Makuku, and the Sillenes of Teninukal; they are now one in this Blessed Republic." As provinces, Teninukal and Makuku transitioned from military occupation to civilian rule. As ethnic Makuku and Teninukalese were viewed as Sillenes, they were given full citizenship – thus allowing them to vote and participate in local assemblies. However, as only scholar-officials were allowed to hold public office, many were disappointed that almost all candidates were ethnic Sillenes or Sillenized Makuku. Nevertheless, many were receptive to Sillenic rule as the peasantry benefited from protection from overpopulation from landlords, and land redistribution programs. Aristocrats also retained their respective titles and property, and many joined the ranks of the scholarly-gentry. In 88X, Mariana ordered a force of 120,000 troops to invade Cazekorom, which intended to open southern Beraba to Sillenic attack. However, they experienced extremely high losses due to disease and the lack of supplies – exacerbated by the scorched-earth tactics employed both by the Sillenic army and Makuku guerillas. While the Sillenes managed to sweep through the coast, again Okemos decisively stopped the Sillenic advance in the Battle of Vynoda in Central Cazekorom; however, the front was reinforced in the Battle of Indemara.

In 88X, the Makuku Rebellion began; it affected even provinces that had been under Sillenic administration for centuries prior. The rebellion began due to the allocation of food supplies to the Makuku expeditionary force, which placed a strain on the local food supply. This, along with crop failure (brought upon by an unusually dry year), led to famine. At its peak, a total of 60,000 rebels occupied the north of the Makuku region; a third of which were deserters of the Sillenic army. Discontent in the more mountainous south arose as well – but as this region was more urbanized, it did not harbor secessionist sentiments as dissidents in the north. Mariana sent two legions to the Makuku region to quell the rebellion, while a garrison of five cohorts was stationed in every major city. The government also temporarily banned the cultivation of fodder crops to raise the food supply – albeit this had the effect of weakening the cavalry corps, which relied on multiple mounts her cavalrywoman. Mariana also opened all public land in Makuku to settlement and required that plots of land must have a contiguous area of one hectare per person (the average household would have four to five hectares of land) for it to be inherited; the latter helped prevent the division of states into smaller and more scattered plots as the population grew. Nevertheless, the rebellion continued with between the more Sillenized West and the newly-incorporated East, and between cities and the surrounding countryside, escalating. The Makuku Rebellion resulted in the interruption of supply lines to troops in the southern Beraban peninsula, resulting in a disproportionately high number of casualties and the frequent occurrence of mass desertion. Reports of high civilian casualties due to famine and the loss of order in Lower Makuku struck a blow to Mariana's image and popularity.

Beraba called on its allies to curtail Sillenic aggression, escalating what was once a small-scale border war to large-scale multi-front conflict. In 88X, the King Tanim of Qaryaat agreed to send soldiers to fight under Okemos' command; in 89X, he sent a detachment of XX,000 soldiers under his direct command. Shortly after Qaryaat's entry into the war, Mohejaro joined as the bulk of the fighting happened dangerously near to the Mohejaror. In 89X, the newly-enthroned Exhulan Emperor TBD of Exhula – emboldened by Sillas' preoccupation with its northern neighbors and the concurrent Makuku Rebellion, commenced a surprise invasion of East Kaloma. As a pious Ulmian, he incited pogroms against the Anystessean minority in Kaloma and the Exhulan mainland. In 89X, Okemos liberated Cazekorom from Sillenic occupation and brought back the fighting to the strategically-important TBD Corridor. While Sillas would retake the southern one-third of Cazekorom the following year, further attempts to advance into southern Beraba failed to move the front lines. Meanwhile, Mariana failed to quell the Makuku Rebellion. As the concurrent wars continued to disrupt everyday life, the rebellion intensified and spilled over to West Makuku and Upper Makuku – regions that had been under Sillenic rule for centuries, and unlike East Makuku, were already on the process of becoming culturally and linguistically sillenized. As Rukuanalani's forces retreated to the jungle and descended into guerrilla warfare, Cecuhame, a scholar-official of Silleno-Makuku descent, emerged as the main leader of the insurrection. At its peak, the rebels controlled territory from the border with Mohejaro to the TBD sea. The massacre of anyone unsympathetic to an independent kingdom ensued – prompting the max exodus of loyalists to the Central basin and the depopulation of the region's major cities.

Now in her eighties and with her political rivals seeking the removal of her lineage from the throne, Mariana appointed her first-cousin once removed and adoptive son Adriano as the heir apparent. This choice was highly controversial as Sillas never had a male monarch in his recorded history, though this was by custom and now by law. To keep power within her clan, she also married him off to her grandniece, Sabina. As Adriano was Sabina's second-cousin once-removed, the legality of the marriage was challenged under the charge of incest; however, Sillenic law only prohibited marriages between two people within the sixth degree of consanguinity or lower. Mariana's relationship with Adriano was distant and aloof, with Mariana having raised Adriano – the son of her late sister – out of obligation. Due to this, Adriano was left under the care of his wet nurses, maid-servants, and tutors during his youth. Meanwhile, Adriano's marriage to Sabina suffered from a lack of emotional and sexual gratification. Both were aware of the political nature of their marriages; furthermore, Adriano was homosexual. Both Adriano and Sabina allegedly engaged in adulterous affairs, which was used by his political opponents to delegitimize him.

By the turn of the tenth century, Sillas' fortunes once again shifted under a change in leadership. Unlike his late mother, Adriano personally took command of his troops – both to avoid the scornful eye of the Popular Assembly, and due to felt need to prove himself to his detractors. While the Exhulan invasion of Sillas proper was initially successful, due to the element of surprise, the counter-offensive resulted in the capture of the entire Kaloman peninsula – thus ending the centuries-long Exhulan colonial presence in the region. Likewise, in 90X, the Makuku Rebellion was finally crushed. Finding the Sillenic position in the Beraban peninsula untenable, he ordered his troops to withdraw from the region. Instead, he placed troops along the more defensible TBD River. The last major action in the war, the Battle of TBD, saw the decisive defeat of the anti-Sillenic coalition. Having achieved his goal of repelling the Sillenes from the Beraban peninsula, Okemos sued for peace in 91X. The Treaty of TBD formally recognized Teninukal, Kaloma, and the western half of East Makuku as Sillenic territory. While Okemos pushed for the independence of Teninukal (by then, under firm Sillenic control) as well, Adriano found these demands gravely insulting and refused to accede to them. Nevertheless, Adriano agreed to the establishment of East Makuku east of the TBD River as a Beraban client state. Also included in the terms of peace was the ratification of a non-aggression pact, the normalization of relations, and guaranteed safe passage for Teninukalese and Makuku who wish to leave Sillenic territory and resettle in the Makuku rump state. After initial hesitation, Qaryaat and Mohejaro signed the treaty. Only Exhula, which refused to acknowledge the loss of its largest and most prized colony, did not sign the treaty.

Recovery[edit | edit source]

plan
  • recovery
  • antonino
  • ulmian revolt
  • succession

Adriano's reign was very successful. He crushed the Makuku Rebellion, annexed Teninukal, East Makuku, and Kaloma, and affirmed Sillas' status as the regional hegemon and the superiority of its economic and military institutions. He also ended the centuries-long Exhulan colonial presence in the Kaloman peninsula. However, the achievements and legacy of his reign were overshadowed by his sex and his sexuality.

Adriano focused exclusively on the defense and integration of Sillas' territory – a sharp contrast to the expansionist policy of his late mother. For example, he reinforced the TBD section of the Sillenic Wall and placed three legions (total of 15,000 troops) along the border with East Makuku and Mohejaro. This decision was both out of pragmatism and ideology; despite being a skilled military commander, he understood and wanted to avoid the tremendous human and financial cost of foreign conquest. Instead, he focused on fostering a sense of community and mutual support among his subjects.

The Sillenic War had drastic effects on the economic structure and demographic makeup of Lower Makuku. The war resulted in an upwards of 1.5 million deaths, leaving parts of Lower Makuku – including its cities, heavily depopulated. To help bolster its population and reinvigorate the economy, Adriano resettled thousands of veterans in the region (giving 10ha to each veteran). He also opened the region to the settlement from other parts of the empire; most settlers came from the Central Basin, which was overpopulated. The influx of Sillenes into Lower Makuku accelerated the process of sillenization, which had already started (albeit unevenly) centuries prior. The settlement also stimulated economic development; as the region had a humid tropical climate and predictable weather patterns, it was particularly well-suited to intensive agriculture. Cash crops such as sugarcane, indigo, and black pepper were cultivated on large-scale plantations; while this facilitated economic recovery, it cemented the power of a small aristocracy who continued to own the most fertile (and thus most valuable) of land.

While Adriano – like his contemporaries, did not consider Exhulans as "Sillenes", he did not stamp out Exhulan culture and sought to integrate Kaloma into a pan-Sillenic cultural "commonwealth". He conferred a limited form of citizenship onto his ethnic Exhulan subjects called the "Exhulan Right". The Exhulan Right conferred legal privileges such as the right to sue (and be sued), and the right to appeal decisions of lower courts; however, it did not confer the right to vote or the right to participate in local assemblies. As a result, most ethnic Exhulans were not able to participate in political life, which produced lingering resentment against the Sillenic majority.

Adriano's marriage with Sabina continued to be cold and distant. Adriano would have no issue; some would attribute this to either to Sabina's alleged infertility or his own impotency, or just the general lack of a sexual relationship between them. Adriano would meet his beloved Antonino while touring the Kaloman province in 92X. Antonino was perhaps sixteen years of age when Adriano met him; immediately Adriano was charmed by Antonino's boyish looks and his intelligence. It is unknown if this attraction was reciprocated from the beginning, and if not, who initiated a relationship. However, by 92X, Antonino became part of Adriano's retinue and traveled with him throughout the country.

Adriano reiterated Mariana's policy towards Anystesseans; they should not be sought out, and they can only be prosecuted for specific offenses (such as refusal to swear oaths). However, Adriano announces that the accuser would be responsible for bringing evidence to the court – otherwise, the accused could sue them under the charge of defamation. Adriano's leniency towards Anystesseans was probably due to Antonino being an Anystessean.


from OM turns

After the Censorate exposes a plot to assassinate the Emperor regnant, he grows increasingly paranoid and decides to distance himself from the capital–commencing a tour of the Imperial Republic to oversee local reconstruction programs and to promote Sillan culture. During a visit to the Kaloma province, he meets a youth of aristocratic background named Aqinas. Attracted to his boyish charm and their shared passion for Sillan culture, he quickly becomes infatuated with the youth, whom the Emperor regnant arranges to be in his entourage. However, with their attraction to one another becoming increasingly apparent, the members of the Imperial Council begins to speculate on the exact nature of their relationship – with his opponents accusing him of belittling the youth to nothing more than a personal concubine (potentially against the youth’s will) while others accuse the youth of exploiting the Emperor’s infatuation with him for political gain. In addition, the Emperor regnant remains married to the Empress consort Sabina; though their hostility to each other is widely known, with even rumors of either’s infertility.

Possibly under the influence of the Cixian Aqinas (who – utilizing his wealth – patronized the construction of various Cixian buildings, as well as allegedly being a Cixian deacon during his youth), the Emperor regnant institutes a series of laws effectively legalizing Cixism. In Banzenopolis, the orders the construction of new Grand Basilica on top of the remains of the old one, as well as lifts the prohibition on Eastern Ulmists from residing within city limits. The Western Ulmists however, view this as an act of patronage toward an illicit and dangerous Ulmist sect. In addition, they criticize the sexual activities of the Emperor regnant in regards to his lover as being immoral (due to influences from the patriarchal and homophobic elements of Azouri culture). During the Emperor regnant’s tour of the province, the Western Ulmists once revolt, burning the rebuilt Grand Basilica and raping, mutilating, and even immolating suspected Cixians. While the revolt was readily crushed, it has led to the mass exodus of the province’s Cixians (who constitute one-half of the population) to other urban areas (ironically facilitating its spread) as well as to much human losses (as many targeted were women and children, and due to the Cixian’s belief in pacifism) – including the Emperor regnant’s lover. The latter’s death in particular coincides with a rapid decline in the Emperor regnant’s health and well-being, and he spends his last days in his private estate just outside of the capital. This further cements the rift between Cixians and the Ulmists, and while many Cixians continue to observe Ulmist practices and its divine law, the Cixian clergy declares itself to be fully separate from Ulmism and its followers to be part of a “New Covenant”, thus fully rejecting Cixism’s roots in Ulmism and marking the establishment of a firm Cixian orthodoxy. Meanwhile, his lover’s death in particular coincides with a rapid decline in the Emperor regnant’s health and well-being, and he spends his last days in his private estate just outside of the capital. Exploiting this, the Cixian Church venerates the Aqinas as a Saint (alongside the parents of Cixi, the Seven Apostles, and past martyrs), in hopes of garnering support from him. Sillas expands east and south, colonizing the coast.

Sillan Republic: The decisive Sillenic victory in the Unification Wars (which contrary to what its terminology may suggest, were a series of related military campaigns rather than a single one) resulted in the political unification of the Sillenic peoples, a process that was initiated by the Sillan Republic’s conquest of the Olmecs nearly six centuries prior. The following period of relative socio-political stability facilitated the formation of trade routes both culminating and passing through Sillan cities and the further diffusion of Sillenic culture. In particular, the rapid spread of Cixism at the expense of other Ulmist sects and native beliefs continued, despite its success prompting localized but progressively more intense periods of persecution. Following the death of Drianos – the first documented and most famous male ruler in Sillan history – his first cousin Ardonias was elected into office. However, her term was cut short following a severe bout of pneumonia which left her bed-ridden for one-half year. She was succeeded by her eldest daughter, Margas; though Ardonias continued to exert influence over her until finally succumbing to an unidentified disease (hypothesized to be ovarian cancer). While Margas upheld the policy of religious toleration she reversed several of her predecessor’s policies toward the Cixians and remained largely ambivalent toward the persecutions; perhaps under the pressure of the more conservative elements of the State Council. Despite this, the Empress was not (at least overtly) anti-Cixian either, as she publicly praised the merits of the Cixian faith and condemned anti-Cixians as being “self-loathing” due to their prejudice against their fellow countrymen. Indeed, while the worship of the state-sponsored imperial cult was enforced during her rule, the humanist beliefs of Cixism exerted increasingly substantial influence over Sillan culture and law; perhaps best exemplified by the passage of laws discouraging the practices of abortion and premarital sex, arranged marriages, and the consumption of cereal-based alcoholic beverages. Classical Sillan high culture–especially in the realm of literature, performance arts, and visual arts–flourished during this period; benefited by the patronage of the upper and mercantile classes. While territorial expansion slowed down, apart from colonization southward and eastward, population growth was maintained through the adoption of new technologies – including iron ploughs, threshing machines, hand-driven rotary mills and horse-powered mills – the spread of a three-stage system of sequenced seasonal farming (legumes, cereals, then root crops intercropped with greens), and fertilizer derived for organic matter, most commonly discarded sub-quality fish paste or mammalian manure.

Tour of the provinces, and Ulmian Revolt[edit | edit source]

Twenty Year's Anarchy[edit | edit source]

Reign of Diukulisa[edit | edit source]

Main article: Diukulisa

In 95X, Karkala's tyrannical and blood reign ended after she was killed by her guards during one of her orgies. She was only 2X years old at the time of her death, consequently, she had yet to appoint an heir. As she was also the only child of her mother and predecessor, Severa, she did not have any close relatives (such as siblings or nieces) whom to bequeath the throne to. Karkala was succeeded by Dioklesa, a general of humble birth. Dioklesa was born in the North Sillas province to a middle-class family, and joined the army in her twenties; other than that, however, the first forty years of her life are obscure.

Diukolesa restored order through a very autocratic style of rule, which led to the deterioration of republican institutions and the alienation of the bureaucratic elite. Under the pretense of rooting out subversive elements within the government, she executed or exiled political opponents and censored any material that criticized her regime. She also expanded the prerogatives of the Censorate, which developed into a full-fledged supervisory branch of government though also with functions of the secret police. Seeking to check the power of the Popular Assembly, she established the Council of TBD, under which it became subordinate to. Unlike the Popular Assembly, the Council of TBD consisted of appointees (mainly senior army officials) instead of elected magistrates. The Council of TBD reviewed any edict submitted by the Popular Assembly in the place of the Empress; over time, she would also rely on it for counsel. In sharp contrast to her predecessors, who ascribed to a "first among equals" ideal, Diukolesa stressed the distinction between her – the Empress, and her subjects. She styled herself as "Autocrat of all Sillenes", and required all of her subjects to prostrate before her; even her closest allies were required to kiss the hem of her robe.

Due to her military background, Dioklesa inevitably gravitated towards the military – at the expense of the traditional bureaucratic elite. Dioklesa promoted military service as a way of improving one's social status; similarly, she discouraged women of humble birth from joining the civil service, which was increasingly dominated by wealthy, landholding families. Despite an attempt to ameliorate the popular perception of military examinations, it continued to be seen as inferior to civil service examinations. However, while the army did not attain the prestige of the scholarly-gentry, high-ranking military officials had amassed so much real power that they were able to influence political discourse through proxies. Similarly, in the frontier (where civil institutions were less developed), the military was active in governance and often assumed civic functions. This would foreshadow the power struggle between the scholarly-gentry and the military, which would culminate in the TBD Crisis. To further encourage young, poor men to join the army, she increased the annual salary for legionnaires from 35 barías (20,000 cash) to 50 bariás (30,000 cash). She also offered promising cadets entry into military academies, where they would learn logistic planning and grand strategy, and learn military classics such as the Art of War. As a result, the number of men and women in the army swelled to an unprecedented 200,000 troops; most of this (four-fifths) were men. Horse-archers, a role reserved for women, were now in the minority; this imbalance was a problem, as horse-archers formed the backbone of the military. Rather than encourage women to join the army to restore the balance, Dioklesa emphasized phalanx warfare (which was the basis of Sillenic warfare until the advent of firearms) and trained men as lancers. The use of corporal punishment (caning, or in extreme cases, flogging) was encouraged to enforce discipline; troops were also not allowed to marry until they reached the age of 25, as to foster a strong esprit de corps among members of the same division.

Diukuisa's reign marked the last and most intense of the Anystessean persecutions. While she was not particularly pious, she identified Anystesseanism – whose believers she saw as followers of a seditious and subversive religion, as a potential source of insurrection. By the mid-tenth century, the proportion of Anystesseans had grown to about 5% of the population; however, Anystesseans were already a majority in northwest Olmac, and were a plurality in the empire's cities (including Sillas itself) due to its popularity among the urban poor. Anystesseanism also began to spread to the countryside, where earlier missionary work failed to penetrate. While Diukulisa may have been tolerant of Anystessean (which was well-represented in the army) early into her reign, her attitudes towards it changed following the Edict of 96X. It ordered her subjects to observe the imperial cult – this was seen as a civic matter, rather than a religious one; non-compliance was equated to treason, and therefore was punishable by death. Only Ulmians were exempted from the edict, though many still complied out of community pressure.


from OM turns

Despite nominally-supporting the Empress’ efforts to enforce worship of the imperial cult, much of the nobility secretly partake in Cixian activities and even patronize the construction of religious architecture or fund and/or host religious meetings.

In order to discourage conversion to the Cixian faith, the Empress promotes Ulm – viewed as a legitimate and thus venerable religion – especially the “West” Orthodox branch of Ulm. In addition, she exempts Ulmians from participating in civic religious rites.

Conversely, she equates the act of refusing to worship the imperial cult to treason, specifically in-reference to Cixians. As a result of this law, Cixians may now be executed simply due to their faith. While many Cixians are martyred (including prominent nobility and clergymen), her efforts to stifle the growth of Cixism remain ultimately unsuccessful, with Cixians once again conducting religious services and rituals during the night to prevent any suspicion from the authorities. Similarly, as the rumors of their cannibalistic and incestuous practices are dispelled, the religion attracts many pagan sympathizers and converts; further establishing it as a distinct religion from Ulm, as well as fuelling anti-Ulm sentiment and harsh criticism of Ulmian beliefs and practices.

Sillas: Despite numerous policies against them, Cixism continues to grow rapidly, with its population now constituting a fourth of the total population. Its success could be attributed to a more attractive doctrine–which addressed human needs better–and a higher level of organization enabling more efficient proselytization. Due to its indistinguishability from Cixian proselytization, Ulmian proselytization is also prohibited. As a result, East Ulm becomes increasingly hostile to converts, while West Ulm enters a period of definite decline–the latter being criticized as excessively orthopraxic, and upholding many beliefs incompatible with Sillan culture. Similarly, Empress Giacrexian–while maintaining an official distinction between Cixism and Ulm (the former an illicit religion, the latter a legitimate one)–places all Cixians under Ulmian religious law; thus enforcing (West) Ulmian orthodoxy at the expense of East Ulmism and Cixism. In addition, the Empress institutes more serious punishments onto practicing Cixians. Cixians are given three chances to recant their faith, which is to be confirmed by offering incense to the Empress and cursing Cixi, the Anointed One. Any Cixians who are persistent are sentenced to death by burning–a mockery of Cixi’s death on the stake. However, these laws are rarely enforced, as many nobles are Cixian, and are reluctant to “kill” another fellow Cixian due to their fear of rejection by God and not being able to access the after-life. Since many dispatched officials are lower-class civil servants, they also readily accept bribes in-exchange for falsifying documentation to clear any government suspicions of their faith. The Cixians also receive aid from the pagans, who due to their increased tolerance of the Cixians, become increasingly sympathetic to their plight. As a response to intensifying persecutions, the Cixians become more secretive in their affairs; thus making their true numbers hard to determine while creating the illusion of the persecutions’ success. Cixian clergymen operate more discreetly, while monasteries often have a front business or organization to dispel any suspicions. Religious services are conducted in the safety of the night, and while in public, Cixians identify themselves with symbols or hidden body cues. Empress Giacrexian continues territorial expansion southward and eastward, with any rebelling tribes pacified with brute force. The settlement of frontier continues–prompted by scarcity of land in Sillas proper due to population growth and strict inheritance laws. Land distribution programs–aimed specifically to tenant farmers or landless wage laborers–are enacted, while improvements in agriculture heighten food supply and promote population growth. Five new cities are established, facilitating the development of trading routes and regional administrative centers and promoting economic connectivity. Under the reign of the Empress, the economy booms, fuelled by foreign trade. Main exports include textiles (silk, cotton, and abaca), and ceramics (porcelaneous wares, lacquerwares, earthenware, with some glassware). In addition, numerous cash crops–such as sugar cane, tea, cocoa, coconut and/or palm oil, and exotic fruits–are cultivated, primarily in the northern provinces due to a much more tropical climate, conducive to the growth of these crops. While being an autocrat, Empress Giacrexian remains an effective and capable leader; ushering Sillas into a period of political stability and prosperity, not seen since the reign of Agosqina. However, her social policies aggravate and amplifies pre-existing inter-religious and sectarian tensions. To counter criticism, Empress Giacrexian adopts the official title of “Enlightened Despot”, while instituting a system of literary inquisition to silence any political opposition as to further solidify her rule. Aside from enforcing the worship of the imperial cult, she commissions numerous works of art commemorating her successes in the style of Sillan classical sculptures; being simplistic and austere, a deep contrast to the contemporary “baroque” style characterized by complex compositions and polychrome.

Triarchy[edit | edit source]

War of Contingency[edit | edit source]

Anystesseanism as state religion[edit | edit source]

Reign of Bria the Magnificent*[edit | edit source]

Early life[edit | edit source]

Bria was born in 1103 to Iakelina (a petty banker and the third-born child of then-Empress Igneska), and Iohannes, a centurion. Bria's maternal family, the Sina family, traced their ancestry to the first Empress of Sillas, Sanza, and her descendants - who ruled over Sillas until the ascension of the Holanda dynasty. The branch to which Bria belonged to, the Sina's of Makuku, settled the area after the Silleno-Makuku War. The background of Iohannes was more obscure. Not much is known about him other than he served in the military for twelve years, and he came from the south, leading to some scholars to suggest he was of Olmac or Qeran descent. Iohannes' grandparents died before Bria was born, and Iohannes himself died when Bria was six. Iakelina did not remarry after his death. At the age of thirteen, Bria moved to the city of Sillas after being admitted into the Imperial Academy, while Iakelina stayed behind to maintain her business, only moving to Sillas a year later. During this period, Bria lived with her maternal aunt, Iosephina. Iosephina served as a district magistrate and would help cultivate Bria's interest in history and politics, she also tutored her during her free time. Bria would excel in the subjects she had an interest in, such as history, law, and literature. She was noted to have enthusiastically participated in class discussions, where she built upon her oratory skills. Apart from these academic pursuits, she also held an interest in music and poetry, as well as traditional high arts such as archery and equestrianism.

As Bria was the eldest of her grandchildren, Igneska favored her as her successor. After succeeding civil service examinations at the age of 18, Bria was given governorship over her native province of Makuku; this move drew some controversy, given her age and her lack of experience. Bria nevertheless, held the post for the next six years. At the age of 21, Bria was married to a family friend, Zakarias. While their marriage was arranged, both quickly fell in love with one another. Zakarias was a member of the Sillenic branch of the Sina family. He also was a rising military officer; he was already a legionary general by the age of 25, making him among the youngest to achieve such a feat. Their marriage would be frustrated by Bria's difficulty with conceiving a child, destroying her dream of having a large family. At the 24, Bria suffered a miscarriage – the stress of which would lead her to abdicate from the position of Governor.


Bria’s first few years as Empress was marked by infighting within the Popular Assembly between the Southern faction and the Northern faction, who were the opposition faction. The northerners were emboldened by Bria’s young age (she was twenty when she ascended to the throne) and of her humble background; many were also skeptical of her ability to run the state. The two factions differed both in foreign and domestic policy. The northerners were isolationist – as such, they opposed the 110X Treaty of Imbalama (which united Qera and Sillas into a confederal state), and opposed the expansion of the military; the southerners wanted to pursue an aggressive, expansionistic stance towards Sillas’ neighbors – the most radical of the southerners even wanted a pre-emptive war against them, citing lingering animosity for Sillas. The two factions also had different attitudes towards the role of the church: southerners sought to expand it, and also institute social policies in line with Anystessean social teachings; northerners viewed this as contrary to the principle of the separation of church and state. Both factions, however, wanted to restore the balance of power between the Popular Assembly and the Empress (a position that gradually became more and more autocratic); they also worked together to curtail the power of the military and their influence on political discourse. Bria took note of these concerns, and like her predecessor and late grandmother Katrina, emphasized her position as “first among equals”. Nevertheless, her marriage to the Grand Commandant, Zakarías, foiled her attempts to portray herself as neutral in regards to the clashes between the scholarly-gentry and the military.

Despite the mixed reception of Bria within the scholarly-gentry, she was well-received by the masses – and more importantly, by the church. Bria expanded the dole (pekean) to encompass all residents of Sillas – though this was not without controversy; many bureaucrats believed she only did this was to increase popular support for her, rather than out of compassion. She also began giving out provisions of other essentials such as wine, salt, and oil. Bria also increased government funding for church schools and monastic schools, which have become centers of higher learning.

TBD Incident and War of the Triple Alliance[edit | edit source]

Bria envisioned the affair to be a brief one, and as such, Sillenic troops were only moderately-supplied. To replenish their supply, they bought out local goods (grain, wine, salt, and oil) en-masse; this would anger the locals as the prices of basic goods rose sharply – subsequently, it became harder and harder to feed themselves. To add insult to injury, the Sillenes were patronizing to the Berabans: they refused to acknowledge their customs and were hostile – or even violent, towards the pagan clergymen. This lack of respect shown towards the Berabans was in spite of Bria’s message that they came not in their interest, but in theirs; that they came not to dominate them, but to advance the “civilized institutions of democracy and meritocracy”. This dissonance and the hubris displayed by the Sillenes would inflame deeply-seated animosity towards them. In 112X, 10,000 farmers would rise up and – using makeshift weapons from farm tools – would manage to rout a force triple their size. The battle, which came to be known as the Insurrection of TBD, constituted an embarrassing defeat and shattered the image of Sillas’ invincibility. Until then, the young Grand Commandant had won victory after victory, so, many were puzzled by how such a skilled commander lost against what was a puny and poorly-armed force. However, it was later reported that – instead of inspecting the troops and surveying the area, as he was supposed to – he had spent the night drinking and playing games. This "revelation" damaged his reputation, and he was a recipient of much reprimand upon his return to the capital later that year. The defeat also damaged the Empress’ credentials, which was already adversely-affected by her young age and her newness to politics. Many within the scholarly-gentry began to once again call for her abdication – albeit this was a choice she was not willing to take. While the people still wanted her on the throne (given her populist tendencies), public opinion on the war certainly became critical, as it diverted funds from the dole and public projects to a cause that did not directly benefit them. Conversely, the defeat reinvigorated the fighting spirit and morale of the Qaryaatis and Berabans. They viewed the war not by itself, but in the context of a centuries-long struggle to secure their independence from a strange and alien aggressor.

....

Bria annexed the Beraban peninsula, Mohejaro, and Qaryaat – thus starting a period known as the “Sillenic Ascendancy”, during which a small elite of Sillenes would dominate commerce, politics, and religion. These regions were referred to as “special provinces”, as while they had a provincial government, they did not send representatives to the Popular Assembly. Qaryaat was divided into two, Gahren was split from Beraba, while Yecedaya became part of a reunified Makuku province. Bria believed that through the imposition of Sillenic institutions onto the natives and exposure to Sillenic culture, they would become less hostile to Sillenic rule. The Sillenic class system (which distinguished between three categories of people: bureaucrats, clergywomen, and commoners) was imposed upon the population; meanwhile, archaic institutions such as slavery and feudalism were abolished. Those who collaborated with Sillenic rule – the “allatus” (confederates), was conferred full citizenship; as a result, they did not only enjoy legal privileges but were able to engage in political life. The majority held the “Exhulan Right”, however. While they did not have a say in political affairs, they were still protected by the law. To facilitate the sillenization process, she established “plantations” (colonies) in the new provinces; these served as bastions of Sillenic culture – with baths, churches, fields, and theaters in the Sillenic architectural style being built. They were initially settled by veterans of the Great Northern War; as most were men, they intermarried with the natives. However, they were quickly joined by hundreds of thousands of colonists, and as a result, these plantations became ethnic enclaves. Some of these plantations became among the biggest cities in the empire – such as the city of Briapolis-on-the-Ouadi, which attained a peak population of 300,000, making it the largest in Maqiri. Nevertheless, many colonists settled in pre-existing cities and towns, which led to the development of Sillenic quarters. One such example was the capital of Qaryaat, Makra, which had a diverse population of 600,000 people, which included native Qaryaatis as well as Sillenic and Exhulan colonists.

The sillenization of the special provinces was not without resistance. The Edict of Iesikapolis, which curtailed pagan activities and established Anystesseanism as the state religion, galvanized the pagan majority and spurred conflict between the settlers and natives. Between one-third and one-fourth of all land in the special provinces were owned by the church, making them the single-largest landholder in the country. Many native farmers called for the redistribution of land, as many worked lands owned and overseen by monasteries, and thus had little control over how they can use the land. Furthermore, non-Ansytesseans were often forced to construct/repair churches and church grounds as part of their corvée obligations (the tax on labor was ostensibly the counterpart of the alms-giving tax levied on Anystessans); this harmed farmers, who could have been working on their farmland or communal projects (such as irrigation). These, plus instances of clerical abuse (which were often dismissed), brewed resentment towards the privileged Anystessean minority. This animosity towards them would culminate in multiple rebellions, all centered in Qaryaat, such as the TBD, and TBD – the second of which (led by the now legendary peasant leader TBD), took three years to suppress and made Bria question the decision to annex these regions.



In 11XX, shortly following the ascension of Bria to the throne, Mohejaro and Sillas would be embroiled in a territorial dispute that would culminate in the brief Silleno–Mohejarian War, which would result in a decisive victory for the latter. Due to Sillas still being in a state of mourning, the XXth legion would be unprepared for the attack and would be annihilated – thus exposing the north-east corridor. Seeking to ensure the security the wealthy Makuku provinces, she agreed to a humiliating peace. The Treaty of TBD forced Sillas to pay a semi-annual tribute to Mohejaro for a period of five years, asides from recognizing its claimed borders. While the territorial concessions were negligible – especially as the exchanged territories were sparsely populated – the outcome (and the decision not to pursue a war) was not only unexpected but resulted in a massive blow to Sillenic prestige. The decision was harshly criticized by her contemporaries. Members of the opposition demanded her abdication, viewing her as a weak-willed leader. These doubts were shared with members of the Western court, which even briefly considered a withdrawal from the Union. Over the course of the next few months, the "Northern Question" would emerge as a major theme in political discourse. It asserted Sillas would inevitably have to affirm its hegemony either through the appeasement of foreign powers or through the reassertion of military primacy. Public opinion would initially favor the former. As the tribute demands – which was deliberately made ambiguous – began to strain the Imperial Treasury, Bria sent a diplomatic convoy to Mohejaro; Bria rejected the suggestion of a punitive expedition, believing Mohejaro would agree to the cessation of tribute in exchange for a preferential trading status. This convoy would be ambushed en-route to the Mohejarian capital – Mohejarians would at first deny responsibility, but would eventually admit that they had attacked it since it was initially interpreted as the start of a punitive expedition. This event, known as the TBD Incident of 11XX, would catalyze war. Yielding to public pressure, Bria would declare a state of war between the two nations. The initial push eastwards, which consisted of a mere two legions, would be repelled by a larger Qaryaati force; the Sillenic response alarmed Berabans and their allies – especially the Makuku rump state.

In 11XX, Qaryaati, Mohejaro, and Beraba established the Triple Alliance in response to "Sillenic aggression". All sought to end Sillas' regional hegemony and to halt its expansion (particularly towards the North); however, Makuku revanchists also viewed the conflict as an opportunity to reverse its territorial losses from the Sillenic Wars. Some Berabans also sought to secure the independence of Teninukal, while Qaryaat sought to colonize the Sillenic north. The three were additionally emboldened by the perceived loss of prestige on the part of Sillas, as well as the perceived neglect of its military in-favor of religious affairs. The ensuing Great Northern War – also referred to as the War of the Triple Alliance – would last a decade and a half and would result in the deaths of up to a million people, based on contemporary accounts. Ironically, given its origins, the conflict would decisively place Sillas as the most powerful state in the Near East – echoing the also nascent Syresian Empire to its west. It is typically periodized into three phases: the rapid subjugation of Mohejaro and Qaryaat, massive resistance thereafter, and the conquest of the Beraban peninsula in a protracted war of attrition. Most of the campaigns were headed by the Emperor consort, Sakarias – though several key battles, such as the decisive Siege of TBD, were famously led by Bria herself. The war would see the peak and abolishment of military conscription (at least for regular armies), which would be replaced by a paid professional force. It would also see the military be more reliant on shock troops such as lancers and pikemen. The unification of the Near East would usher to the period of Pax Sillenica, during which, agriculture, urban life, and trade would flourish. Another result of this period would be the diffusion of important Sillenic political institutions, such as early republicanism, civil service, and bureaucracy. Increased connectivity would also facilitate the spread of Anystesseanism, which would ultimately supersede local pagan tradition.

At first, Bria did not seek to annex the newly-subjugated territories. Instead, she sought to vassalize them by installing pro-Sillenic members of their respective royal houses. Bria was well aware of the dangers of prolonged occupation – in fact, she saw the situation as comparable to that of the Sillenic Wars of the 9th–10th centuries. To avoid prolonged conflict, Bria granted (conditional) independence to Beraba and Qaryaat, while annexing Makuku and Mohejaro as a province and a military protectorate, respectively. Discontent with this arrangement would erupt in the brief but bloody TBD Revolt of 11XX, which resulted in the notorious massacre of the small Anystessean community in Qaryaat (as well as followers of other Nelrimic faiths). In response, Bria curbed the rights of the Qaryaati and Beraban monarchs – while she guaranteed they would retain (at least nominal) control over domestic affairs, military, and diplomatic matters were to be entirely assumed by an appointed regional commission. The latter was comprised of high-ranking military officials, as well as leading clergywomen. Also, they were forced to renounce the title of King/Queen and instead adopted the lesser title of Viceroy/Vicereine. These, in combination with vast reductions in controlled territories, would reduce them to mere fiefdoms. Other territories were organized under military protectorates. Similar to the Jauvuk–Avsylannese protectorate, their official names were derived from cardinal directions (i.e., Protectorate General to Pacify the North).

The decision to directly-administer the territories would represent a departure in traditional Sillenic interactions with foreign entities. Barring Chrystalia and the Protectorate of the East, all annexed territories were ethnically Sillene (though this varied based on contemporary definitions). As a result, foreign policy was rather passive and even considered by some to be semi-isolationist. In contrast, by the mid-twelfth century, Sillas managed large swathes of foreign territory – though ostensibly to "secure its borders". Despite Bria's insistence on a cap on the territorial acquisitions, the clergy (who sought to convert the region) and the wealthy (who sought to exploit the region's material and human wealth) both lobbied the opposite. In her later years, Bria would seem to accept the move – remarking on heightened access to goods such as spices, dyes, gemstones, and aromatics; as well as improved life for non-Sillenes through the imposition of Sillenic law. Nevertheless, disparities between the provinces and the protectorates and viceroyalties (for example, the residents of the latter two were not conferred citizenship) would entrench a distinction between a Sillenic core controlled by a magisterial class, and a foreign periphery under military administration.

Cultural activities[edit | edit source]

Patronage of Anystesseanism[edit | edit source]

By the time of Bria's ascension in 1124, just under two-thirds (~60%) of Sillenes were Anystesseans – the remainder would be comprised of Sillenized Ulmians and Sillenic polytheists. In the areas administered by the Western court (Greater Qera), this proportion was only 3–10% and was largely confined to urban-dwellers (with the notable exception of Sayalen, which would become an early bastion of the religion). Asides from the three Sillenistic nations, Anystesseans in the Near East constituted a near-negligible urban minority. However, the patronage of the Sillenic government and the radical socio-political developments of the twelfth century would result in its emergence as the leading religion within a generation.

Following the Great Northern War, both Bria and her husband launched a three-year tour of the various Sillenic provinces to bring news of the victory and showcase the region's wealth. While visiting the southwestern Sillas province (specifically, the vicinity around Iesikapolis), she issued the Edict of 1149. This act constituted one of the most important events in the history of Anystesseanism, and served as a catalyst of the thorough Anystesseanization of the region. It made Orthodox Anystesseanism, as defined by the Second Council of Sillas, the state religion; Orthodoxy was defined by belief in Anystesses as the Anointed One, belief in Iesika of Vandenapolis as the God-bearer, and the doctrine of "good works by faith". Knowledge of Anystessean texts and philosophy was incorporated into the corpus of works needed to be studied by prospective bureaucrats and administrators – thus finalizing the status of Anystesseanism within the ruling scholar–gentry. All other religions (including Ulm and other Anystessean sects), while legal, were subjected to a wide variety of legal restrictions and became were perceived as either heresies or dangerous cults. A wide variety of pagan rites were deliberately criminalized under a ethical or moral basis, but these had the effect of minimizing their public presence and limited practice to the domestic sphere. This effectively extinguished the last vestiges of Sillenic polytheism, which became associated with Drokksidite worship. The edict also established an annual poll tax (amounting to about 30kg of grain) levied on non-Anystesseans; though this was viewed as the counterpart to the alms-giving tax paid by Anystesseans and thus was met with little opposition. In contrast, the Western Empire continued to uphold a policy of religious tolerance – thus maintaining a high degree of religious pluralism until the Crisis of the 14th Century.

Despite this, conversion to Anystesseanism was mostly voluntary. Many were attracted to the doctrines of Anystesseanisn – especially the concept of "salvation by orthodoxy through orthopraxy", and the emphasis on equality and social concord. These contrasted with the traditional religions of the conquered territories, which often stressed divine wrath and the necessity to "appease the gods" through proper ritual. As the clergy was regarded as above the scholar–gentry (which was largely synonymous with the landed gentry), many non-Sillenes viewed the act of joining the clergy as a means by which they can elevate their rank in society. As a result, the majority of the provincial regular clergy – that is, nuns and monks – became comprised of non-Sillenes. While the secular clergy continued to be comprised of ethnic Sillenes, they exerted less power than in Sillas proper. Nevertheless, this imbalance tainted relations with the natives and fuelled later secessionist movements. In lieu of the Sillenic settlement of Chrystalia – which had its small population absorbed, the government often relocated people in the sparsely-populated territories to centralized, planned communities known as "congregations" or "reductions". These were often centered around a church and unlike in Sillas proper, they were administered by clergywomen (with the assistance of the military in regards to maintain civil order). This special arrangement facilitated both the collection of tax and religious proselytization. Likewise, it allocated large swaths of land to monasteries. As a result, they often presided over large agricultural estates cultivating grain and coconuts (for liquor) for-profit – which weakened the conquered elite. These frontier monasteries served as centers of education and higher learning, particularly of theology (including philosophy), literature, rhetoric, and law. Many prominent monks and nuns of non-Sillenic origin, including: TBD of TBD, TBD of TBD, and TBD of TBD – the latter of whom was a friend of Bria herself.

The rapid rise of Anystesseanism was not unaccompanied by controversy. The main critique of Anystesseanism was its strict monotheism; all other gods were regarded as manifestations of Drokksid – therefore, it invalidated worship directed to them and regarded them as inherently dangerous. Second to this was the inability of males to join the priestesshood or hold the episcopate, as male ordination was limited to deacons. This was in stark contrast to Ulm, which did not ordain women at all. Meanwhile, in Beraban and Qaryaati folk religion, women were limited to a few religious offices. Another practice subject to criticism was clerical celibacy. A cleric would have to renounce their vow (and if ordained, step down from their office) should they have the desire to marry or have children. However, a marriage (and its issue) would be valid should it occur prior to their entry to the clergy. Doctrinal flexibility was inevitable and was often tolerated as an effect of cultural syncretism. Beginning in the early thirteenth century, however, the persecution of paganism declined – replaced by a large-scale crackdown on what was perceived as heterodoxy.

Literature and philosophy[edit | edit source]

Architecture[edit | edit source]

  • "upsweep" roofs + often w/ ceramic figures
  • large palatial complexes (traditional courtyard model)
  • heterodox "vertical" school
    • pagodas
    • towers
  • brick wall instead of earth wall
  • Reductions (similar to Indian reducionnes + Ottoman kulliye)

Science and technology[edit | edit source]

Frontier life[edit | edit source]

The Sillenes had a distinction between the province and the frontier. The latter referred to the protectorates and fiefdoms, while the former referred to enfranchised regions in the East (but sometimes, also the West). The provinces were represented in the Popular Assembly and ruled by civilian governments which emulated the bureaucracy in the capital – albeit on a much smaller scale. The frontier regions were administered differently depending on their type. Protectorates were governed by a council comprised of the highest-ranking military officials, and an appointed group of scholar–bureaucrats. This body was known as the TBD. On the local level, however, there was a six-woman council known as the TBD; its seats were assigned a role corresponding to the Six Ministries system. Voting rights were limited to the second-class citizens (which roughly corresponded to the native elite) and the appointed officials served life-long terms. In practice, many retired after a decade or so of service, and usually utilized their prestige and role to intimidate voters into voting for their blood relatives. As a result, petty political dynasties developed. Subjugated territories were not recognized as part of Sillas, but rather, territories under perpetual Sillenic occupation – ostensibly for the sake of the natives (as natively-developed institutions were deemed inferior) but in reality, to prevent incursions into Sillenic territory. Bria justified this occupation by saying that it was temporary: once Sillenic institutions have been successfully implemented, the Sillenic military will withdraw. This promise was never delivered during her lifetime and nor by her successors.

Driven by the overpopulation of the core, many Sillenes emigrated – primarily to Chrystalia, the Jauvuk, Mohejaro, the southern Beraban peninsula, and Qaryaat. As Sillenic colonization intensified, a three-way dynamic between the fully-enfranchised Sillenes, the elite – which wielded a limited degree of citizenship, and the politically-marginalized peasant majority. While such Sillenes nominally retained their political rights, they could not not practice them outside of the provinces. As Sillenic communities grew and formed majorities in select urban zones, they were granted the status of a municipality (市; siudár) and became enfranchised exclaves. Some of these such exclaves included pre-established major cities such as: TBD, TBD, TBD. Others were newer, planned communities – most notably, the numerous cities named Briapolis and Zakariasopolis established. An example would be Briapolis on the TBD (popularly-referred to as Pinkatāspolis; "highest city"), which became a major port and the northernmost point of the mainland. To foster a closer and more secure relationship with the conquered peoples, Bria deliberately promoted miscegenation. She noted many veteran members of her armies settling down and marry native woman. In her memoirs, she wrote down, "the Sillenes and the natives shall intermarry to the point that, when they muster their arms and initiate revolt, they find themselves unable to – for it would mean harming their own flesh and blood." This policy was furthered in the Law of 118X, which established a list of incentives (mainly financial) for interracial marriages, including: subsidized tuition for Sillenized academies, a tax break five years following the birth of a child, generous land grants, and even a sum of cash or grain. It also changed citizenship laws so that citizenship would not be matrilineal (that is derived through the mother), but bilineal (derived from both parents). However, while Sillenic mothers can confer to their children full citizenship, Sillenic fathers can only confer their children the limited form of citizenship initially reserved for native elite. The sudden rise in the citizen body also had the effect of increasing tax revenue. Non-citizens paid an income tax of 5%, which was only half that paid by citizens (rationalized as the cost for their political rights); however, non-citizens were subject to corvée, which was commutable to a poll tax of ~30kg.

The subsequesent Law of 118X, established a racially-based caste system.

  • Caste system (seporesión nama leis)
  • agriculture, life for peasants
  • life for elite
  • visits
    • Jauvuk
    • Mohejaro
    • Qaryaat
    • Beraba

Kaloman Revolt and Third Exhulo-Sillenic War[edit | edit source]

...

Tensions arose again following the promulgation of the Edict of Iesikapolis, which established Anystesseanism as the state religion and also curtailed the activities of non-Anystesseans. While Bria – as did most Sillenes, recognized Irrulmians as Anystesseans, most Irrulmians did not self-identify as Anystesseans and felt that the edict applied to them. The minority who did recognize themselves as Anystesseans were aware that their beliefs – particularly the belief that Hcctaal deities were forms of God, or were folk saints – were viewed as heretical. In response to fears that the edict would affect them, Bria clarified that it did not apply to Irrulmians. Bria did not want to galvanize the Exhula minority, who dominated Sillas’ maritime trade. However, this did not prevent pogroms that targeted Irrulmians – especially in East Kaloma, where they constituted a minority. While Bria punished those who participated in the pogroms, most Irrulmians believed she did not do enough to mend the growing rift between them and the Anystessean majority. Some even held the belief that the Empress purposely fanned the flames of sectarian conflict, or at least, was complicit with it. Dissatisfaction with Sillenic rule would eventually culminate in the Kaloman Revolt of 117X. It was led by a peasant named Iosepho, who believed himself to be a reincarnation of Anystesses. This appealed to the Irrulmian masses, who believed that the Anointed One had been reincarnated multiple times in human history and Anystesses is just but one of God’s many manifestations. While the Kaloman Revolt would only last three months, it catalyzed the Saltless War – named after the shortage of salt that year (most of Sillas’ salt was produced in the Kaloman peninsula). The Saltless War would be the last of the Silleno-Exhulan Wars and would result in the incorporation of the Exhulan World into the Sillenic Empire.

First Glorious War[edit | edit source]

Exhula campaign[edit | edit source]

By the mid-twelfth century, the Sillenes began to notice Syresian encroachment. In 11XX, Bria declared her intentions to incorporate Exhula into the Sillenic Empire – ostensibly to protect the nation's Anystessean minority and due to linguistic (and therefore, racial) affinities. However, in reality, it was declared with the intent of controlling the increasingly lucrative westwards trading routes, since the West coveted goods such as fine cloth, ceramics, spices, and sugar. Additionally, control of the Ettyian Coast was geostrategic interest, as it would disallow the Syresian navy (and pirates originating from the area) from raiding Sillenic coastal regions. The official reason was only propagated to muster both popular support and support from the church. In the following month, due to an overwhelmingly favorable response from the public, the Popular Assembly unanimously passed a motion to invade Exhula. Nevertheless, the war would not commence until the following year due to a disagreement between the eastern and western courts (the latter being based in Imbalama). Until that point, the two acted more or less independently of each other. The main point of contention was whether or not the newly-conquered territory would be placed under the control of the western court – as suggested by its geographic proximity to its core territory of Qera, or under the eastern court. Due to the de facto (but not de jure) primacy of the eastern court, the latter path was followed – to the annoyance of the incumbent Qeran Prince/ss TBD.

  • split into two periods
  • piracy
  • ends w/ Talas-esque conflict w/ Syres

Tohatian campaign[edit | edit source]

Failure and Peace of 118X[edit | edit source]

Later life[edit | edit source]

Tour[edit | edit source]

From 1149 to 1152, Bria embarked on a tour of the Sillenic provinces – as well as the newly-established protectorates and fiefdoms. For the duration of the tour, she granted her childhood friend Katrina – who had experience as a scholar-bureaucrat – power over the court. The Emperor consort would sometimes visit to aid her, and Katrina would also get the informal assistance of Bria's family members. Nevertheless, Bria would secretly return to the capital four times each year: during the vernal equinox to celebrate the Nativity and the end of Cassander's Revolt, the estival solstice to celebrate Anystesses' death and ascension, the autumnal equinox for the start of Cassander's Revolt, and finally, the hibernal solstice for the Liberation of Sillas.

...

Return to the capital, and Year of the Six Controversies[edit | edit source]

Main information: Year of the Six Controversies

In Decemmber 12, 1152, she returned to the capital with an entourage numbering in the thousands – excluding accompanying soldiers. Despite the time approaching midnight, about half of metropolitan Sillas' population at the time (~300,000) attended; some criticized the ill-timed event as a waste of public funds, and a source of massive noise pollution, preventing those living in adjacent quarters from sleeping. The event was said to be so long, that it lasted until dawn while the procession was a kilometer long. During the parade, she gave away gold pieces, jewelry, fine garments to the attendants – who were also kept amused by troupes of entertainers and elaborate magic tricks and performances. Asides from symbolizing the success of the the Great Northern War and the massive wealth that Sillas gained from the New Territories, she used general curiosity on the latter to display exotic goods and foreign "guests" in a bid to solidify public support for territorial incorporation. She even got some willing participants to publicly-convert to Anystesseanism – an action specifically targetted to watching clergy. This was especially important, as then, the Popular Assembly remained unconvinced on the necessity for annexation. By that point, however, much of the New Territories had been under control for over two decades – though the need for a codified system of administration constitute a pressing concern.

Her frequent absences from the capital for most of her reign meant the Empress and the Popular Assembly were distant from each other – similar to Emperor regnant Adrianos' own notorious struggles with the same institution centuries prior. Nonetheless, the lukewarm relationship first became hostile when her desire to install Katrina as the Minister of Rites – a position left vacant by the death of its prior office-holder – was rebuffed unanimously. In response, the Empress mandated her ascension to the role via imperial decree – a move supported by incumbent Pontiff Natana III, who took note of her piety and intensive knowledge of scripture. This action, was once again vetoed unanimously. In spite of their efforts, the veto was overriden (as enabled by her imperial prerogative), which prompted outrage among members of the Popular Assembly – half of whom did not attend the meeting the following day in protest. However, it is the coerced nature behind the resignation of the opposition leader, assemblywoman Kamemberta, and apparent defamation on behalf of Bria (who suggested she was a crypto-polytheist or an outright Drokksite) that catalyzed open conflict. Kamemberta would counter her claims by pointing out her own alledged immorality – being readily joined by her remaining allies in the Popular Assembly, the scholar–gentry, and religious minorities. The year would thus be marked by intense feuding between the Empress and the Popular Assembly and their allies, being retroactively referred as the Year of the Six Controversies. As a result of the controversy generated, there was strong calls from the elite for Bria to resign; historians would later view it was the year which had determined Bria's status as a "great" and the longevity of her successes. The discussed controversies that were targeted against her were favoritism within the bureaucracy (as exemplified by Katrina's rise to prominence), the controversial pregnancy of Iesika Pauca – Bria's second-born child, her hinted links to the Sillenized Ulmians, and the status of the "Azourians" or Ulmians in the capital. Additional minor controversies, albeit only tenuously related by time, were iconoclasm and the disputed status of Diakelina; these drew the attention of church, which reaffirmed their support for Bria and were important in drawing public support.

The tensions ended when Kamemberta abruptly died. Her family physician determined the cause of death to be pneumonia. Her death was viewed as highly suspicious, as she never had any – at least disclosed – illnesses, and seemed to have been in good health. Furthermore, the state in which she was found – being surrounded by a shattered icon of Anystesses, a snapped pentagram, and the ashes of scriptural texts – seemed to confirm Bria's statements on her infidelity to the church and made it seem that divine intervention was responsible. Many pointed out the details of her death could have been falsified for political purposes or as a cover up, while her family silenced or bribed. Regardless of whether or not her death was accidental, it eliminated the head of the opposition, and effectively silenced it.

Death of Zakarias and senility[edit | edit source]


PLAN:

  • early life
  • Great Northern War (first phase)
  • epiphany + religious experience
    • adds religious dimension to the Great Northern War
  • Greater Northern War (later phase)
  • would wed childhood friend Zakarias at the age of ~29 (after originally consecrating her "virginity")
    • Bria would eventually have two kids: Jasper & Diesí (grandchildren = Jaime & Dieimí)
  • Beraban Conspiracy
    • brief independence under "Warrior Queen"
    • end = result in complete annexation as protectorates
  • administerial reform
    • expansion of protectorate system
    • major cores become enfranchised provinces
  • FOUNDS CITIES – VIEWS URBAN LIFE AS SUPERIOR
  • Year of Controversy
    • alleged favoritism within bureaucracy
    • iconoclastic movement
    • moral panic over witchcraft / occultism
    • anti-Ulmian riots; status of "Sillenized Ulmians"
  • spread of Anystesseanism
    • First Edict of TBD – would make it state religion
    • Donation of Bria – would recognize Pontiff as the head of state
    • Second Edict of TBD – suppress paganism
  • social conservatism + moral panic
  • Three Great Campaigns – social reforms to realize Anystessean goals (of social harmony, equality, and prosperity)
  • death of Zakarias > Bria would wear black for the rest of her life in public
    • cult of widowhood
  • Battle of TBD – contact between Syresian & Sillenic Empires
    • Ettyian Controversy = conflict between eastern & western courts; primacy of the east would be acknowledged
  • TBD – display of Sillenic culture

1300s[edit | edit source]

Reign of Lushus[edit | edit source]

Meta[edit | edit source]

401 – 500[edit | edit source]

491 – 500*[edit | edit source]

Sillan Republic: The expulsion of the Sillans from both Teninukal and peninsular Exhula (after an initially successful campaign) surprises Cabeza Qianlana and the Imperial Court, who have long been convinced of the Silla's innate military superiority. As a result, Cabeza Qianlana reluctantly agrees to a white peace. Cabeza Qianlana begins to implement a policy of literary inquisition (particularly repressing any criticism of the Cabeza) the mounting opposition within the bureaucracy. Meanwhile, the Irrulmians who have settled in Silla sent a petition to Daqing, requesting that their religion receives legal recognition and that their deities are added to the Grand Pantheon. The authorities agree, despite being aware of the strict monolatrism that the religion – which is mistakenly referred to as the "Cult of the Talking Cow" depends upon its followers. All city walls (consisting of rammed earth cores and brick exteriors) are annually maintained and reinforced, while an intricate system of canals and flattened dirt roads are constructed to facilitate transport. As part of a public health and sanitation campaign, extensive sewer and plumbing systems, latrines, and public baths (accompanied by evaporative coolers) are built in all major settlements – with water being supplied by a comprehensive system of aqueducts and minor water channels. Meanwhile, irrigation channels and groundwater-wells are built in agricultural lands to provide an ample supply of water and fertilizer (in the form of fish paste or bovine manure) to crops; thus resulting in high agricultural productivity. Excess produce is either sold to the market or is stored within town granaries to ensure food security. With heightened demand for consumer goods (both for domestic consumption and for export), many bloomeries and workshops are built – manufacturing a high quantity of textiles (silk and muslin abaca cloth), ceramics (porcelain wares), luxury goods (jewelry), farm tools, and military arms (reflex bows, swords, polearms, and arrows). Regional economic specialization continues. Within Silla proper, rice and plantains are cultivated as staples; however, various exotic fruits, vegetables (turnips, radishes, cabbages, aquatic plants, soybeans), root crops (taro, yams, sweet potatoes) are also cultivated and consumed. Cash crops include tea, ginseng, hemp, sugarcane, coconut, indigo and abaca; while other major industries include sericulture and beekeeping (to acquire honey and wax). The main diet in the Makuku region is similar. Economically, however, it specializes in the farming of introduced ratites (specifically ostriches and rheas), and hunting of wild crocodiles and snake – all for the purpose of acquiring an alternative source of leather. Cash crops include various spices, sugarcane, cocoa, and tobacco. Within the Olmac region, the staples are radically different, consisting of millet, wheat, and maize (though the latter is more used as fodder). In addition, various berries and nuts, lentils, chickpeas, various beans, various gourds and squashes, and true potatoes are also cultivated and consumed. Cash crops include coffee, cotton, opiates and natural dyes (indigo and henna). Within marshes or near bodies of water, artificial islands are built and are planted with maize, squash, and beans – intercropped together to maximize agricultural yield. While each plot of land is small (less than a tenth of the hectare), it is capable of yielding seven harvests annually – enough to support a single household (assuming they utilize all produce for human consumption). In lower depths of water, however, deep-water rice varieties are cultivated. Finally, the areas of the lowest depths are reserved for farms raising fresh-water fish, mollusks (snails, clams), and crustaceans (shrimp, prawns, and crabs). In order to facilitate population growth, rapid southward expansion continues to acquire more arable land, raw materials, and to spread the gifts the civility through the assimilation of the barbarians.
  • the Irrulmians who have settled in Sillas sent a petition to the capital, requesting that their religion receives legal recognition and that their deities are added to the Grand Pantheon
    • the authorities agree, despite being aware of the strict monolatrism that the religion requires
    • Ulm is mistakenly referred to as the "Cult of the Talking Cow"

501 – 600[edit | edit source]

501 – 510[edit | edit source]

  • Sillan Republic: Cabeza Qianlana increases investment into the Navy, with a total of 200 galleys. They are with numerous heavy crossbows (firing both conventional crossbow bolts and incendiary arrows) for long-ranged assault, as well as a prolonged iron-plated bow and boarding engines for close-combat. Meanwhile, in order to divert attention from the repelled Teninukal and Exhula campaigns, Cabeza Qianlana commences the invasion of the Makuku region. She cites that the Sillans and the Makuku peoples have similar languages; and therefore, could trace both their origins to a single progenitor, and as such, Sillan conquest is not intended to establish dominance or extract tribute but rather to unify two related peoples. In recognition of this equal status, ethnic Makuku will be granted citizenship (and associated rights and privileges, such as suffrage) and all Makuku nobility will retain their respective titles (and will be allowed to run for and hold political offices, though their children will be required to partake in imperial examinations to do so). In addition, she seeks to bring civilization and prosperity to the Makuku people through the adoption of Sillan culture and institutions. However, there are other motives for the conquest of the Makuku region, most prominently the acquisition of gold and other precious metals, which could be used in the production of luxury goods (particularly jewelry) as well as monetize the economy. Meanwhile, the vast expanses of idle land could be converted into plantations specializing in the production of tropical commodities, while the incorporation of the Makuku population would further augment the taxable population (thus increasing tax revenue, enabling Silla to fund more government programs and projects). A total of 60,000 troops are mobilized, with ~15,000 sent to Napukal and Chamokal each, and ~30,000 sent to Makuku. A total of three legions (each consisting of 5,000 troops – 1,000 horsemen and 4,000 infantrymen) are dispatched each to Napukal and Chamokal. The cavalry is divided into three groups. The first group launches a fake assault and upon inflicting a sufficient level of attrition, they then retreat (leading them to organized phalanx formations). The second group then encircle the enemy formations (discreetly), thus keeping them within a certain area. The third and final group will then stay with the phalanxes and fulfill skirmishing duties – thus ensuring the impenetrability of the flanks and the rear. Infantry (organized in a phalanx formation) will proceed to then kill enemy forces using pikes (while enemy forces are unable to escape due to encirclement by cavalry). Any encountered settlement & fortifications (including surrounding farmland) are razed to the ground. Upon reaching both their respective capital's, the troops then proceeding to destroy it using incendiary arrows and crossbow bolts, while the three legions (in three different directions) create multiple breaches in enemy fortifications and defenses (while using assault covers to minimize casualties) – thus dispersing the defending garrison and overwhelming enemy forces, thus facilitating entry. One-half of the ~60,000 are dispatched to Makuku, with one-third being cavalry while the remainder being infantry. The expedition is organized into three army divisions consisting of two legions each, with mounted auxiliaries conducting reconnaissance as well as relaying messages between the three army divisions. The three army divisions travel loosely to evade enemy forces, maintain flexibility, and to feign numerical inferiority – thus ensuring that the enemy mobilizes as few troops as possible. Any encountered unfortified settlements (and the surrounding farmland) are razed to the ground; while any minor fortifications are deliberately avoided (though the surrounding farmland is nevertheless razed) to maintain a rapid advance northward – inhibiting the enemy's ability to easily and effectively coordinate and plan their defense strategy or establish any solid fortifications. If any enemy forces are encountered, prior to engagement, squads of several archers are sent and in concealed locations (to minimize visibility) target and kill high-ranking military officials. Then, a legion is sent (using long-ranged bows to inflict damage upon enemy troops) and launch a fake assault, then afterward they feign retreat (only reversing this retreat upon the arrival of reinforcements). Then four legions (being more heavily-armored) are sent to attack from two directions – initially inflicting damage with their bows (focusing on killing any skirmishers or longbowmen, then focusing on inflicting attrition) then breaking enemy lines and engaging in melee warfare (utilizing a lance to inflict shock, before reverting back to the saber). The last remaining legion is tasked with preventing anyone from leaving or repelling any surprise engagements or reinforcements. Upon reaching the capital, the surrounding farmland and any satellite settlements are razed to the ground – with their inhabitants fleeing to the capital (thus expending more resources). With the defenders being forced to retreat to the confines of the capital (which is presumably fortifications, regardless of whether or not the process of completed), a strategy of encirclement is pursued to starve and weaken the defending garrison. During this same period, the capital's infrastructure is destroyed with heavy crossbows and incendiary arrows. Then, the three army divisions (in three different places) proceed to concentrate their force on three different points of the capital's fortifications, with infantrymen creating a breach using a ram (while using assault covers to minimize casualties); upon achieving this, all of the three breaches are simultaneously entered en-masse thus overwhelming the enemy forces and facilitating entry.
  • Empress Cialana augments navy to 200 vessels
    • armed w/ heavy crossbows (conventional + incendiary bolts)
    • war
      • Teninukal + Exhula campaigns expelled
      • Empress commences invasion of Makuku region
        • justified w/ common ancestry (similar languages)
        • Makuku will be given citizenship; nobility will retain titles (but children will have to partake in civil examinations)
        • 15k sent to Napukal (Naucalla) + Chamokal (Cancalla) each; 30k to Makuku proper (Macuco)
    • true motives
      • acquisition of gold mines in mountains and sources of civet
      • land for plantations (sugarcane, indigo) and salt-works
    • early theme of Sillenic conquests would be conquest of ethnic groups w/ perceived common ancestry (culminating in later "Unification Wars"); Olmecs, Makuku, Teninukalese, Kalomans, eastern Qeran + Exhulan colonists
      • meant to reunify the people – rather than establish dominance + extract tribute
      • hence emphasis on giving out citizenship + "civilizing mission"
      • later on, subjugation of non-Sillene regions would be similar in manner; introduction and forced conversion to Anystessean religion and centralization of populations into planned "reductions"

    511 – 520[edit | edit source]

    During the invasion of Napukal, Teninukal repays the Makuku for their support prior by sending an army to join Napukal. Together this force successfully repulses the Sillan attack, with Sillas suffering 3,900 casualties. Teninukal also tentatively declares the Makuku states under their protection. Meanwhile, the attack on Chamokal succeeds, burning the center of the Makuku religion. The Sillans suffer 2,400 casualties in the process. In Makuku proper the Makuku are narrowly defeated, with Sillas suffering 6,900 casualties.

    He is not as dedicated to holding Amyirth as his predecessors and thus offers to re-open trade with Sillas, and sell them Kaloma in four decades if they give us time to remove our population there (Sillas Response needed).

    With the success of the Chamokal campaign, the Makuku macroregion is effectively split into two. In order to reiterate Silla's desire to annex an ethnically and culturally similar region, the Makuku deities are added to the Grand Pantheon and all religious structures in occupied areas are left undisturbed and even receive patronage. While the Makuku campaign has been narrowingly repulsed, it has left its defenders weakened and its countryside ravaged through the razing of farmland and the sacking of settlements. With the Teninukalese intervening in the Napukal campaign, Cabeza Qianlana increases the number of mobilized troops to ~75,000; of which ~15,000 are in Napukal while the remainder being evenly split between Teninukal and Makuku. The Grand Wall lining the Sillan–Teninukal border is heavily fortified, with sporadic raids on border settlements being conducted. Meanwhile, in preparation for prolonged expeditions, military rations now consist of cheese (which could be derived also from mare's milk) and smoked or dried meats (which can be placed on boiling water to yield a broth); which are easily-stored.

    Exploiting Teninukal's preoccupation with Napukal, Cabeza Qianlana herself leads an expeditionary force of ~30,000 divided into four divisions, of which one-half are horsemen while the remainder fulfilling auxiliary roles. She leaves control of state affairs to the other five Ministers, with the Imperial Court maintaining an advisory role (though they can protest or veto legislation; though the Ministers could also overrule them under a unanimous agreement). She uses her war experience as an opportunity to expand and further codify the Art of War that her distant-relative Cabeza Sanza has written, with her addition being called the "Qianlana Edition". In order to screen out any surprise engagements, maintain flexibility, while also feigning numerical inferiority (thus not provoking the enemy), the four divisions travel loosely together – with communications being maintained a system of couriers, or mounted auxiliaries (who are usually literate and carry multiple copies of orders). These couriers also conduct reconnaissance. In order to maintain a rapid advance to the capital (thus allowing for a surprise engagement, thus preventing the enemy from effectively planning and coordinating defense), multiple mounts are utilized – allowing for a maximum daily travel distance of 100 miles (160 km) under optimum conditions; though the realized speed is one-half due to inclines and periodic pauses to raze settlements and farmland. If the horse gets tired, another horse is used, and while the other horse will still travel, it will do so without carrying the weight of the rider and their armor and weaponry. Auxiliaries and supplies are transported in carriages pulled by multiple horses; thus reducing the strain on each individual and allowing the transportation of relatively massive volumes of supplies (thus reducing the need of supply lines, which are prone to enemy damage). Keeping in-line with Sillan doctrine, unfortified settlements, and surrounding farmland are razed; but to hasten the march to the Teninukalese capital and to fool the defenders (preventing them from amassing in a single location), major fortifications are deliberately avoided; though similarly, the surrounding farmland is razed and also salted to deprive them of any supplies. The relative military reorganization (influenced by Sillan doctrine) has led to a shift in Sillan tactics. Upon encountering a Teninukalese field army (if any is dispatched), three army divisions join in a front-line attack (with their bows having an effective range of 200 meters, with a maximum distance twice that), while the fourth army division screens for any hidden reinforcements (using long-ranged weapons to kill them). However, while the higher level of enemy organization deters close-combat – it leaves the enemy formations' flanks and the rear vulnerable, even with enemy auxiliaries performing skirmishing duties. In addition, this higher concentration leaves them vulnerable to mass projectile attack. As a result, the usual strategy of encirclement is not used (especially as it could have been recognized by the Teninukalese), and instead, a strategy of flanking (which is a known tactic but not heavily-used in previous wars) is used: the three army divisions – after inflicting sufficient attrition in a front-line attack – split into two groups attacking the flanks (the right and left side of the enemy formations) with the lancers (half of the cavalry force) descending into melee. This is effective, as the mass projectile attack kills many enemy soldiers and routs enemy formations, while the lancers simply mop the remnants. Upon arriving on the Teninukalese capital, all possible entrances or exits are blocked, preventing the entry of reinforcements of supplies; thus steadily depriving the city's inhabitants of even basic commodities. The first Sillan catapults firing spear-sized bolts – based off enlarged heavy crossbows, are deployed to great effect along with rams in breaking down enemy fortifications. Assault covers are used to minimize casualties. As a result, crossbows are relegated to a tactical weapon (firing conventional bolts targetting individual troops) or a strategic/psychological one (firing incendiary bolts targetting infrastructure). The four army groups all attempt to create multiple breaches, and then enter them simultaneously; thus overwhelming the enemy and amounting to victory as the defenders are forced to either capitulate to descend into melee.

    There are 15,000 troops dispatched to Napukal placed into three army divisions, of which one-third is cavalry, while the rest are infantry. The strategy is shifted to one of attrition, with light cavalry performing both skirmishing/screening roles while heavy cavalry is tasked with encircling and rerouting the relatively-dispersed and irregular enemy forces (while also inflicting attrition) into a centralized location; where they are then subjected to a hail of arrows – both conventional and incendiary. In addition, they also receive assistance from crossbowmen. After that, the phalanxes march and proceed to kill off the remnants of the enemy army (unless they finally capitulate – under which they are disarmed and fulfill menial labor duties until the termination of the war), with enemy forces being unable to escape due to encirclement by cavalry. In addition, their inferior weapons (in terms of range) prove ineffective to pikes, especially when used in multiple layers as with the phalanx. While usually prone in the rear and flanks, the usage highly-mobile cavalry prevents enemy forces from exploiting this. The capital is then sieged using heavy crossbows and rams – with the troops concentrating on creating one breach (as there are fewer troops) and then entering it en-masse, thus being able to neutralize it from inside-out. Assault covers are used to minimize any casualties.

    Finally, the Sillan expedition dispatched to Makuku consists of three divisions collectively numbering ~30,000; of which one-third are horsemen while the other two-thirds are infantrymen. With the countryside devastated, the resultant chaos allows for Sillan forces to reach the Makuku capital rapidly and relatively unopposed. A strategy of encirclement is employed against the relatively-disorganized and dispersed defenders, with light cavalry fulfilling skirmishing duties while the heavy cavalry participates in rerouting the enemy forces (while also inflicting attrition) and forcing them to a more centralized area – leaving them vulnerable to a mass hail of projectiles. Similarly, they receive support from crossbowmen. Upon inflicting a sufficiently high level of attrition, the phalanxes are sent to kill off any remnants (unless they surrender). While usually prone in the rear and flanks, the usage highly-mobile cavalry prevents enemy forces from exploiting this. Due to the assumption that the Makuku has not fortified their capital as extensively due to the previous campaign, the main siege engines brought are rams (with a limited number of heavy crossbows); with the army divisions establishing three separate breaches and entering them simultaneously – as with the traditional Sillan siege doctrine. However, the revolutionary usage of the assault cover nonetheless proves to be a huge advantage, minimizing casualties and necessitating that defenders come out of the fortifications, which would thus leave them vulnerable to attack.
    • during invasion of Napukal, Teninukal sends army to join Napukal > Sillenic attack is repulsed
      • Makuku is then tentatively placed under Teninukalese protection
    • however, the attack on Chamokal succeeds – burning the center of the Makuku religion
      • Makuku is also split
    • campaign in Makuku proper is narrowingly defeated
    • the Empress leads expeditionary force of 30k (four divisions)
      • leaves control of state affairs to the other five Ministers, with the Imperial Court maintaining an advisory role (though they can protest or veto legislation; though the Ministers could also overrule them under a unanimous agreement)
      • further additions to "Art of War"

    521 – 530[edit | edit source]

    Teninukal informs Sillas that they are not formally at war with them, and requests a white peace. In the meantime, they mobilize a portion of their army and attempt to fight back against the Sillan invasion, suffering a defeat. Sillas suffers 2,300 casualties during this battle. The second invasion of Napukal results in a narrow Sillan defeat, with Sillas suffering 4,590 casualties and inflicting more casualties than it suffers. During the invasion of western Makuku the Sillans occupy up to the central river, suffering 2,000 casualties in the process. They are then engaged by the main Makuku army, suffering a defeat. The Sillans suffer 6,000 casualties as a result.

    Farther east, Cyris then sends an expedition of three ships to meet the Republic of Sillas for the first time. The first expedition to Sillas is remarked as being rather similar to Edom, but are treated as existing in this matriarchy in more isolation, to explain their differences. Shanzian scholars commented on how Sillas military still employs men primarily, even though their administraiton is largely female, and in similar matters are far more balanced in gender than the kingdoms of the empire. The Sillas are offered to trade with Xera, as we offer to sell them copper, alumite, and books of philosophy and theology, including original compies of the Holy Scriptures of Ulm.
    • Teninukal informs Sillas that they are not formally at war with them, and requests a white peace
      • in the meantime, they mobilize a portion of their army and attempt to fight back against the Sillenic invasion – suffering a defeat
      • during the invasion of western Makuku the Sillans occupy up to the central river; they are then engaged by the main Makuku army, suffering a defeat
    • first direct contact w/ Azoz
      • Cyris sends expedition of three ships to meet fabled "Republic of Sillas"
      • viewed as similar to Edom
      • military still largely men; but administration is female
      • direct trade begins (copper, alumite; or form of aluminium, books of philosophy and theology – including coppies of the Holy Scriptures of Ulm)

    531 – 540[edit | edit source]

    With Sillas rejecting its offer of peace and continuing to invade, Teninukal raises its army proper to defend itself. At a battle in central Teninukal they win a decisive victory and route the Sillans, although they suffer heavy losses in the process. Sillas suffers 8,000 casualties in the battle.

    In Makuku the second attack near the titular city is successfully, with Sillas suffering 4,150 casualties in the process. The nation of Makuku offers peace terms, in which they cede parts of the western one-half of their nation in exchange for peace. The attack against Napukal is a decisive victory for Sillas. The nobility and military of Napukal, thatare not killed or captured in the battle, flee to Teninukal. Sillas suffers 3,100 casualties in the attack.
    • Sillas rejects Teninukal's offer of peace
      • central Teninukal = rout the army (Sillenic defeat)
    • the nation of Makuku offers peace terms, in which they cede parts of the western one-half of their nation in exchange for peace; Sillenes accept
    • the attack against Napukal is a decisive victory for Sillas

    550 – 561[edit | edit source]

    With his being viewed as a weakling for giving up Exhulan territory and his increasingly deteriorating health, Emperor Lorgar dies of sickness (although some suspect poison) in 551, just before the transfer of Amyirth into Sillian hands was meant to begin. His son Sassigan ascends to the throne as Emperor Sassigan V, and he proves to be a far different man than his father, especially in matters of foreign policy. Although he is still tainted by his father's abysmally bad ruling in the eyes of much of the nobility and military, he does his best to quickly disprove any notions that he is even remotely similar to his father by Cancelling the sale of Kaloma to Sillas only a few months before it was meant to be officially transferred into Sillian hands, being recorded to have said “ My father was a weak man, and a fool. He was a lovable fool and well-meaning, but his weakness was too much to bear as he bowed to any challenge rather than face it. Make no mistake, my father may have bowed before you foreign barbarians, but I won’t, and neither will my people.” Immediettly before he canceled the deal and declared war on Sillas.Although he allowed the many Sillian settlers that had already entered the land to stay and continue their lives there, he made sure that it was abundantly clear that Amyirth belonged to the Exhulan Empire, and that any support of Sillas after this would be considered treason. He then immedietlly follows his declaration Of war with a pair of two simultaneous and massive surprise attacks into Sillian territory with 16,000 men each, mostly made up of well armored and armed cavalry trained to attack in such measures, one into the northern-central area of territory on the Sillian-Exhulan border and into the area once known as Spauldia, launching it as a sudden massive lighting attack and slaughtering anyone who holds a weapon or resists the invasion. Many are killed in the fighting or intentionally slaughtered by the invaders to cow the rest into submission, but once the area submits to us this stops and the remaining people are spared and they are mostly relocated by the raiding forces and dragged back to Exhulan territory before the raid pours forth again. If this is successful the two groups of raiders attack another area right between the two areas and to the east, with all their combined remaining men in an attempt to take the land, and if they are successful they launch a number of raids and retreats into nearby areas in order to smash Sillian Defenses. (Algorithm needed!) Meanwhile, we begin secretly providing what aid we can to Makuku, and Secretly ask Teninukal if they would be willing to allow us to transport soldiers through their land to attack Sillas, although we make it clear this would be under strict Teninukalese supervision and with the army groups strictly split apart into smaller groups as they march through so there is no way we could potentially do anything (Mod Response needed) Meanwhile, although active settlement by Exhulan colonists has slowed down a lot in recent decades, the past few years have seen a lot of population growth in the region, and thus they are able to expand by another 15 px and build two new cities, which they name Erty and Cciluos.

    Sillan Republic: In response to the Exhulan invasion, Cabeza Qianlana mobilizes 60,000 men and women divided into six army divisions (and operating as two distinct army groups); of which 60% are light cavalry (mounted archers) and the remainder are mounted auxiliaries that dismount upon battle and wield thrusting spears (which could be thrusted repeatedly unlike lances). The light cavalry wear less armor, in order to maximize their speed and increase their maneuverability; thus being able to evade Exhulan cavalry. Meanwhile, the border garrisons consolidate border defenses; as despite Exhulan claims, they have yet to breach the 10-tall and equally thick rammed earth fortifications that have been built upon for decades. The two army groups travel loosely together, in order to screen for any surprise attacks. The mounted auxiliaries also serve as reconnaissance, alarming Sillan armies of Exhulan troops. Upon encountering any field army, the first army group launch a front-line assault with a hail of projectiles, especially incendiary arrows, then the three army split and attack the vulnerable flanks and the rear. While the mounted archers continue subjecting the Exhulans to a near-constant hail of arrows — thus routing them and making them suspectible to melee combat — the auxiliaries also engage in melee combat with their thrusting spears. The sheer weight of the armor and the fact that an arrow within a close range could pierce it means that Exhulan heavy cavalry are unable to match against the swifter, evasive and more long-ranged Sillan mounted archers. The second army group, meanwhile, serves as skirmishers and screeners — thus preventing any surprise engagements or reinforcements. The first army group then retreats and recuperates as well as switches roles with the second army group; and just as the Exhulan armies renounce their position, the second army group mops up the army’s remnants; killing all troops to prevent any information from leaking. The Sillans do this twice for the two armies Exhula has sent; using their maneuverability and multiple mounts to easily intercept them. Meanwhile, Cabeza Qianlana declares, “the foreign barbarian women do not know how to control their men; and thus, their men have deteriorated into the status of beasts, and as such they are not truly human and therefore are not worthy of such treatment.” As a result, in occupied territories, all Exhulan men over the age of 25 not fitting Sillan norms and expectations of masculinity are crucified or burned. In the Makuku provinces, Makuko-Sillans from the more integrated provinces of Funaya and Ragara are sent as administrators to ease assimilation. Meanwhile, Makuku people are encouraged to partake in imperial examinations to advance in status and partake in education in general. A wall is constructed on the Makuku border to prevent the outflow of people.
    • Emperor Lorgar dies of sickness (although some suspect poison) – viewed as weak due to willingness to cede Kaloma; is replaced by his son, Sassigan (Emperor Sassigan V)
      • Emperor Sassivan V cancels sale of Kaloma (political move)
    • Exhulans launch invasion, hoping to reach up to Exhulo–Sillenic border
      • provide aid to Makuku + ask aid from Teninukal to help invade Sillas
    • in response to the Exhulan invasion, the Empress Cianlana mobilizes 60,000 men and women divided into six army divisions (and operating as two distinct army groups); of which 60% are light cavalry (mounted archers) and the remainder are mounted auxiliaries that dismount upon battle and wield thrusting spears (which could be thrusted repeatedly unlike lances)
    • Empress Cianlana declares, in reference to Exhulan killings of Sillenic settlers, “the foreign barbarians do not know how to control their men; and therefore, their men have deteriorated into the abyss that is barbarity, thence they shall not be regarded nor treated as human.”
      • all Exhulan men over the age of 25 (barring exceptions) are burned within occupied territories
      • a wall is constructed on the border w/ East Makuku to prevent the outflow of people

    561 – 570[edit | edit source]

    The Exhulan invasions of the Sillan Republic are decisively repulsed. The invasion through the north results in 7,700 Exhulan casualties and 2,050 Sillan casualties. The invasion through Spauldia results in 5,100 Exhulan casualties and 3,500 Sillan casualties.

    Qera: The begging for help by the Makuku people reaches the court of Yller III with delay. Further investigation makes it clear for him, that he can't simply send aid without provoking an open conflict against Sillas. Knowing he couldn't afford this, the attention is turned to the plentiful filibusters and mercenaries who fight for whoever pays the most, in this case the vast treasuries of Qera. An army of 20 ships and 2000 men are raised to support the Makuku, or at least help them to fortify and defend them from the Sillans. They travel under no flag, to keep the attention off them. Along with ten translators the army arrives in the Makuku reigned territory. Translations prove to be successful almost immediately.

    Sillan Republic: Cabeza Qianlana dies – but not before implementing a few more reforms. Partially driven by accusations of corruption and power-hoarding, the Cabeza affirms the Cabeza's status as primus inter pares ("first between equals") and places several measures to ensure equality between the Six Ministers. She also divides the Imperial Court into two houses; with an upper house consisting of representatives from each provincial-level territory (voted upon by citizens) and the lower house consisting of representatives voted upon by bureaucrats and military officials – slightly reminiscent of the Chancellory/Grand Secretariat system. She also reduces the power of the Censorate and establishes a 20-member Grand Court. Assimilation of ethnic Makuku continues.
    • Exhulan invasion is repulsed, decisively
    • Qera aids Makuku (covertly), through mercenaries
    • The Empress Canlana dies
      • Dogana ascends to throne
    • driven by accusations of corruption + power-hoarding, she affirms the Empress' status as primus inter pares
    • political reforms
      • People's Assembly split into upper + lower house; former voted by scholar–gentry only, latter voted by commoners (apportioned per province)
      • reduces power of Censorate
      • establishes Court of Justice

    561 – 570[edit | edit source]

    We conduct small raids on Sillan military outposts and continue to send spies to encourage open rebellion in Sillan occupied territory. Once again, we send an envoy to Qera begging for help in the fight against Sillas (YCASTO RESPONSE NEEDED!). Makuku soldiers continue being trained - now with stolen Sillan weapons. The Makuku in the eastern territories continue to live out their normal day-to-day lives, practicing their traditions and participating in the home front. We send a secret diplomat to Exhula offering an alliance (MOD RESPONSE NEEDED!). We thank any and all aid given to us by neighboring Makuku nations and give them something in return as a sign of gratitude. Great Tatina Jahilla continues work in the shadows, not wanting to be assassinated by Sillan spies. With Sillas constructing a wall on our border to prevent any Makuku people from escaping their grasp, our troops begin to damage the wall daily, and spies are ordered to help Makuku people in Sillan occupied territory escape to Makuku controlled territory. We conduct minor expansion in the east

    Qeran Secret Dip: The court and the mercenaries agree to send about 1,500 more men to Makuku.

    Exhulan secret Responce (I haven’t posted as much in the last few days but I’m not an NPC Nation): We send an envoy of our own to Makuku, agreeing to secretly support them in their defense against the Sillian Invaders but telling them we can not do so openly, as we are seeking peace with Sillas and don’t want to prolong it openly more than is needed.
    • Makuku
      • conducts small raids on Sillenic outposts; sents spies to encourage open rebellion
      • tries to seek aid from Qera + Exhula (who reply favorably)
      • damage the Sillenic Wall

    571 – 580[edit | edit source]

    Exhulan Empire: With our repulsion from Sillas and the death of the Emperor without any heirs the new regent in charge temporarily, Ryrarx Asoss, decides to offer peace with Sillas, offering large territorial concessions (obviously not all of Kaloma, but a large portion of it) and offer several trade deals highly favorable to Sillas, as well as financial compensation for the invasion, in exchange for peace and a non-aggression pact.
    • conflict w/ Exhula is settled
      • portions of Kaloma is ceded
      • favorable trade deals + financial compensation
      • non-aggression pact

    601 – 700[edit | edit source]

    611 – 620[edit | edit source]

    Sillan Republic: While the integration of the Makuku provinces continues, many prominent Makuko–Sillan noble families (often arising from already-established aristocratic families) dealing in the cultivation and export of tobacco, marijuana, and hemp, emerge – partially as a way to deal with heavy taxation and the difficulty of switching to Sillan staples. As a result, Cabeza Dōgana becomes increasingly preoccupied with regulating the trade of such commodities and decides to implement a ~5% tax on such goods to deter excess importation in Silla proper. Meanwhile, the Imperial Court begins to exert greater control over domestic affairs with the Six Ministries – a feat partially achieved due to the Cabeza's relative inexperience, perceived mediocrity (especially after a sling of all extremely popular and successful reigns), and desire to withdraw from politics and uphold the policy of "first among equals". However, Dōgana, nevertheless, becomes known for her intellectual pursuits and her patronization of the arts and of religion. She also patronizes the art of glassmaking and the production of luxury glassware, so much so that many glasswares bear her name in honor of her. She also oversees the addition of the Makuku deities to the Grand Pantheon. In addition, after receiving complaints from orthodox Ulmists, she rescinds official recognition of Irrulmianism and recognizes them as a folk sect of Ulmism. She also oversees the establishment of a centralized Ulmist clergy, though the popular perception of the religion basically being a cult centered on a talking bovine (as evident by its colloquial name, the "Cult of the Talking Cow") remains; deterring missionary efforts. However, due to natural growth, it still attains a sizeable following, with an estimated 15,000 adherents. With the establishment of stability and prosperity, the population begins a period of rapid growth, reeling in from the demographic losses of the past two centuries.
    • Empress Dogana
      • considered the "weakest" member of the Cina dyansty
      • was a patron of the arts; whereas her predecessors were strong military leaders
      • shared more power w/ the People's Assembly (affirming the "first among equals" doctrine)
    • in the Makuku provinces, the aristocracy build plantation estates for sugarcane + indigo, plus salt-works; they grow wealthy from these
      • Emrpess Dogana place tariffs (~5%) on these goods
    • religion
      • addition of Makuku deities to Grand Pantheon in Sillas
      • orthodox Ulmians (mainly Azozi merchants) oppose Irrulmian recognition, as a result, Irrulism re-classified as a folk sect (syncretism of Hcctaal + Ulm)
      • centralized Ulmian clergy establoshed; popular perception of the religion basically being a cult centered on a talking bovine (as evident by its colloquial name, the "Cult of the Talking Cow") remains, thus deterring missionary efforts
      • due to natural growth, it still attains a sizeable following, with an estimated 15,000 adherents.

    621 – 630[edit | edit source]

    Sillan Republic: Meanwhile, the Ulmist sects begin to see rapid growth due to their incorporation of Sillan ancestral veneration rites, intermarriage with non-adherents, and the formation of a centralized clergy; with 2% of the population registering as an Ulmist by the census of 630, double that of the previous census. Partially due to pressure from orthodox Ulmists, the Irrulmian sect – which previously monopolized on Ulmian affairs and proselytization – dies out and becomes absorbed. Cabeza Dōgana orders the reinforcement of the Sillan Wall; especially of the segment lining the Sillo–Teninukalese border. In addition, a total of five cohorts of horsemen (or 5,000 troops) are stationed along the border with the Makuku rump state, in order to stifle any movement of civilians and potentially-valuable goods eastward. Meanwhile, the cultivation of tobacco and cannabis (for medical marijuana, and hemp fiber) continues to boom within the Makuku region – owing to heightened demand and the popularity of such products within the youth. While prominent aristocratic families own and preside over large plantations producing such commodities en masse, many subsistence-level Makuku farmers begin to supplement their income by growing these crops on excess land unsuitable for staples. In order to facilitate the transition from Makuku crops to the more labor-extensive Sillan staples of wet-paddy rice and plantains, agricultural colleges are founded within major settlements by scholar-officials providing instruction and teaching proper agricultural techniques. In addition to the spread of a plantation economy, mining becomes a lucrative business within Makuku, and copper, silver, and gold bullion replace iron coinage as the official currency; with an abundance of such metals in Makuku underpinning the economy. The Ministry of Rites begins to patronize ballet, with the first pointe-shoes being made and pointework being incorporated into ballet canon. Literature flourishes, with many poets venturing into more obscure topics and motifs – such as romance, aristocratic life, and philosophy; rather than the traditional motifs of motherhood or virtue. Similarly, tragicomedy emerges as the dominant form of dramatic literature, and such pieces become showcased in theatres – which become increasingly large and elaborate to accommodate a rising number of attendants. In order to further promote and spur economic development, settlement of the frontier regions – with its abundance of land and untapped resources – are heavily encouraged and patronized by the national government. Since children are an economic asset, many families – especially the lower-classes – begin to marry as soon as they enter the socially-acceptable marriageable age (in the late teens to the early 20s, especially for their sons) and bear more children; though abortion and prolonged breastfeeding remains ways for family to maintain their desired number of children. Government-owned frontier land is sold off at very low rates to landlords and tenant farmers alike, though for the former, the landlords can be revoked of their title to the land should they not develop it intensively or if they report disappointing yields. All city walls (consisting of rammed earth cores and brick exteriors) are annually maintained and reinforced, while an intricate system of canals and flattened dirt-roads are constructed to facilitate transport. As part of a public health and sanitation campaign, extensive sewer and plumbing systems, latrines, and public baths (accompanied by evaporative coolers) are built in all major settlements – with water being supplied by a comprehensive system of aqueducts and minor water channels. Meanwhile, irrigation channels and groundwater-wells are built in agricultural lands to provide an ample supply of water and fertilizer (as mulch or bovine manure) to crops; thus resulting in high agricultural productivity. Excess produce is either sold to the market or is stored within town granaries to ensure food security. With heightened demand for consumer goods (both for domestic consumption and for export), many bloomeries and workshops are built – manufacturing textiles (both sourced from silk and cotton), ceramics (mainly porcelaneous wares), luxury goods, farm tools, and military arms (reflex bows, swords, polearms, and arrows). The principal crops are wet-paddy rice and plantains, with maize serving as secondary crop used primarily to feed livestock. In addition, a wide variety of root crops, leafy vegetables, legumes, gourds, squashes, and exotic fruits are cultivated and consumed; providing Sillans a rich and varied diet. Regional economic specialization continues. Within Silla proper, tea, sugar beets, piña, ramie, and abaca are grown as cash crops. Aside from being the location of the majority of Sillan industry, other major industries include sericulture and beekeeping (to acquire honey and wax). Within the Makuku region, the farming of ratites (mainly rheas) and the hunting of wild reptile species are done for the purpose of acquiring leather. In addition, cocoa, sugarcane, cocoa, tobacco, and cannabis are grown both for culinary and medical purposes. The Olmac region specializes in the large-scale cultivation of cotton and maize (as a fodder crop), as well as the production of dyes, pigments, glassware and silverware. Within marshes or near bodies of water, artificial islands are constructed and planted with maize, squash, and beans – intercropped together to maximize agricultural yield. While each plot of land is small (less than a tenth of the hectare), it is capable of yielding seven harvests annually – enough to support a single household (assuming they allocate most produce for human consumption). In lower depths of water, however, deep-water rice varieties are cultivated. Finally, the areas of the lowest depths are reserved for farms raising fresh-water fish, mollusks (snails, clams), and crustaceans (shrimp, prawns, and crabs).
    • Ulm experiences rapid growth; aided by:
      • incorporation of ancestral veneration rites
      • intermarriage w/ non-adherents
      • centralized clergy
    • crackdown on the Irrulmians
      • Irrulmian beliefs continue to be pervasive; "Western Ulm" is rejected apart from port cities (who engage w/ Azozi traders)
    • Sillenic Wall (w/ Makuku especially) is reinforced; garrison of 5k troops
      • in order to stifle any movement of civilians and potentially-valuable goods eastward.
    • agricultural colleges are founded within major settlements by scholar-officials providing instruction and teaching proper agricultural techniques
    • in addition to the spread of a plantation economy, mining becomes a lucrative business within Makuku
      • copper, silver, and gold bullion replace iron coinage as the official currency – with an abundance of such metals in Makuku underpinning the economy
    • the Ministry of Rites begins to patronize ballet
      • first first pointe-shoes are made
      • pointework is incorporated into ballet canon
    • literature flourishes, with many poets venturing into more obscure topics and motifs – such as romance, aristocratic life, and philosophy; rather than the traditional motifs of motherhood or virtue
      • similarly, tragicomedy emerges as the dominant form of dramatic literature, and such pieces become showcased in theatres – which become increasingly large and elaborate to accommodate a rising number of attendants
    • government-owned frontier land is sold off at very low rates to landlords and tenant farmers alike
      • the landlords can be revoked of their title to the land should they not develop it intensively or if they report disappointing yields

    641 – 650[edit | edit source]

    Sillan Republic: Cabeza Banzena views the Ulmist faith with much interest and after much contemplation, personally adopts it. As a public display of her faith, a priest anoints her with oil, with an audience numbering in the hundreds of thousands consisting primarily of aristocrats. While she seeks to maintain the separation of state and church doctrine, and the secular character of the central government, she nevertheless sponsors the establishment of a new city on the site of where the first Ulmists (Irrulmians from Exhulans) were believed to have first landed. This city is named Banzenopolī, after herself, and will be centered around a massive Ulmist temple. The 650 Census places the percentage of Ulmists as a percentage of the total population at 8%, due to strong natural growth as well as a rise in conversions due to the highly-publicized conversion of the Cabeza of the faith. Despite this, the Cabeza continues to conduct ancestral veneration rites and patronize the Sillan folk religion, as part of her policy of religious toleration. Meanwhile, the problem of tobacco and recreational marijuana eventually reaches the Imperial Court, with the Cabeza – a well-known user of both – ruling in favor of its legality. However, the popularity of the two products becomes massively inflated in the Makuku provinces, and a bubble burst leaves many small-scale producers bankrupt. Many of these farmers begin to cultivate a wider variety of cash crops in order to pay off their debts as soon as possible. Others sell off their properties (as the soil quality has been damaged by the attempts to establish these monocultures) to Sillan or Sillo–Makuku landlords, and instead, choose to become plantation workers in Silla proper (thus being placed under limited legal protections as laborers, and attaining a stable source of income). The consolidation of extremely-small estates is completed. Meanwhile, the usage of clay tablets to record each household and its constituents is enforced, in order to conduct more accurate population counts and crack down on tax evasion (especially as people settle the frontier). Meanwhile, to promote connectivity of the frontier to Silla proper, the roads are enlarged and canals are built. Similarly, many smaller settlements (such as hamlets and villages) are consolidated into towns – thus making them more accessible as well as improving access to necessary social services. The promotion of pro-natalist policies and programs to further augment population growth continues. All idle land is exploited, and terracing is used to increase the amount of cultivated land. Furthermore, improvements in grain storage, irrigation, tools, organic fertilizers; and the introduction of root crops in marginal lands such as hill-slopes and dry soils (where they do not compete with traditional staples); further augment agricultural output.
    • Cabeza Vandena is interested in the Ulmian faith; later – following much contemplation – adopts it
      • a priest anoints her with oil
      • audience (tens of thousands) watch her; high attendance from the aristocracy
      • Year 640 (100 PR, 360 BC) = Ulmians comprise 0.7% of the population
      • due to strong conversion (and preference from the elite), the proportion is 8.9% by Year 740 (1 FR, 260 BC)
    • maintains separation of state and church doctrine, however, Ulmism becomes a favored religion
      • sponsors construction of a new planned city, Vandenopolois, on the sight of where the first Ulmians landed
      • centered around a massive Ulmian Basilica
    • Cabeza continues to conduct ancestral veneration rites; syncretize Ulmism w/ Sillenic polytheism
    • bubble burst in Makuku province
      • from the rising sugar prices
    • many small-holders sell off their properties (as the soil quality has been damaged by the attempts to establish these monocultures) to landlords, and become plantation workers in Sillas proper
      • leads to further centralization of land in Makuku under landlords from Sillas proper

    661 – 670[edit | edit source]

    Sillan Republic: Cabeza Banzena orders the expansion of Banzenopolis, commisioning the construction of several more Ulmist temples within it and its vicinity – cementing the newly-established city as the center of the Ulmist faith within Silla. At this point, approximately 12% of the population identifies as Ulmist; its rapid rise a testament to its unique place as the sole organized religion within Silla. Despite this, it still is considered a foreign religion and its growth start to stabilize partly due to the Ulmist faith being unable to penetrate smaller, rural settlements. While earlier clerics have issued a crackdown on heterodox practices – especially in reference to the Irrulmian sect – they persist and continue to compete with "Western Ulmism" due to the desire to distance oneself from any secular Azozian influence. One important difference between Western Ulmism and Eastern Ulmism is the latter's emphasis on the proper observance of religious rites (orthopraxy), the prohibition of all meats and limiting alcohol consumption to feast-days, and the principle of achieving salvation solely through faith (though regardless, good conduct is seen as a sign of one's faith); in addition to radically-different and more varied interpretations of the Ulmist canon. Meanwhile, Cabeza Banzena ends her habit of smoking tobacco and recreational marijuana under the advice of royal physicians and fellow Ulmist officials. While she maintains its legality to avoid provoking the powerful aristocratic landlords of the Makuku provinces, she implements legislation prohibiting smoking in certain areas (specifically those with high densities of people, such as a town center or a market-place). In response to outside attempts to involve Silla in their petty conflicts, the Ministry of War commissions the construction of more ships; raising the total number of warships to ~250 (of which, the majority are triremes or quadriremes, with only a few quinqueremes serving as flagships of the navy). These ships protect key trading routes and the coast from any raids. Similarly, military engineers invent a true catapult from heavy crossbows; though this discovery is ignored when another team invents a traction trebuchet which is superior in firepower and its better capabilities in indirect fire. Many traction trebuchets are manufactured in preparation of future sieges, rather than defensive roles. Upon learning of intrusive foreign diplomatic expeditions to the Sillan capital and their pleas for Sillan intervention, Cabeza Banzena – mistaking them to be mere petty merchants – famously rebuffs them, stating: "our Grand Republic possesses all things in prolific abundance, and consequently lacks no product within its borders. There is, therefore, no necessity for this blessed land to import the manufactures of outside barbarians in exchange for our own produce." Despite this, feeling pity for the Exhulans, all Exhulans are granted special rights and limited citizenship should they land in any Sillan territories and the border presence is limited to a skeleton force. The promotion of pro-natalist policies and programs to further augment the population continues; aided by improvements in land-usage and agricultural technology. All city walls are maintained, and an intricate system of canals and paved roads are constructed to promote connectivity. As part of a public health and sanitation campaign, extensive sewer and plumbing systems, latrines, and public baths (with both heaters and evaporative coolers) are built in all major settlements – with water being supplied by a comprehensive system of aqueducts and minor channels. Meanwhile, irrigation channels and groundwater-wells are built to provide water to crops; boosting productivity. The excess is stored for food security, or sold to the market – thus stimulating commercialization. Workshops and bloomeries are constructed; and the production of textiles, ceramics, luxury goods, tools and machinery, and arms proliferate. Other major industries include sericulture, beekeeping, and the production of leather (from ratites and reptiles), glassware, and silverware. Cash crops include tea, maize, sugarcane, cocoa; cotton, piña, abaca, natural dyes; tobacco and cannabis. Within marshes or near bodies of water, highly-productive artificial islands are constructed – planted with maize, squash, and beans intercropped together. Similarly, farms raising seafood are built.
    • Empress Vandena orders the expansion of Vandenapolis, commisioning the construction of several more Ulmian temples within it and its vicinity – cementing the newly-established city as the center of the Ulmian faith within Sillas
      • still considered a foreign religion – Ulmian faith unable to penetrate rural areas
    • crackdown on Sillenized Ulm by Orthodox Ulmians; they still continue to distance themselves politically from Azoz
    • Sillenized Ulm viewed as too orthopraxic:
      • alcohol limited to feasts
      • meat consumption is prohibited
      • salvation through faith alone (good conduct / virtue = correct belief)
    • Vandena ends habit of chewing betel nuts
    • a letter to Yannis

    671 – 680[edit | edit source]

    Sillan Republic: Banzenopolis is expanded further, with the Banzene Basilica being heavily-renovated. Influenced by the rapid growth of Ulmism and an increasingly conservative social climate, as well as Banzena's own conversion to Ulmism, several morality laws are implemented. There is a crackdown on street prostitution, with all prostitutes required to be a part of registered and licensed brothels. Stricter regulations are also imposed on abortion, with abortion being limited to unmarried women. As a result, the only form of family limitation for married couples includes abstinence, prolonged breastfeeding, and rudimentary methods of contraception such as coitus interruptus or fertility awareness. There are also stricter laws in regards to divorce (in order to enforce monogamy); thus leading to men effectively losing the ability to acquire a divorce except in very specific circumstances. Similarly, adolescent sexuality becomes increasingly shunned upon (primarily by lower-classes; while a double standard exists for upper-classes). Male sexuality especially becomes increasingly restricted and viewed as "barbarous". While the news of the "Western Wars" ending brings relief, it also brings the stagnant state of the military to light. To address this, the limited production of steel (even with improved methods of metallurgy) is funneled into the production of weaponry, military arsenals and stockpiles are built in cities, and a professional working climate (with exemplified by standardized, monthly drills and regulations on conduct) is instilled. Due to their potential as weapons of war, the production of siege engines (traction trebuchets, projectile-launchers, rams, and assault covers) is raised. Similarly, the foreign occupation of Exhulan territory and the disruption of trade with the nations of the West has led to more importance being placed on the navy – leading to the promotion of the Bureau of the Navy to its own separate, albeit small, Ministry (thus raising the total number of elected Ministers to seven). The navy now numbers at 300 vessels consisting of 100 biremes (used for coastal defense, reconnaissance, and armed with limited ramming capabilities), 75 triremes (used for close-range assault and boarding), and 50 and 25 quadriremes and quinqueremes respectively (used for long-ranged assault and as squadron leaders, being armed with numerous projectile-launchers). There is rapid territorial expansion to the East, primarily for the purposes of claiming more arable land.
    • Vandenapolis is expanded
      • Basilica of Vandena is heavily renovated
    • growth of Ulm > morality laws / shifts in morality
      • crackdown on prostitution (all prostitution required to be registered to licensed brothels)
      • abortion is barred from married women
      • divorce is restricted (men effecitvely lose ability to acquire a divorce)
      • adolescent sexuality (and by extension, teen pregnancy) becomes even more discouraged; male sexuality becomes discouraged as well

    701 – 800[edit | edit source]

    701 – 710[edit | edit source]

    Sillan Republic: Cabeza Banzena dies in 700. She is replaced by her granddaughter (age 33) Banzenian (a dimunitive of Banzena) – who, like her, is a pious Ulmist.
    • Vandena dies in 700
    • granddaughter, Vandeniana (aged ~33), succeeds her as Empress; she is also a pious Ulmian

    711 – 720[edit | edit source]

    Sillan Republic: There is a schism between "Eastern" and "Western" Ulmists; due to the ruling on icons. The former is heavily influenced by Irrulmism, and favors decentralization and a renewed emphasis on orthopraxy (as opposed to orthodoxy). In contrast, the latter recognizes religious primacy of Azoz and feverently opposes any sort of devolution in terms of religious authority. In 716, all ordained females were relieved of their posts following the arrival of Azozian clerics, who sought to cleanse of the Sillan Ulmist Church of any heterodox beliefs. Within Eastern Ulmism, various sects and heterodox beliefs proliferate. Its defining beliefs and principles are collectively known as "Temple Ulmism" (as a pejorative) due to its perceived "crudeness". This coincided with a rise in the number of religious preachers (both male and female alike) who interpret the scripture (for the illiterate) and devote time (except for the seventh day, as a public holiday) to rituals and religious services. Cabeza Banzenian – a pious Ulmist – eventually breaches the separation of state and religion doctrine; denouncing Eastern Ulmism as "superstition" (as opposed to a legitimate religion). Ironically however, she continues the expansion of Banzenapolis (which, despite being the center of Western Ulmist authorities; is the most sacred site of Eastern Ulmists, who form the majority there). Meanwhile, Banzena's morality laws are criticized by many (due to them viewed as having a religious basis). Similarly, the Western Ulmists' patronization of Azozian culture is also criticized as it is generally patriarchal; and hence, viewed as inherently barbaric and incompatible with Sillan culture.
    • priestesses interpret scriptures for the illiterate, and use free seventh day for religious services > leads to growth of heterodoxy
      • given pejorative term "Temple Ulm" (crude)
    • increasing iconoclastic sentiment in Orthodox Ulm > schism between loyalist & nativist Ulmians
      • latter = Sillenized Ulmians (somewhat orthopraxic – correct belief is source of good virtue; power & influence of the priestesses)
      • former = Orthodox Ulmians (Azourian primacy)
    • Vandeniana brings Azourian clerics to enforce orthodoxy
      • all ordained women are relieved of posts – though is largely ineffective
    • Vandeniana terminates separation of state & church policy, installing (Orthodox) Ulm as the state religion, despite the minority
      • Sillenized Ulm is denounced
      • Vandenopolis continues to be expanded, despite an Eastern Ulmian majority in the region (and their general reverence of city)
      • Vandeniana's morality laws also draw criticism from the pagan majority, while the exclusivity of the Orthodox Ulmian clergy to males is viewed as inherently incompatible w/ Sillenic culture

    731 – 740[edit | edit source]

    Sillan Republic: In 738, Cabeza Banzenion dies under mysterious circumstances. The subsequent withdrawal of government support for Western Ulmism (and its campaign against heterodoxy) leads to anxiety within the Western Ulmist clergy. The arrival of a deeply-conservative Azouri cleric by the name of Cassander emboldens Western Ulmist reactionaries, who proclaim the establishment of the "Kingdom of Nelrim on Earth"; ousting the local military garrison and expelling Eastern Ulmists (who are deemed as heretics, and thus betrayers of the Ulmist faith). This event, referred to as the "Storming of Banzenopolis" marks the start of the "West Revolt". The insurgents exploit the political turmoil following the death of the Cabeza (as she has not nominated an heir), and rapidly occupy the Olmec region as well as the southern Hanila province. The sheer rapidity of the conquests forced the Imperial Court to relocate numerous times – first to Magaqī, and then farther north to Qīzan. However, Silas and the surrounding country-side remains under tenuous Sillan control; with massive fortifications being constructed in hopes of the deterring the enemy from crushing the heart of the Republic. A minor official by the name of Migasera is sworn into office. While she is generally well-received, she is more modest military leader – relying on the insight of the legionary commanders (whose doctrines and tactics often differ; thus impairing the military's ability to address the insurgency). Emboldened by the rumored "ineptness" of the new Cabeza, the Western Ulmists besiege Silas. However, in 739, toward the end of the Siege of Silas, the Cabeza receives an itinerant preacher who claims to have received numerous visions as well as being visited by angels since a young age, who identify her as be the Messiah prophesied in the Revelations, as well as instructing her to relieve Silla of the insurgents. Despite being initially ridiculed, her request for control over ten legions (~100,000) was agreed to, after accepting a taunt in which she was to prove her claims through shooting an arrow through an apple mid-air from a distance of 250 yards. Despite this, only one legionary commander (the later Saint Jieyazē, the Seventh Apostle) agreed to supply troops (under the condition of joint control). After just five days, she lifts the Siege of Silas and successfully suppresses the rebellion; a feat for which she is awarded with numerous properties and noble titles (though in later tradition, it is claimed that she rejected all of them to maintain her modesty). Cassander is deported, and Sillan elements of the revolt is sentenced to death via hanging (but they are pardoned by the intervention of Cixia. To celebrate the peace, she organizes a feast in Banzenopolis which was attended by the thousands, and delivers numerous sermons in the Grand Basilica (after which she also distributes the later Corporeal Books, which she has authored and claims to have been divinely-inspired). Due to this, the Western Ulmist clergy accuses her of promoting heretical beliefs – most prominently, the belief that she is the Messiah (or the "Anointed One") in addition to her heterodox interpretations of the Ulmist Scripture. She was seized by Western Ulmist clerics and was kept in starvation for 40 days (yet she was noted to be perfectly healthy). After evading the questions during interrogation and refusing to renounce her beliefs, she was tortured and under the dual charge of heresy and cross-dressing (as she continued to wear military attire while in prison, to deter any chances of rape), was sentenced to death via burning at the stake. The execution of Cixia (which was denounced as having no basis by secular authorities) was seen by many spectators, who were noted to have clashed with the clerics (who hired private guards as to prevent her followers from interfering). Her charred body was then publicly displayed, before being burnt three more times – thus reducing her to ashes. However, following three days and two nights, she was resurrected; appearing before her disciples and instructing them to meet in the Grand Basilica, where she delivers a final sermon and orders the Grand Commission (instructing her followers to spread the faith) before ascending to the spiritual realm; an event that was allegedly viewed by thousands in Banzenopolis and its vicinity. Following her death and her alleged resurrection, the Seven Apostles embark on their own individual ministries in which they distribute copies of the Ulmist Scripture in addition to the Corporeal Books. Despite the rapid growth of this sect, it endures harsh criticism by Ulmist clerics, who equate it as a personality cult (and thus an impermissible form of idolatry) and regard her as a false claimant to the title of the "Anointed One", as the events that have unfolded during the Revolt only loosely resembles that of the events prophesied in the Revelations.
    • in 734, Empress Vandeniana dies
    • in 735, Cassander arrives to Sillas
      • arrival + recent events incites sectarian conflict
      • court elects a minor official by the name of Mikaela, due to her perceived weakness + malleability
      • Mikaela relies on inisght of legionary commanders, hindering ability to address a potential uprising
    • court ends morality laws + patronage of Orthodox Ulm (loss of official status)
    • Cassander commands the loyalists to storm Vandenopolis ("Storming of Vandenopolis"), starting the Cassanderian Revolt
      • Cassander proclaims the establishment of "Kingdom of Nelrim on Earth" – condemning both Sillenized Ulmians and pagans
      • Cassander expels all pagans & Sillenized Ulmians from the city
    • Cassander hires Azourian mercenaries to form the nucleus of his revolutionary army, and exploits political turmoil to occupy all of southern Sillas
      • Orthodox Ulm reinstated as state religion (alongside morality laws)
      • forced conversions / refusing would lead to death or reduction to slavery
      • Azourian culture is imposed
    • court is forced to relocate to Kesonpolis
      • Sillas remains under tenuous Sillenic control, though the city & the vicinity is heavily fortified
    • Cassander besieges Sillas, emboldened by a weaker central government; this lasts for three years – weakening both sides
    • the Empress' court receives an itinerant preacher, Anystesses, who claims to be both God and the Anointed One (of the Book of Prackyob)
      • she is initially ridiculed, with the court proposing that she will be granted control over ten legions if she can fire an arrow through an apple mid-air from the distance of 250 yards; she accepts the taunt & succeeds in achieving the feat
    • only one legionary commander – Andros (later, Saint Andros) – agrees to supply troops under the condition of joint control
    • the siege is lifted within three hours following Anystesses' arrival
      • onlookers claimed that moon had seemingly disappeared, with the only source of light being lightning – which only struck the enemy
    • by the third day, she ends the revolt by lifting Vandenopolis
      • the army did not sleep for the three days, yet felt energized after eating the "cake and wine" of Anystesses
      • she is awarded w/ numerous properties and titles, which she bestows upon her followers (her converted military)
    • Cassander and his followers are jailed – after Anystesses secures leniency for them
    • following the conflict, she continues her ministry and begins organizing feasts and sermons in Vandenopolis (attended by thousands); her popularity alarms some local officials, who believe an Ulmian revolt – this time under Sillenized Ulmians – could reemerge
      • during this time, her closest disciples begin compiling the Hagiography of Anystesses and the Analects – the two most important books in Anystessean scripture
      • during the final sermon (delivered only to her closest disciples), she predicts her death
    • Ulm is once again protected, with Orthodox Ulmian clergy being allowed to punish their followers according to Ulmian religious laws; Mikaela is thus forced to permit the extradition of Anystesses to Ulmian authorities, who charge her with the numerous false charges of heresy, cross-dressing, lesbianism, adultery, and desecration
      • Anystesses is starved for six days – though she remained perfectly healthy
      • she was attempted to be tortured, though all the torture devices broke upon her touch
      • two guards attempted to rape her, though they were deterred when the ground surrounding her burst into flames; one still disbelieved her claim of being God and condemned her as a witch, while the other sought forgiveness (and was granted)
    • Anystesses was eventually executed via burning at the stake
      • event attended by many – both the faithful, and the doubtful
      • Anystesses forgives Mikaela, admonishes the Azourian clergy – proclaiming "hereinafter, the faithful shall venerate the city of Sillas, for the once grand and just city of Azoz and her inhabitants have fallen to temptation and wickedness"; line used to justify Sillenic primacy
      • as the stake was lit, the sun was claimed to have disappeared (due to a solar eclipse), while the air suddenly became turbulent / loud trumpet-like sounds were heard
      • her charred body was publicly desecrated, with the public encouraged to urinate and ejaculate on her remains
      • Anystesses' remains were burnt three more times – reducing her completely to ashes; Orthodox Ulmians propagated the belief that she was a witch
      • event criticized by secular authorities; guards were hired to prevent the public from interfering
    • after three days (which was marked by continuous rain), Anystesses is resurrected
      • appealing before her disciples in front of the Grand Basilica, where she delivers her final words and departs – an event viewed by thousands in Vandenopolis and the vicinity
    • the Seven Apostles embark on their own individual ministries
      • Ulm clergy prohibits Anystesseanism on the grounds of it being a personality cult + impermissible form of idolatry; she is also regarded as false claimant of the "Anointed One"


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    801 – 900[edit | edit source]

    811 – 820[edit | edit source]

    Sillan Republic: Apostles Esoman and Lisadora die, thus, only three of the original Seven Apostles remain: Archbishopess Caiserin (of Silas), and Bishops Drias and Roberta (of Alaban and Qiedēn, respectively). To institute religious parity, Cabeza Agusta revokes the right of Ulmists to exempt from civic pagan rites, though she also lifts the Ulmist tax and allows Ulmists to be tried under religious courts. While this promotes inter-religious harmony, the latter reform in particular reignites sectarian strife among the various groups of Ulmism – especially between Cixites (the most heterodox) and the Western Ulmists (the most orthodox). Despite this, under her rule, Silla experiences peace and prosperity. The growing mercantile class begins to exert substantial influence over the economy, particularly in the flow of goods from rural to urban areas, as well as aiding the shift from the centralized workshop-system to decentralized putting-out system – particularly in the production of textiles, luxury goods such as jewelry and raw silk, and more perishable goods such as vegetables and dairy products. Conversely, however, the production of certain labor-extensive cash crops (such as tea, cotton, sugarcane) and manufactures (ceramics, avian/reptilian leather, metal products) begin to be dominated by the nobility, due to their ownership of large plantation estates and their employment of provincial labor. This rise in wealth leads to a boom in personal consumption, as well as the patronization of the arts. The influence of Azozian-educated officials leads to the reformation of the educational system, with two separate curriculums for males and females, and a renewed emphasis on mathematics (which consists of arithmetic, algebra, geometry, and trigonometry), history and moral education in addition to physical and military education – as well as philosophy, both social and biological sciences, and advanced literature for females. Partially prompted by a growth in the literati (a fourth of the total population), prose replaces poetry as the primary form of fiction literature. While the vast majority of people remain illiterate (as with any agrarian society), they are able to hire scribes or interpreters to write or read the text, thus allowing them to continue participating in public and commercial affairs.
    • Sisumana and Leonor die
      • three out of the seven Apostles remain: Pontiff Katrina (of Sillas), and Bishops Kalaciano (of Laban) and Roberta (of Puerta-Sillena)
    • Empress Agusta revokes Ulmian exemption from civic pagan rites
      • though she also lifts the Ulmist tax
      • permits Ulmians to be tried under Ulmian religious law
      • reignites rift between Ulmians and Ulmian Anystesseans
    • Azouri influence
      • educational system is reformed
        • two separate curriculumns (divided by sex)
        • renewed emphasis on mathematics and architecture
      • prose replaces poetry as dominant literary form
    • scribes become more important

    821–830[edit | edit source]

    Sillan Republic: While Agusta's reign has been relatively peaceful, her promotion of the imperial cult (alongside the state pantheon), as well as her policies toward Ulmists incites feelings of resentment from the latter. Partially due to increased organization among the various pagan religions (a phenomenon which itself had been prompted by the rapid growth in Ulmist adherents in the past century) and reemerging sectarian strife, the Ulmist faith has drastically slowed down in growth (with the notable exception of the Cixite sect) – stabilizing at one-third of the total population. The growing diversity in Ulmist beliefs (and the growth of Cixianism in particular) continues to alarm the orthodox clergy. In a response to the continued proliferation of heterodox sects, the Western Ulmist Church reemphasizes the observance of orthodoxy (proper belief) among not only its church members but all adherents of Ulmism. Exploiting Agusta's policy of permitting the practice of religious law, it initiates a crackdown of accused "heretics". This results in the mass trial of Eastern Ulmists, who are then if found guilty, given punishment as prescribed by the scripture. Cixites, in particular, are sought after and targeted, with about one-half of execution victims being attributed to this group. Among these martyrs is the Bishop of Alaban, Chrias, whose death leads to only one of the original Apostles remaining. This campaign marks the start of the persecution of the Cixites on a significant scale, though it remains sporadic and localized, and does not affect the growth of Cixianism. Due to the growing rift between the followers of "Old" Ulmism and "New" Ulmism, both have sought to establish a distinction between the two. As a result, many Cixites – particularly the gentile converts – begin to refer to themselves as "Cixians" (meaning, "Little Cixi"; in reference to Cixi's Great Commision) rather than a follower of a mere Ulmist sect. To evade the public eye, the Cixites begin to meet at night (often secretly), though this arouses suspicion from the pagan population, who had been accustomed to the public nature of religion. Exploiting this, orthodox Ulmists begin to circulate malicious rumors; accusing the Cixites of meeting for political purposes to commit sedition, or falsely claiming they engage in illicit activities such as incestuous orgies and cannibalism (misconceptions which arise from their practice of referring to each other as siblings, and their practice of "bathing in the blood of the Anointed One", respectively). Meanwhile, Raul, an official involved in the Martyrdom of Chrias, and being a pious Western Ulmist, an avid supporter of the persecution of Eastern Ulmists (especially of the Cixites, whom he loathes), is visited by a resurrected Chrias while en route to Banzeopolis for pilgrimage. As his carriage is stopped, he heard a voice saying unto him, "Raul, why hast thou condemned me to death?" He demanded his entourage to arrest the man for blocking the road, to which the Apostle replied, "I am a servant of God, a disciple of God incarnate, and the Apostle to Men; and in the name of the Lady and the Daughter, I shall condemn thee to a life of blindless lest thou repent." He then lost his vision for a period of three days, during which he fasted and sent his prayers to Cixi. After regaining his sight, he begins his life as an itinerant preacher, utilizing his noble status as well as his previous religious affiliations to minister to both pagan and Ulmist audiences.
    • Augustine promotion of the Sillenic polytheism + revokation of Ulmian patronage = incites feelings of resentment from the latter.
    • Ulmians (incl. Anystessean Ulmians) decline in growth, stabilized as around ~10%
      • growing heterodoxy
    • Sillenic Ulmian Church reemphasizes orthodox Ulm
      • applies to all Ulmians, regardless of church membership
    • exploiting Augustine policy of permitting Ulmian law, it initiates crackdown on heterodoxy ("First Red Years")
      • mass trial of Sillenized Ulmians & Anystesseans
      • Anystesseans are sought after, and targeted; constituting one-half of victims
      • campaign marks beginning of Anystessean persecutions, though it remains sporadic & localized
    • Kalaciano is martyred
    • First Red Years effectively split Anystesseans (esp. gentiles) and Ulmians
      • Anystessita – "Little Anystesses"
    • to evade the public eye, the Anystesseans begin to meet at night (often secretly), though this arouses suspicion from the pagan population, who had been accustomed to the public nature of religion
    • exploiting this, Ulmian clergymen begin to circulate malicious rumors; accusing the Anystesseans of meeting for political purposes to commit sedition, or falsely claiming they engage in illicit activities such as incestuous orgies and cannibalism
    • according to Anystessean tradition, Raul – en-route to Vandenopolis for a pilgrimage – was visited by a resurrected Andros
      • "Raul, why hast thou condemned me to death?"
      • "I am Kalaciano, the Messenger to Men. I am a life-long servant of Anystesses of Sillas, the long-awaited Redeemer as prophesized by the Book of Prackyob, God of the Sillenes and God of the Azourians. For your sin, thou shall suffer by the hands of Drokksid, lest thou repent and embrace the love of the Lady – for She has blessed humanity with eternal life."
      • after purportedly losing his sight for three days, during which he fasted & sent prayers to Anystesses, he converted to Anystesseanism and became an itinerant preacher
      • Raul becomes "Apostle to the Doubtful"

    }}

    831 – 840[edit | edit source]

    Sillan Republic: Irritated by the near-constant flow of poorly-written and condescending letters received from Yannis, the Empress personally responds by saying, "the state of Yannis is located to Our West; as the Imperial Republic is located to Your East. Presumably impelled by your desire to partake in the riches and benefits of our civilization, you have sought to establish a clear trading route from West to East, and East to West, as well as dispatched numerous expeditions of which all of my predecessors have so humbly ignored. It is to this fundamental eagerness for exchanges with us that your incursions into, and conflicts with Exhula, Qera, Irrosia, and Azoz – friends and valuable trading partners of Silla – have been attributed to. As great minds think alike, I, too – like my forebears – do not see the necessity for the establishment of a system geared toward the acquisition of your country's manufacturers, for they are ingenious and strange, and thus neither I nor the Sillan people find purpose in them. The Imperial Republic – aptly named so for its all-encompassing nature, and for its republican form of government which our forebears have bestowed upon us – possesses all things in prolific abundance; and thus, all overseas trade is simply a manner of respect and formality, or disapproval and rejection as I, the Sillan Empress and representative of the Sillan people, see fit." In addition, she adds, "it is by the majestic virtue that the Sillan people have attained such a great level of wealth that you want to access, from this majestic virtue is whence our institutions derive from; institutions that you evidently lack, thus indicating your lack of civility and rendering you to the status of barbarians that until the reception of your emissaries have been only found their place only in folklore. For virtue is the root of all good, and the virtuous do not kill the innocent under the name of their God (a blatantly false and illogical one, that is), pillage and raid villages, and oppose the natural by allowing men – the sex more easily tempted to temptation and susceptible to acts of violence – to rule over society. Aside from your country's apparent destitution and vileness, your people's lack of virtue, in contrast to the Sillans' strict adherence thereof, is exemplified in your prideful tales of wartime atrocities and shameful conduct." Finally, she concludes with, "in regards to the War to the West, I do not only disapprove of your expensive displays of arrogance; but I will take action against it and dedicate the remainder of my reign to expelling the barbarian hordes arriving from the West, not only in the name of the Imperial Republic but in the name of civilization." She then uses the war with Yannis as a pretext to increase the Imperial Navy further to 500 ships: of which, the majority are triremes and quadriremes (as biremes are strictly for the purposes of reconnaissance), with the largest ships being quinqueremes and hexaremes. As with all contemporary warships, it largely operates in littoral waters. However, it exhibits some key advantages compared to enemy ships: the utilization of metal-coated naval rams, boarding engines, and the usage of heavy crossbows as projectile-artillery. These ships, however, do not see much action, and instead, protect trading routes from Yannian assault and serve as convoys for mercantile vessels. In addition, the Empress hires many private naval vessels (placing them under the jurisdiction of the Imperial Navy Commission) to not only deliver supplies but also transport troops to the Ettytian Coast. With Yannian and Tohatian incursions into the Exhulan mainland, the Empress dispatches a total of ~80,000 men and women (four armies of four legions, each) to aid the Exhulan resistance. Of which, one-half are cavalry, one-eighth are auxiliaries, and the remainder being pikemen. Exploiting the element of surprise, they are able to land en masse with virtually no opposition. Utilizing the conduciveness of the local terrain to cavalry-heavy tactics, the Sillan cavalry primarily employs the tactic of attacking the rear and flanks due to the presumed high level of organization and concentration of the Yannian-allied formations, thus leaving them inflexible and thus prone to assault. The first ranks consist of lancers, who use them to inflict "shock" and to rout the first enemy ranks. In addition, they receive aid from auxiliaries, who are armed with crossbows while also serving reconnaissance and communications roles. Following this initial assault, the army then splits into four groups, with two bringing forth a hail of arrow projectiles on the enemy formation while the other two attack the flanks to further rout them and mop the weakened troops using sabers (which are less clumsy and more easily used compared to polearms). If they do not achieve a swift, decisive victory, the first army retreats and is followed by the second army; this is repeated to inflict as much attrition on the enemy troops as possible (thus stalling their defensive and counteroffensive plans) as well as create an illusion of overwhelming numerical superiority. Any capture prisoner is killed. To prevent any surprise attack from the Yannians, the pikemen are organized in discrete locations around the main location of the battle, with auxiliaries serving as skirmishers to prevent the Yannians from exploiting the inherent weakness of the flanks and rear in the phalanx. Should the Yannians realize this and begin to group themselves more loosely, two army groups will join together (~40,000) as opposed to just a single one. The light cavalry will partially-encircle the enemy formation and concentrate their arrows on one flank, while the heavy cavalry (and behind them, the pikemen) will proceed to mop the remnants of the enemy army from the opening. Similarly, the auxiliaries, as well as the members of the two "inactive" army groups, will serve skirmishing roles as well as ensure that no one escapes. Based on reports from troops conducting reconnaissance, and based on eye-witness accounts from refugees, the number of Yannian and affiliated troops seems to be low. However, if the Yannian forces are numerically-superior, the Sillan forces enact a false retreat – reversing this if they are being pressed on (thus allowing them to destroy the Yannian and affiliated forces in leisure) or attacking with two army groups instead. In order to produce high quantities of steel for weapons manufacture, the system of blast-furnaces is complemented with the finery forge (which produces wrought iron and steel, from pig iron). While the wrought iron is allocated for civilian usage, the steel is used to produce higher-quality arrow tips and melee weapons (sabers, lances, pikes, spears), as well as cuirasses for horsemen. Even without these advancements, the weapons of the Sillans remain superior, as Yannian bows cannot match the range and power of the Sillan reflex bow, the Sillan pike is longer than its Yannian equivalent, and for Sillan swords and sabers are superior to that of Yannian spears. MTA.
    • war w/ Yannis
      • Yannian letters misconstrued as a desire for a preferential trading pact
      • Imperial Navy increasef ruther to ~500 vessels (majority = triremes and quadriremes; biremes are used for reconnaisance; largest ships are hexaremes)
      • merchant vessels used to deliver supplies
      • 80k troops aid Exhulans in Ettytian Coast

    841 – 850[edit | edit source]

    The Exhulan attack on the Tohatia by sea results in a decisive defeat, with the Exhulans suffering 11,400 casualties, while the Tohatians suffer 5,890 casualties. Elsewhere the Sillan army successfully lands in the Ettyian Coast but discovers that the Tohatians have razed the cities and scorched the countryside, which makes supplying the Sillan army difficult, before leaving largely without a fight. During this time the Tohatians suffer 2,400 casualties while the Sillans suffer a total of 18,450 casualties.
    • Ettytian Coast is reconquered; albeit with massive casualties due to scorched earth policies

    851 – 860[edit | edit source]

    As the famine and devastation in the Ettyian Coast continues, the armies stationed there suffer high degress of attrition. The Sillans partially mitigate this through their supply-related tactics. The Exhulan army suffers 8,400 casualties, the Qeran army suffers 3,000 casualties, and the Sillans suffer 4,150 casualties.

    During the invasion of southern Tohatia, the Tohatian desert nomads and raiders successfully plague the Sillan advance, causing the Sillans to suffer 6,140 casualties, while suffering 2,900 casualties themselves.

    The Sillans successfully march up to the southernmost river, before being engaged in battle by the Tohatians. Here the Tohatians achieve victory, with the Sillans suffering 10,100 casualties, the Qerans suffering 2,000 casualties, and the Tohatians suffering a total of 15,300 casualties.

    Sillan Republic: Despite the numerous tactical victories achieved by Sillans in the “Western War”, none of them were decisive victories and has remained largely a stalemate. Thus, following the death of Empress Agusta, the newly-elected Empress Mariana – in order to prevent even more human losses in a conflict with no clear benefits to the Imperial Republic, and to comply with Exhulan desires for peace – decided to withdraw entirely from southern Tohatia and the Ettytian Coast. This incurred substantial criticism from the Board of Trustees (the upper house of the State Council), as well as from the strongly anti-Yannian Ulmist population. Despite this, Mariana continued Agusta’s policy of militarism and continued to finance the augmentation of the Sillan military-industrial complex. In addition, she affirmed the primacy of the Commission of Defense (over that of the other six Commissions) by rendering the Lower Council (the lower house of the State Council) to a mere advisory body; which had prevented them from vetoing the desires of the Empress and giving the latter near-absolute power. In order to deter public unrest and scrutiny, Empress Mariana diverted public attention to the “Western Problem” and “Eastern Problem” (referring to Teninukal and the Makuku rump state, respectively). As a solution to them, Empress Mariana commences the conquest of both. Despite recent wars, Sillan high culture continued to flourish. Aside from the revival in the production of artistic ceramics (such as glassware and porcelaneous wares) and large-scale sculpture (with increasingly complex compositions and varied themes); brocades, which had been previously used only in important rites and ceremonies, became the de facto standard dress of the upper classes. In addition, clothing became increasingly loose, with the wearing of multiple articles of clothing (often made of light fabric, such as fine cotton) becoming increasingly common. Influenced by the Martyrdom of Raul, many Cixian devotees become itinerant preachers as a proof of their faith. This also coincides with the establishment of the first (unofficial) monasteries, often functioning as centers of education and as hospices (providing medical services to the poor). These nuns or monks (under the jurisdiction of the abbess or abbot, respectively) dedicate their life to works of mercy and works of piety – although unlike in Orthodox tradition, they are allowed to be married and bear children. The Martyrdom of Raul ends the Apostolic Age, and the beginning of early Cixism – marked by increasing distinction between Ulmism and Cixism, a unified theology centered around the worship of Cixi as the incarnation of God, the harsh criticism and rejection of Ulmist law and rites (considered to be influences from Azoz), and the spread of Cixism to all areas of the Sillan Empire (it was estimated that in 850, ~4.9% of the population were Cixian; compared to ~30% being Ulmist).
    • Sillenic advanced into Tohatia partially successful, albeit w/ high casualties
    • Augustina dies, succeeded by Mariana
    • Mariana ends conflict & withdraws from Ettytian Coast, under Exhulan request
      • opposed by Senate and Popular Assembly
    • Mariana affirms primacy of Ministry of Defense
      • prevents both Senate and Popular Assembly from vetoing the Empress
    • to deal with public disdain over lack of any territorial gains, Mariana reorients campaign to Teninukal and Makuku, thus completing Sillenic reunification
      • referred to as the "Western and Eastern Problem"
    • Raul is martyred
    • influenced by Raul, voluntary poverty and preaching becomes popular as a proof of faith
      • first monasteries are established (as schools and hospisces)

    861 – 870[edit | edit source]

    During the Sillan invasion of Makuku, a general named Rukuanalani is appointed head of the military. Although the Sillans successfully capture up to the second river, at the Battle of Nahalu the Makuku successfully defend the crossing. The Sillans suffer 12,550 casualties, while the Makuku suffer 9,170 casualties.

    The southern invasion of Teninukal results in a decisive Sillan victory, with the Sillans advancing through the southern one-half of the country. The Sillans suffer 13,550 casualties, while Teninukal suffers 20,000 casualties. In the north, the forces of Teninukal under the command of Yakunalam manage to beat back the Sillans east of the capital. The Sillans suffer 17,030 casualties, while Teninukal suffers 11,900 casualties.

    The nations of Teninukal and Makuku request help against the Sillans from the neighbors, sending requests to Beraba, Exhula, and Qera.

    Okemos believes that, while the Beraban system is broken, an attack on their southern neighbors is a greater threat to Beraban sovereignty and way of life, as there would be nothing stopping Sillas from invading Beraba next. He makes a speech that is written and distributed throughout the nation, urging people to remain calm but understand that Sillas is a threat that affects all Berabans. For the conflict in Gahren, Okemos had called a moderate force and left most of the reserves behind in case they were needed. However, for the war with Sillas, he is not as conservative, calling 30,000 soldiers into service, with more to remain in reserve in Beraba to keep the peace and defend the nation if need be. He installs military governors across the nation to restore order. As he marches south, Okemos stops near Cazekorom to warn them that if they do not assist now, Sillas will make a mouthful of Cazekorom and Beraba both in the near future. Envoys are also set to Qaryaat and Qera to seek assistance for the war effort. The Beraban navy sails south, some to protect Beraban ports and the coast, others to harass and blockade the Sillan coast. All trade coming through Beraban ports that is headed toward Sillas is redirected toward Beraban markets or sent back to its port of origin. Okemos marches south and meets with Rukuanalani to discuss a strategy before continuing to meet the Sillan invaders.

    Sillan Republic: The War of Makuku and Teninukal continues. To facilitate communication with the natives, the ethnic Makuku citizens of Silla are sent to serve as scribes and interpreters, and a Makuku to Sillan dictionary is published. Meanwhile, in Finias’ letter to Mariana and the latter’s response to it results in the criminalization of Cixism, as well as the enforcement of the worship of the imperial cult. Whereas orthodox Ulmist must pay a fine for each offense, the Cixians are viewed as an overly-superstitious and dangerous sect and must recant their pledge of fidelity and faith to an official in-order to prove their innocence (receiving certificates – valid for a period of six months – afterward). As Cixian gatherings are thought to be centers of sedition or illicit activities (malicious rumors spread by rival sects), many local governments begin to view Cixism in an increasingly negative light. Meanwhile, arches become more used and there are some advancements in horticulture. (SHORT TURN).
    • Sillenic invasion of Makuku
      • a general named Rukuanalani is appointed head of the military
      • although the Sillans successfully capture up to the second river, at the Battle of Nahalu, the Makuku successfully defend the crossing
    • Invasion of Teninukal
      • southern invasion results in a decisive Sillenic victory; Sillenes advance through southern one-half of the country
      • northern invasion, the forces of Teninukal under the command of Yakunalam manage to beat back the Sillans east of the capital
    • Teninukal & Makuku request help against the Sillenes from the neighbors – sending requests to Beraba, Exhula, and Qera
    • Okemos marches south and meets with Rukuanalani to discuss a strategy to deal w/ Sillenic menace
    • to facilitate communication with the natives, the speakers of Makuku are sent to serve as scribes and interpreters, and a Makuku to Sillan dictionary is published.
    • Anystesseanism is criminalized
      • Anystessean viewed as a dangerous and superstitious cult
      • suspected Anystesseans must recant their faith to prove their innocence
      • Anystessean gatherings = thought to be centers of sedition or illicit activities (malicious rumors spread by rival sects)

    871–880[edit | edit source]

    As the Makuku kingdom is invaded by the Sillan Republic, a former nobleman of Makuku named Kuhani takes up residence on the small island south of Cazekorom. He founds the haven of Kuaku, which becomes a popular place for fleeing Makuku citizens, and also becomes a base of operations for sea-based raids around the region.

    The Sillans achieve a decisive victory over the nation of Teninukal, prompting the nation to formally surrender. The Sillans suffer 15,400 casualties, while Teninukal suffers 22,140 casualties. In Makuku, the Sillan amphibious attack is beaten back by the army of Rukuanalani, with the Sillans suffering 7,120 casualties, and the Makuku suffering 4,060 casualties. When the Sillans commit their major army northward, Rukuanalani doesn't give battle and instead flees north. The Makuku government elects to surrender, leaving Rukuanalani's army and his supporters rogue in the far north of the nation, north of the prominent lake in the region.

    The Berabans arrive in northern Makuku under the command of esteemed general Okemos, and they are joined by a detachment from Cazekorom. At the Battle of Mahua, west of the main lake, the Sillans are defeated. This stalls their advance, although they remain in possession of lands south of the lake. The Berabans suffer 3,560 casualties, Cazekorom suffers 2,400 casualties, the Makuku suffer 3,340 casualties, and the Sillans suffer 19,680 casualties.

    Greater Silla: With the conquest of the Makuku and Teninukalese nations, the Empress proclaims the establishment of the “Greater Sillan Republic”, declaring that “there is no longer Sillan nor Olmec, Teninukalese nor Makuku; for they are now one in this Imperial Republic.” Justified by shared ancestry with the Sillan people, the inhabitants of the newly-incorporated territories are granted citizenship, thus receiving the right and protections associated with it. While land distribution programs are enacted to weaken the native aristocracies, the native nobility still retain their respective titles and property. [SHORT TURN]
    • Makuku noble Kuhani establishes the Kingdom of Kuaku, on an island south of Cazekorom
    • Teninukal formally surrenders
    • Makuku
      • amphibious attack is beaten back by Rukuanalani
      • Sillenes press northwards; however, Rukuanalani does not engage w/ Sillenes & decides to flee north
      • Makuku government elects to surrender, leaving Rukuanalani's army and his supporters rogue in the far north of the nation, north of the prominent lake in the region
    • Berabans, led by General Okemos, intervene – they are joined by a detachment from Cazekorom
      • they repulse the Sillenes at the Battle of Mahua, halting their advance (though the border remains static)
    • Mariana incorporates Teninukal and Makuku as provinces, and proclaims the establishment of the "Greater Sillenic Republic"
      • incorporation justified by shared ancestry
      • inhabitants appeased w/ citizenship (receiving numerous political rights and privileges)
      • land distribution programs are enacted to weaken the native aristocracies, though the native nobility still retain their respective titles and property

    881 – 890[edit | edit source]

    As the nation of Sillas attempts to use one of the largest armies ever assembled in such a small region, they experience extremely high losses due to disease and lack of supplies. This is exacerbated by scorched-earth tactics in the north. Additionally, facing harsh famine as the Sillans move through their territory, the Makuku launch a revolt against Sillan rule. In total 60,000 rebels occupy the north of the nation, of which almost a third are deserters from the Sillan army. Discontent in the south of the nation rises as well. The defenders against Mohejaro suffer 9,000 casualties, the "lesser army" against Beraba suffers 12,000 casualties, and the "greater army" against Beraba suffers 28,000 casualties. The nation of Cazekorom suffers 5,500 casualties (and numerous civilian losses), the nation of Mohejaro suffers 3,000 casualties, and the nation of Makuku suffers 10,000 casualties (and a very high number of civilian casualties).

    At the Battle of Vynoda, in central Cazekorom, the army under the command of Okemos engages with the Sillans, resulting in a decisive Beraban victory. The Sillans suffer 12,500 casualties, the Berabans suffer 4,850 casualties, and Cazekorom suffers 2,000 casualties. At the Battle of Indemara, near the corner of Makuku, Qaryaat, and Mohejaro, the Sillans engage with the Qaryaat-Makuku army, resulting in a decisive Sillan victory. The Sillans suffer 9,050 casualties, the Qaryaati suffer 10,100 casualties, and the Makuku suffer 4,040 casualties.

    Greater Silla: A force equivalent to two legions (~10,000) is sent to the Makuku provinces to quell the rebellion. A garrison of ~500 is stationed in every major settlement, while government regulations are placed upon the practice of utilizing maize as fodder in order to raise the food supply. In addition, further land distribution programs are enacted whilst laws regarding the inheritance of property are enforced to prevent the division of estates into small, scattered plots. While suppressed, it has led to the escalation of tensions between urban and rural areas in Makuku, as well as between its West and the newly-incorporated East; as the former is receptive to Sillan rule, while contrastingly, the latter is resistant to it.

    Due to the usage of illy-chosen tactics and strategies, which itself has been due to inadequate, hasty planning and limited logistics, the front lines have remained largely static. With the reports of high casualties (both military and civilian) and mass desertion, Empress Mariana begins to lose her status, with the failure of the campaign to achieve its goals being attributed to her decisions.

    As she starts to suffer from the ailments associated with her advanced age, she nominates a successor to the throne, a process which normally occurs on a deathbed or revealed on a deceased Empress' will (rather than being publically announced). Due to her inability to bear children (which itself has been a point of discussion among her political opponents), she has no direct descendants. Tis, alongside increasing hostility between her and members of the Imperial Council, leaves her with little options, and she eventually chooses her adoptive son (her first cousin once removed biologically) Adrian as the heir to the throne. To solidify his claim, she arranges a marriage between him and her grandniece, Sabina. While highly capable and playing an important role in the conquest of both East Makuku and Teninukal, the choice is subjected to heavy criticism, as the concept of an Emperor regnant is unfathomable to many in Silla's matriarchal society; thus, leading many to suspect the choice to be a ploy to maintain the power of her clan. In addition, many consider the marriage to be inherently wrong due to its "incestuous" nature; as despite being in the same age range, Adrian is technically the second cousin once removed of Sabina (though in Sillan law, marriages of the sixth degree of consanguinity and above are permitted). Ironically, however, the relationship between Adrian and his adoptive mother is noted to be distant and aloof, as they come into conflict in terms of domestic and foreign policy. Similarly, the marriage proves to be disastrous, with Sabina being accused of numerous extramarital affairs due to the lack of emotional and sexual gratification – allegedly due to Adrian's homosexuality. However, as he does not conform to the Sillan ideas of "true" homosexual conduct and behavior (which is to be feminine and thus inherently "superior" to heterosexual men), he remains alienated, with his rumored sexual encounters with other young men pejoratively viewed of as examples of "male lust and intemperance" rather than valid attraction. Ironically, however, the highly-respected Emperor consort approves of the choice and introduces him to the many aspects of court life, as well as mediates Adrian's relationship with the Empress. Meanwhile, the rift between the Cixites and the Ulmists continues to grow, with more of the latter referring to themselves as "Cixians" (or "little Cixi's") as opposed to a member of an Ulmist sect. Meanwhile, there is increasing rejection of orthodox Ulmism, prompting the complete dropping of Ulmist divine law and large portions of Ulmist texts from the Cixian scripture. With the focus on the integration of newly-absorbed territories, the persecution of Cixians under local authorities diminishes. This prompts an era of renewed proselytization, undertaken mainly by nuns and monks rather than itinerant preachers. The spread of Cixite Ulmism is facilitated by the maturation of the ecclesial structure and the entrenchment of a "Cixian orthodoxy". Meanwhile, the arts continue to flourish while multi-inclined roofs become more extensively used. The war with the "Five-Nation Coalition" continues.

    King Tamim orders additional soldiers to reinforce his army and replace those who fell in the last battle. The Qaryaati army marches up to join forces with Birahban troops and to fight the Shilan scourge. Tamim's army participates in the struggle to push Shila out of the lakes region. He asks of the king of Mawan-Jaho to join his army with the combined Qaryaati-Birahban forces, putting aside tensions for the moment being to join against a common enemy. He also reaches out to the westernmost Eborite badamate, asking to hire Eborite shot mercenaries. (MOD RESPONSE AND ALGO NEEDED)
    • Sillas attempts to raise 120k troops within a small region – w/o historical precedent
      • experience extremely high losses due to disease and lack of supplies, exacerbated by scorched earth tactics
    • the Makuku launches a revolt, facing harsh famine caused by the need to procure military rations
      • 60k rebels occupy north of nation – one-third are deserters from Sillenic army
    • campaigns fail
      • Mohejaro = 9k casualties
      • Beraba = total of 40k
    • Battle of Vynoda (central Cazekorom)
      • Okemos repels Sillenes = Beraban decisive victory
    • Battle of Indemara
    • * Qaryaat–Mohejaro coalition (incl. Makuku rebels) is repelled decisively
    • 20k sent to Makuku provinces to quell the insurrection
      • garrison of ~500 stationed in every major settlement
      • practice of maize as fodder is regulated (to raise food supply)
      • land distribution programs are enacted whilst laws regarding the inheritance of property are enforced to prevent the division of estates into small, scattered plots
      • division between West & East Makuku: latter anti-Sillene, former pro-Sillene
    • mass desertion + reversing military fortunes = derails Mariana’s legacy and popularity
      • she nominates her adoptive son, Adriano, as the heir of the throne
    • she arranges marriage w/ her grand-niece, Sabina
      • condemned as incestuous (both are within the sixth degree of consanguinity)
    • though Adriano played important role in the conquest of Makuku and Teninukal, the choice receives heavy criticism as he would be the first Emperor regnant
      • Mariana is thus accused of nepotism (keep power within clan)
      • supporters counter claim by stating relationship w/ Adriano is distant & aloof (possibly due to conflicting beliefs)
    • marriage w/ Sabina is notoriously cold & aloof
      • both are accused of engaging in extramarital affairs due to lack of emotional (and sexual) gratification on both sides
      • Adriano is said to be either homosexual or bisexual
    • Anystesseanism continues to spread due to higher proselytization
      • itinerant preaching
      • construction of monasteries
      • many Anystesseans become nuns & monks
      • limited clerical celibacy is established: clerics can marry prior to being ordained
    • Anystessean orthodoxy becomes more established
    • King Tanim’s forces + Beraban troops attempts to repel the Sillenes from the Great Lakes Region
      • Qaryaat convinces Mohejaro to participate
      • Eborites are hired as mecernaries

    891 – 900[edit | edit source]

    The Beraban assault against the Sillans in Cazekorom results in a decisive Beraban victory, with the Sillans be repulsed from the nation. The Sillans suffer 10,500 casualties, the Berabans suffer 6,450 casualties, and Cazekorom suffers 6,580 casualties. However, the Sillan amphibious assault against southern Cazekorom results in a decisive victory, allowing the Sillans to retake the southern one-third of the nation by sea. The Sillans suffer 5,400 casualties, while Cazekorom suffers 6,000 casualties and numerous civilian losses.

    The second Sillan attempt to invade northern Cazekorom/Beraba results in a stalemate, with the Sillans suffering 13,150 casualties, the Berabans suffering 3,500, and Cazekorom suffering 4,000 casualties.

    Exhulan Empire: With the acceptance of the marriage proposal by Qera, the Emperor is married in early 891, and soon fathers two children, both sons, one (named Vorgassiga) in 892 and another named Lorcciar in 893. As a result, he feels relatively confident and is more willing to take risks with two heirs in place, and begins seriously considering entering the war against Sillas. However, he decides to conduct a census first, to determine the amount of me he could raise. As a result when he sees the large Exhulan population he feels confident enough to Lead an invasion of Sillas in 895, leading large amounts of troops into the area south of Amyirth and using the Imperial navy too try to block of trade and supplies to Sillas from other nations. (ALGORITHM NEEDED) He leads the initial invasion as a surprise attack, with war never officially being declared, and Exhula only officially joins the five-nation coalition in 897. However, even before that we begin shipping large amounts of supplies into Teninukal to help their rebellion, which is beneficial to our attempts to seize more territory from Sillas. The Emperor's absense from the center of government in Siccarius also results in his brother Gosorlgar taking temporary power in the government and running things in his brother's absence. He is also a convert to the heavily mutated form of Ulmism found in Exhula (formerly known as Irrulmism), resulting in large amounts of favor being shown to members of that religion during his rule, and it’s being increasingly a part of the two heirs' education as they grow up well their father is away at war. It also results in large scale persecution of Exhulan Cixians, who are seen as potential traitors to the Empire and likely colaborators, and as rivals and heretics by the majority of the Exhulan Ulmians, who with their larger amount of power begin doing their best to drive Cixism underground and to eradicate it, although these measures will never be completley successful.
    • Beraban assault against the Sillenes in Cazekorom results in a decisive Beraban victory
      • Sillenes are thus repulsed from the nation
    • however, the Sillenic amphibious assault in the south of Cazekorom results in a decisive victory, allowing the Sillenes to retake the southern one-third of the nation by sea
      • Sillenic attempt to push into northern Cazekorom/Beraba results in a stalemate, however
    • the Qaryaati campaign results in a decisive victory
    • The Makuku Rebellion spreads to the entirety of the Makuku region (incl. West Makuku); organized under a nobleman known as Cecuhame
      • many in Teninukal are sympathetic (due to cultural affinities)
      • those who are unsympathetic to an independent state are massacred
    • The Sillan attack on the Makuku rebellion results in a Sillan defeat. The Sillans suffer 5,010 casualties, while the Makuku suffer 8,100. As such the Makuku rebellion grows in number, and also attracts Teninukal to join them. The Makuku cut off supplies overland from reaching the Sillan army attacking Beraba, and manage to inflict 10,000 casualties against them. Additionally numerous Sillan civilians who are unsympathetic to an independent kingdom are killed in the Makuku cities. A Sillan-Makuku nobleman named Cecuhame becomes the dominant figure in the movement, controlling the region from the border with Mohejaro to the western sea.
    • Exhula joins in the war w/ Sillas
      • invades Kaloma in a sneak attack
      • commences the blockade of the Sillenic coast
    • the persecution of Exhulan Anystesseans (in Kaloma) occurs

    901 – 1000[edit | edit source]

    901 – 910[edit | edit source]

    The Exhulan invasion from Kaloma into Sillas is successful, partially due to the element of surprise, with Exhula capturing the region directly east of the border. After the Sillans respond a decisive battle is likely to occur [To be added].

    Events regarding Sillas and its wars still to be added once everyone posts/provides information.

    The Sillan invasion of the rebelling Makuku state results in a decisive Sillan victory. The Sillans suffer 9,440 casualties, while the Makuku suffer 20,500 casualties. Another 20,000 Makuku soldiers are captured by Sillan forces, with their fate to be decided by the Sillans. The remainder of the Makuku army deserts and flees back to their homes, or in some cases north out of the country.

    The Sillan withdrawal from East Makuku is successful, and Sillan forces garrison along the defensible central river. Sillas suffers 9,000 casualties during the withdrawal, as the attackers harass their lines, while Mohejaro suffers 3,100 casualties, and Qaryaat suffers 2,030 casualties.

    The Sillan counterattack against the Exhulan invasion results in a Sillan victory. The Exhulans are beaten back to around the border of Kaloma, having suffered 9,100 casualties, while the Sillans suffer 4,010 casualties. Initially at sea Exhula's supply lines are disrupted, but at a decisive battle between the two nations, Exhula achieves victory. Exhula suffers the loss of 21 ships and 3,500 soldiers, while Sillas suffers the loss of 50 ships and 9,000 soldiers. The Sillan invasion of Kaloma results in a decisive Sillan victory, capturing the eastern one-half of the territory. The Sillans suffer 8,140 casualties, while Exhula suffers 9,000 casualties.

    King Tamim orders additional troops to reinforce his army. His forces presses on into former east Makukan lands, where the combined Qaryaati-Mohejaran forces, along with the Eborite mercenaries, fight with the Sillan army. The struggle to push the Shilan scourge out of Makukan lands continues
    • Sillenic Wars
      • Exhulans invade Kaloma = initially successful; the two successive counter-attacks are successful (with the Exhulans beaten back to the border of Kaloma, then into Kaloma)
      • the suppression of rebelling Makuku state leads to decisive Sillenic victory
      • Sillenes withdraw from East Makuku up until defensible central river
      • Qaryaat, under King Tanim, reinforces army and tries to press further into the conquered lands

    911 – 920[edit | edit source]

    The attack launched by Qaryaat against the Sillan positions in East Makuku result in a decisive Sillan victory. The Sillans successfully prevent the Qaryaati from crossing the river, and the front remains the same in that region, with the Qaryaati suffering due to the scorched earth tactics being implemented. The Qaryaati suffer 20,420 casualties, while the Sillans suffer 8,050 casualties.

    The continued invasion of Kaloma results in a decisive Sillan victory. Sillas successfully captures the rest of the territory, with the Sillans suffering 9,450 casualties, and the Exhulans suffer 14,330 casualties.

    Beraba: After pushing the Sillans south of the river, Okemos negotiates the terms of peace. First and foremost is the establishment of free Makuku as an independent nation. While there is a push for a free and independent Teninukal as well, this proves to be too difficult to negotiate. However, a clause is included that all Teninukalians who wish to leave Sillan-controlled territory may do so. Beraba offers ships and safe passage for these refugees to unclaimed territory on the eastern side of the Beraban peninsula where they may establish a new homeland. Also included in the terms of the peace is the establishment of consulates from all nations involved in the war in the capitals of the other nations to establish diplomatic relations. Envoys are to be appointed so that communication and diplomacy can prevail over bloodshed and aggression in the future. Finally, a 99-year non-aggression pact is drafted, to be signed by all belligerent nations, stating that if one nation within the pact attacks another signatory of the pact, the rest of the signatories are obliged to assist in restoring peace and order. Okemos orders some troops to remain in Cazekorom and Makuku until the peace terms have been ratified and honored by the other involved nations. Okemos himself returns to Ngaoudera to focus on the internal affairs of Beraba.
    • Qaryaati offensive fails
    • Kaloma becomes fully Sillenic
    • peace
      • agreed upon w/ Beraba and Qaryaat (but not Exhula)
      • Exhula and Teninukal are recognized as Sillenic territory
      • 99-year non-aggression pact is signed

    921 – 930[edit | edit source]

    After the nation of Qaryaat proposes peace to the Sillans, the nation of Mohejaro does the same. With the war formally concluded, the Makuku set about rebuilding their kingdom, settling refugees in the far north, and building new defenses.

    Sillene Republic: The successful pacification of the northern provinces, the foreign recognition of Sillas' territorial integrity, and the acquisition of new territories consolidate the legitimacy of the Emperor regnant's position as monarch. Despite this, the Imperial Council still finds him to be quite distant and authoritarian, and his opponents point out that his campaigns have led to massive human losses and have only reignited past regionalist tensions. Due to this, he declares a policy of consolidating Sillan rule over the newly-incorporated territories, rather than conquering more, as well as fortifying the country's newly-set borders. As the ethnic Exhulans continue to constitute the majority in the newly-incorporated Kaloma province, the Emperor regnant only bestows a limited form of citizenship onto the population; having all the rights and protections typically afforded to a citizen with the exception of the right to participate in general assemblies or to participate in elections. However, the aristocracy may acquire these latter rights through participation in civil or military examinations. Despite this, no land distribution programs are enacted in the province, thus forcing the landless poor to emigrate and settle in other areas of the Imperial Republic; thus facilitating the process of Sillene settlement and cultural assimilation. After the Censorate exposes a plot to assassinate the Emperor regnant, he grows increasingly paranoid and decides to distance himself from the capital–commencing a tour of the Imperial Republic to oversee local reconstruction programs and to promote Sillan culture. During a visit to the Kaloma province, he meets a youth of aristocratic background named Aqinas. Attracted to his boyish charm and their shared passion for Sillan culture, he quickly becomes infatuated with the youth, whom the Emperor regnant arranges to be in his entourage. However, with their attraction to one another becoming increasingly apparent, the members of the Imperial Council begins to speculate on the exact nature of their relationship – with his opponents accusing him of belittling the youth to nothing more than a personal concubine (potentially against the youth’s will) while others accuse the youth of exploiting the Emperor’s infatuation with him for political gain. In addition, the Emperor regnant remains married to the Empress consort Sabina; though their hostility to each other is widely known, with even rumors of either’s infertility. Possibly under the influence of the Cixian Aqinas (who – utilizing his wealth – patronized the construction of various Cixian buildings, as well as allegedly being a Cixian deacon during his youth), the Emperor regnant institutes a series of laws effectively legalizing Cixism. In Banzenopolis, the orders the construction of new Grand Basilica on top of the remains of the old one, as well as lifts the prohibition on Eastern Ulmists from residing within city limits. The Western Ulmists however, view this as an act of patronage toward an illicit and dangerous Ulmist sect. In addition, they criticize the sexual activities of the Emperor regnant in regards to his lover as being immoral (due to influences from the patriarchal and homophobic elements of Azouri culture). During the Emperor regnant’s tour of the province, the Western Ulmists once revolt, burning the rebuilt Grand Basilica and raping, mutilating, and even immolating suspected Cixians. While the revolt was readily crushed, it has led to the mass exodus of the province’s Cixians (who constitute one-half of the population) to other urban areas (ironically facilitating its spread) as well as to much human losses (as many targeted were women and children, and due to the Cixian’s belief in pacifism) – including the Emperor regnant’s lover. The latter’s death in particular coincides with a rapid decline in the Emperor regnant’s health and well-being, and he spends his last days in his private estate just outside of the capital. This further cements the rift between Cixians and the Ulmists, and while many Cixians continue to observe Ulmist practices and its divine law, the Cixian clergy declares itself to be fully separate from Ulmism and its followers to be part of a “New Covenant”, thus fully rejecting Cixism’s roots in Ulmism and marking the establishment of a firm Cixian orthodoxy. Meanwhile, his lover’s death in particular coincides with a rapid decline in the Emperor regnant’s health and well-being, and he spends his last days in his private estate just outside of the capital. Exploiting this, the Cixian Church venerates the Aqinas as a Saint (alongside the parents of Cixi, the Seven Apostles, and past martyrs), in hopes of garnering support from him. Sillas expands east and south, colonizing the coast.
    • Mohejaro joins peace pact
    • gains from Sillenic Wars
      • pacification of the Makuku region
      • conquest of East Makuku (until central river); a Makuku rump state persists
      • conquest of Teninukal
      • conquest of Kaloma
    • character of Adriano
      • due to his status as the sole male regnant (so far), he seeks to excel and solidify his legacy
      • however, he is self-centered and arrogant (on the view of the People's Council); though he is both capable of acts of kindness and acts of violence, analyzing the merits of both on each situation (sharing a pragmatic view of the world, instead of clinging to morales)
      • however, the opposition also leaves him paranoid over the chances of an assassination attempt
      • aloof from wife, viewed as immoral
    • due to pacification of the revolt, Adriano's reputation as Emperor regnant is solidified
      • the People's Assembly still finds him rather distant from politics, self-centered, and authoritarian
      • despite his victories, his opponents point out his campaigns had led to massive human losses (an excess of 200k deaths – the majority from the peasantry) and reignited past regionalism
      • Adriano's notorious reputation remains, as he remains distant from his wife Sabina and continues to be the subject of many rumors (regarding cheating); opponents use this "immorality" against
      • due to absence from capital, the People's Assembly needs to be "reigned" in; he decides to stay under the pretense of staying to consolidate the territorial integrity of the core + celebrate successes (for four years)
    • reforms in Kaloma
      • all ethnic Exhulans give a limited form of citizenship (the "Exhulan-rite"); citizen pool as of now consists of inhabitants of Sillas proper, Makuku, and Olmac (since definition of "Sillenic" remains cultural, later this extends to linguistic)
      • Exhulan-rite consists of normal citizenship w/ exception of right to participating in elections
      • full citizenship can be gained through civil service
      • no land distribution, thus forcing emigration of the landless poor – this facilitates Sillenic settlement and cultural assimilation
    • territorial consolidation
      • walls
    • after the four-year period, the Censorate discovers a plot to assisinate the Emperor regnant, and grows increasingly paranoid and closed
      • he commences an extravagant "tour" of the Republic, particularly of the periphery
      • in the periphery, he oversees local reconstruction programs and promotes core Sillenic culture (though in reality, because he knows he won't be targeted within these regions, as they are distant from the capital)
    • Adriano meets a youth by the name of Ancino, who is of noble heritage, during a tour of Kaloma. He becomes infatuated with him, due to his boyish charm and shared passion for history and receptiveness to Sillenic culture. He establishes a program for prospective officials to travel to the capital region; however, this is a cover for Adriano's desire to take Ancino under his wing
    • the People's Council criticizes their relationship
      • members of the Imperial Council begins to speculate on the exact nature of their relationship – with his opponents accusing him of belittling the youth to nothing more than a personal concubine (potentially against the youth’s will); others accuse the youth of exploiting the Emperor’s infatuation with him for political gain
      • Empress consort Sabina is angered
    • Ancino, who is an Anystessean, convinces the Emperor regnant to pursue a policy of religious tolerance
      • thus, Anystesseanism is effectively legalized
      • Ancino is later canonized as a Saint by the Universal Church; according to tradition, he was also a deacon and financed the construction of basilicas (but these are later considered dubious, and based off half-truths)
      • he lifts the law prohibiting Ulmian settlement into the core of Vandenopolis (though the law generally applied only the Sillenized Ulmians)
    • Orthodox Ulmians view this as an act of patronage towards an illicit and dangerous Ulmist sect
      • denounce the relationship of Ancino and Adriano as immoral
    • Orthodox Ulmians instigate a revolt around the Nativity of Nelrim celebration (later known as the Nelrim Revolt), where attendance to the city of Banzenopolis is high among Ulmians and Anystesseans alike
      • the rebuilt Grand Basilica is destroyed
      • suspected Anystesseans are raped, mutilated, and even mutilated
      • revolt is readily crushed, however there is much human lose (many targeted were women and children, and due to the Cixian’s belief in pacifism), including the Emperor regnant’s lover, Ancino)
    • the Nelrim Revolt cements rift between Anystesseans and Ulmians
      • Anystesseans declare themselves aprt of a "New Covenant" superseding the one established by Ulmism
      • leads to desire to delineate Anystessean canon
      • cult of martyrs spreads and grows in popularity
      • Anystesseans canonize Ancino as a saint, in hopes of gaining further support from the Emperor regnant (evidence = manner of death + support of the church)
      • flight of Vandenopolitan Anystesseans (the region was 40–50% Anystessean, even higher than Sillas, which was this second to Vandenopolis until this point); ironically this spreads the religion even more
    • his lover’s death in particular coincides with a rapid decline in the Emperor regnant’s health and well-being
      • he spends his last days in his private estate just outside of the capital

    931 – 940[edit | edit source]

    Sillan Republic: The decisive Sillenic victory in the Unification Wars (which contrary to what its terminology may suggest, were a series of related military campaigns rather than a single one) resulted in the political unification of the Sillenic peoples, a process that was initiated by the Sillan Republic’s conquest of the Olmecs nearly six centuries prior. The following period of relative socio-political stability facilitated the formation of trade routes both culminating and passing through Sillan cities and the further diffusion of Sillenic culture. In particular, the rapid spread of Cixism at the expense of other Ulmist sects and native beliefs continued, despite its success prompting localized but progressively more intense periods of persecution. Following the death of Drianos – the first documented and most famous male ruler in Sillan history – his first cousin Ardonias was elected into office. However, her term was cut short following a severe bout of pneumonia which left her bed-ridden for one-half year. She was succeeded by her eldest daughter, Margas; though Ardonias continued to exert influence over her until finally succumbing to an unidentified disease (hypothesized to be ovarian cancer). While Margas upheld the policy of religious toleration she reversed several of her predecessor’s policies toward the Cixians and remained largely ambivalent toward the persecutions; perhaps under the pressure of the more conservative elements of the State Council. Despite this, the Empress was not (at least overtly) anti-Cixian either, as she publicly praised the merits of the Cixian faith and condemned anti-Cixians as being “self-loathing” due to their prejudice against their fellow countrymen. Indeed, while the worship of the state-sponsored imperial cult was enforced during her rule, the humanist beliefs of Cixism exerted increasingly substantial influence over Sillan culture and law; perhaps best exemplified by the passage of laws discouraging the practices of abortion and premarital sex, arranged marriages, and the consumption of cereal-based alcoholic beverages. Classical Sillan high culture–especially in the realm of literature, performance arts, and visual arts–flourished during this period; benefited by the patronage of the upper and mercantile classes. While territorial expansion slowed down, apart from colonization southward and eastward, population growth was maintained through the adoption of new technologies – including iron ploughs, threshing machines, hand-driven rotary mills and horse-powered mills – the spread of a three-stage system of sequenced seasonal farming (legumes, cereals, then root crops intercropped with greens), and fertilizer derived for organic matter, most commonly discarded sub-quality fish paste or mammalian manure.
    • Sillenic Wars / Unification Wars
      • resulted in political unification of Sillenic peoples (except Makuku rump state)
      • trading routes = rapid diffusion of Sillenic culture (incl. Anystesseanism)
    • ailing health of the Emperor regnant leads to renewed, but localized, periods of Anystessean persecution
    • Adriano dies
      • his first-cousin Antontina is elected into office; she later dies due to a severe bout of pneumonia, which leaves her bed-ridden for six months
    • Antonina's reforms
      • "Exhulan-rite" ended, all Exhulans enfranchised
      • Sillenic definition expanded to encompass Teninukalese, who are subsequently enfranchised
      • revamped and expanded on civil law
      • enforced democracy at local level
    • Antonina is succeeded by eldest daughter, Marga
    • remains ambivalent to religious relations
      • ended Adriano's religious reforms and de-patronizes Anystesseanism, still lifts the prohibition barring Sillenized Ulmians from settling Vandenopolis
      • she praised the merits of the Anystessean faith, condemned opponents due to prejudice against fellow countrymen
      • generally focused more so on Sillenic philosophy (building onto the idea of the leniency and mercy in society), and patronizes academies teaching the classics of Sillenic philosophy
    • nevertheless, enforced the worship of the Pantheon
      • Sillenic polytheism continues to weaken however
      • people now worship abstract ideas, rather than believing in deities and superstition
      • humanist beliefs of Anystesseanism exerts increasingly substantial influence over Sillan culture and law; perhaps best exemplified by the passage of laws discouraging the practices of abortion and premarital sex, arranged marriages, and the consumption of rice-wine

    941 – 950[edit | edit source]

    Sillan Republic: Empress Marga dies after contracting smallpox. Her death reignites the of the socio-political upheaval that had commenced in the late reign of Empress Mariana. Commercial agriculture remains dominated by the nobility, who are able to outcompete smallholders due to their ownership of large-scale plantation estates (each hiring up to hundreds of labourers); thus retarding socio-economic mobility and further heightening class distinction, particularly in the more agrarian frontier provinces. Similarly, the acquisition of new territory coupled with the policy of settling new land has led to the massive movement of peoples–of ethnic Sillans to the frontier, and of landless non-Sillan Sillenes into the core provinces to acquire employment in agricultural enterprises owned by the nobility; thus interfering with the government’s ability to monitor and control the population. Furthermore, the growth of evangelical religions (especially that of Cixism) has reduced the effectiveness of the Grand Pantheon and the state cults in controlling the less-integrated parts of the Imperial Republic. An aged General by the name of Seberoza is elected into office. Her brief reign was characterized by a return to a more socially-conservative climate, influenced by the emigration of the conservative elite to the countryside and disdain of the urban mercantile class. Her reign was cut short when she was poisoned by her daughter, Carzara, who then seizes power via a military coup and forcing the Imperial Council to approve of her ascension to power. She suppresses a revolt in southern Teninukal and Kaloma. While the goals of the insurgents were not fulfilled, the Empress pardons the leaders of the insurrection and bestows full citizenship to all Kalomans–realizing the power of citizenship into integrating ethnic minorities into the Imperial Republic. However, she decides to relocate the province’s urban inhabitants into three cities to facilitate control over them and their assimilation. She continues to promote the settlement of the frontier and the exploitation of all idle land to boost population growth, as well as distributing land to landless households and instituting legislation regulating the obligations of tenant farmers to their landlords. Despite this, she maintains a very autocratic rule and is very cruel to her political opponents–sentencing them to execution to get rid of any opposition or threat to her rule. In addition, she is very promiscuous–being rumored to have a harem of fifty Vanden’s as well as frequently practicing abortion to prevent pregnancy.
    • Empress Marga dies after contracting smallpox
    • reignition of socio-political upheaval
      • as land becomes more densely populated, the landed gentry continue to amass more power
      • economic stagnation
      • higher social stratification
      • process is more exaggerated in peripheral regions
    • movement of Sillenes to provinces
      • conversely, non-Sillenes go to Inner Sillas for work (in plantation estates)
    • monitor of population becomes harder
      • heightened mobility
      • conversion to Anystesseanism: many adherents evade public census to escape persecution
    • Severoza
      • return to social conservative climate
      • landed gentry limit power of urban merchantile / artisan classes
    • Carzala
      • poisons mother
      • seizes power via military coup, forces Popular Assembly to approve her ascension
    • Carzala suppresses revolt in Teninukal and Kaloma
      • reaches a peace agreement w/ the insurgents
      • ends the Exhulan-rite, bestows full citizenship to all Kalomans, Exhulans, and Teninukalese – facilitating integration of minorities
    • she relocates Kaloma's urban residents to three planned cities (often known as the "first reductions")
    • promotes settlement of frontier & competitive land rights (to recuperate population growth)
      • land distributions
      • tenant farmers now have reduced rent
    • Carzala remains very autocratic and unpopular among the upper classes
      • executes rival officials to reduce opposition
      • Carzala is rumored to have a male harem of foreign men + practices abortion to maintain her figure
    • plantation estates:
      • sugarcane
      • spices
      • indigo
    • other estates:
      • salt-fields
      • apiaries

    951 – 960[edit | edit source]

    Sillan Republic: Empress Carzara is killed by a disgruntled guard; thus initiating a three-year period of political fragmentation known as the “Three Empresses” period. Giacrexian eventually accedes to power after killing one of her rivals while guaranteeing her other rival, General Constanqina, political amnesty and retainment of power. While not particularly religious, Giacrexian enforces worship of the imperial cult (viewing it as a way to enforce Sillan dominance over the Imperial Republic); initiating the large-scale persecution of the Cixians due to their reluctance to participate in civic rites and their strict monotheism. Giacrexian also increases arms production, establishing a new set of regulations to enforce their uniformity. In addition, she orders the construction of more blast-furnaces (for the production of pig iron), and the construction of more finery forges (to fine pig iron into both wrought iron and steel). Steel is largely reserved for military purposes, with the majority of common tools being made out of iron.
    • Carzala is killed in a military riot
    • successor, Dziokles initiates a brief civil war w/ Konstantina (the Elder)
      • Konstantina is granted political amnesty and retains her power – though she has to accede the throne to the former
    • Dziokles views herself as the restorer of the Cinita dynasty
      • believes in the reestablishment of a laconic society
      • is an admirer of Sonzia, adhering to her "scholar–warrior" ideal
      • despite being irreligious, she emphasizes the Imperial Cult as a way to enforce Sillenic dominance over periphery

    961 – 970[edit | edit source]

    Expansion continues to the east of the peninsula. The Teninukalian diaspora, brought to the eastern shore of the Beraban Peninsula after the Sillan Conflict, is established as a nation in its own right, and Beraban ships of food and supplies help the settlers there to build their new home.

    Sillan Republic: The Empress orders the construction of more foundries and workshops (producing iron and steel, and arms, respectively). To prevent laziness and poor performance on the ranks, military education is reemphasized and troops are barred from marriage until the age of 25. A more rigorous training course is implemented, and knowledge of Empress Estanza’s “Art of War” is added to the military curriculum. Despite the increasing intensity of Empress Giacrexian’s persecutions, Cixism continued to surge in popularity, achieving a slight majority in urban regions and constituting just under a fourth of the total population. Despite nominally-supporting the Empress’ efforts to enforce worship of the imperial cult, much of the nobility secretly partake in Cixian activities and even patronize the construction of religious architecture or fund and/or host religious meetings. In order to discourage conversion to the Cixian faith, the Empress promotes Ulm – viewed as a legitimate and thus venerable religion – especially the “West” Orthodox branch of Ulm. In addition, she exempts Ulmians from participating in civic religious rites. Conversely, she equates the act of refusing to worship the imperial cult to treason, specifically in-reference to Cixians. As a result of this law, Cixians may now be executed simply due to their faith. While many Cixians are martyred (including prominent nobility and clergymen), her efforts to stifle the growth of Cixism remain ultimately unsucessful, with Cixians once again conducting religious services and rituals during the night to prevent any suspicion from the authorities. Similarly, as the rumors of their cannibalistic and incestous practices are dispelled, the religion attracts many pagan sympathizers and converts; further establishing it as a distinct religion from Ulm, as well as fuelling anti-Ulm sentiment and harsh criticism of Ulmian beliefs and practices. Despite this, the harsh autocratic rule of Giacrexian binds the Imperial Republic together, and facilitates a period of renewed prosperity. Due to increased foreign interest in Sillas, Sillenic products–primarily textiles, ceramics, and tea–are exported overseas. In addition, products such as sugarcane, cocoa, oil, cannabis, honey, beeswax, and dairy products are also exported on a significant level.
    • Empress Dziokles orders construction of more foundries and arms workshops
    • professionalism is reestablished within the military
      • intensive military education is reemphasized
      • professionals are barred from marriage until age of 25 (incl. nobility)
      • more rigorous training course + intensive analysis of "Art of War"
    • Dziokles initiates Dzioklesian Persecutions – the ultimate and largest of the Anystessean persecutions
      • Anystesseanism continues to surge, achieving a plurality within urban regions
      • growing number of Anystessean nobles > patronize construction of Anystessean architecture (monasteries & temples)
      • total number of victims estimated to have been 100,000–150,000 (constitutes half of the victims of the Anystessean persecutions)
    • refusal to worship imperial cult became equivalent to reason: Anystesseans were executed simply due to their faith
    • Dziokles counters Anystesseanism by bolstering Ulm, which is upheld as a legitimate and thus venerable religion
      • gives right of Ulmians to exempt in public religious life
    • Anystesseanism continues to experience success
      • once rumors of incestuous orgies & child sacrifice were dispelled, it attracted more pagan converts (fueling anti-Ulmian sentiment and furthering rift between Ulm & Anystesseanism)

    971 – 980[edit | edit source]

    The region set aside by the Berabans attracts a large number of Makuku and Teninukalese settlers, both from the north and from Sillas’ annexed territory directly. Although many in Teninukal choose to accept Sillan citizenship, a moderate amount choose to settle the new territory. They call the new land Yecedaya, after the famous general Yecacedal, whose descendants are among the leadership in the new state.

    Sillas: Despite numerous policies against them, Cixism continues to grow rapidly, with its population now constituting a fourth of the total population. Its success could be attributed to a more attractive doctrine–which addressed human needs better–and a higher level of organization enabling more efficient proselytization. Due to its indistinguishability from Cixian proselytization, Ulmian proselytization is also prohibited. As a result, East Ulm becomes increasingly hostile to converts, while West Ulm enters a period of definite decline–the latter being criticized as excessively orthopraxic, and upholding many beliefs incompatible with Sillan culture. Similarly, Empress Giacrexian–while maintaining an official distinction between Cixism and Ulm (the former an illicit religion, the latter a legitimate one)–places all Cixians under Ulmian religious law; thus enforcing (West) Ulmian orthodoxy at the expense of East Ulmism and Cixism. In addition, the Empress institutes more serious punishments onto practicing Cixians. Cixians are given three chances to recant their faith, which is to be confirmed by offering incense to the Empress and cursing Cixi, the Anointed One. Any Cixians who are persistent are sentenced to death by burning–a mockery of Cixi’s death on the stake. However, these laws are rarely enforced, as many nobles are Cixian, and are reluctant to “kill” another fellow Cixian due to their fear of rejection by God and not being able to access the after-life. Since many dispatched officials are lower-class civil servants, they also readily accept bribes in-exchange for falsifying documentation to clear any government suspicions of their faith. The Cixians also receive aid from the pagans, who due to their increasing tolerance of the Cixians, become increasingly sympathetic to their plight. As a response to intensifying persecutions, the Cixians become more secretive in their affairs; thus making their true numbers hard to determine while creating the illusion of the persecutions’ success. Cixian clergymen operate more discreetly, while monasteries often have a front business or organization to dispel any suspicions. Religious services are conducted in the safety of the night, and while in public, Cixians identify themselves with symbols or hidden body cues. Empress Giacrexian continues territorial expansion southward and eastward, with any rebelling tribes pacified with brute force. The settlement of frontier continues–prompted by scarcity in land in Sillas proper due to population growth and strict inheritance laws. Land distribution programs–aimed specifically to tenant farmers or landless wage laborers–are enacted, while improvements in agriculture heighten food supply and promote population growth. Five new cities are established, facilitating the development of trading routes and regional administrative centers and promoting economic connectivity. Under the reign of the Empress, the economy booms, fuelled by foreign trade. Main exports include textiles (silk, cotton, and abaca), and ceramics (porcelaneous wares, lacquerwares, earthenware, with some glassware). In addition, numerous cash crops–such as sugar cane, tea, cocoa, coconut and/or palm oil, and exotic fruits–are cultivated, primarily in the northern provinces due to a much more tropical climate, conducive to the growth of these crops. While being an autocrat, Empress Giacrexian remains an effective and capable leader; ushering Sillas into a period of political stability and prosperity, not seen since the reign of Agosqina. However, her social policies aggravates and amplifies pre-existing inter-religious and sectarian tensions. To counter criticism, Empress Giacrexian adopts the official title of “Enlightened Despot”, while instituting a system of literary inquisition to silence any political opposition as to further solidify her rule. Aside from enforcing worship of the imperial cult, she commissions numerous works of art commemorating her successes in the style of of Sillan classical sculptures; being simplistic and austere, a deep contrast to the contemporary “baroque” style characterized by complex compositions and polychrome.
    • Beraba attracts Teninukalese migrants (right to emigrate guaranteed by peace agreement concluding the Sillenic Wars)
    • Anystesseanism continues to grow
      • its success could be attributed to a more attractive doctrine – which addressed human needs better, and a higher level of organization enabling more efficient proselytization
      • due to its indistinguishability from Anystessean proselytization, Ulmian proselytization is also prohibited
    • Sillenized Ulm shifts to a quasi-ethnic religion
      • begin to be more receptive to Anystesses as the Redeemer (but reject her divinity)
    • "Western Ulm" (the Azourian Church) enters period of definite decline
      • viewed as too "Azourian"; incompatible w/ Sillenic cuture
    • Anystesseanism is recognized as an illicit Ulmian sect, thus, all Anystesseans are subjected under Ulmian law
      • Anystesseans may now be punished for "heresy"
    • Anystesseans are given three chances to recant their faith – which is to be confirmed by offering incense to the Empress and cursing the Redeemer
      • those who are persistent are sentenced to death by burning
      • ineffective due to sympathy + officials readily accepting bribes for the falsification of documents
    • Anystesseans continue to evade public life
      • religious services are conducted in the safety of the night
      • while in public, Anystesseans identify themselves with symbols or hidden body cues
      • secrecy conceals true numbers
      • creates illusion of the persecution's success
    • to counter criticism, Empress adopts the epithet “Enlightened Despot”
      • instutes a system of literary inquisition to silence any political opposition
    • she commissions numerous works of art commemorating her successes in the style of of Sillan classical sculptures; being simplistic and austere, a deep contrast to the contemporary “baroque” style characterized by complex compositions and polychrome.

    981 – 990[edit | edit source]

    The southern coast of the nation of Sillas sees immigration from the nation of Chrystalia and other southern peoples, with a number of colonies being established in and around Sillan claimed territory.
    • Chrystalians (and other southern peoples) migrate to southern territory of Sillas

    991 – 1000[edit | edit source]

    Silla: Despite a successful reign, Diacrexian abdicates voluntarily in 993, frustrated with her failure to arrest the growth of Cixism. The former Empress eventually succumbs to the ailments associated with advanced age in 995. Following her abdication, her proteges–Costanqina, Gorgonzolla, and Mascarpona–are declared co-Empresses, as outlined in Diacrexian’s will. Mascarpona, who administers the northern provinces (defined as the Teninukal and Makuku regions) enforces the ban on Cixian activity; declaring that all known Cixians regardless of status are to be condemned to death by burning at the stake. Like her predecessor, she heavily promotes the imperial cult and constructs a “Lesser Pantheon” in the city of Macocuas, though these reforms are met with little success due to native resistance. In addition, she also affirms the power of the aristocracy by generous land grants to them–thus triggering a massive movement of landless farmers southward seeking employment as wage laborers or as tenant farmers. Conversely, Gorgonzolla, who administers the central provinces (defined as Sillas proper and the province of Caloume) implements reforms that affirm the principle of social mobility. She promulgates the “Code of Gorgonzolla”, which divides nobility into two groups based on land ownership–the major nobility, or the aristocracy; and the minor nobility, which consists largely of titled small-holders. As a result of the code, only members of the aristocracy could pass their status unto their children–in contrast prior where noble status is hereditary. As a result, one can attain noble status via imperial examinations; being employed as either a civil servant or a military officer. Furthermore, she divides the population into four classes based on both occupation, prestige, and wealth; the nobles (further subdivided into three subclasses based on occupation), the merchants, the small-holders, and lease-holders. Meanwhile, Costanqina is recorded to have a lackluster rule, being uninterested in administering the affairs of the state and instead dedicating time to studying the arts and military tactics. As a result, the public is largely ambivalent of Costaqina’s rule. Due to her tolerance of the Cixians, she does not enforce the persecution against them. This, alongside rumors of her husband’s and daughter’s conversion to Cixism, fuels suspicions among anti-Cixians that she is, in fact, a Cixian herself.
    • despite a successful reign, Dzikoles abdicates voluntarily in 993 – frustrated with her failure to arrest the growth of Anystesseanism
      • she eventually succumbs to the ailments associated with advanced age in 995
    • following her abdication, her proteges – Konstantina the Younger, Gorgonzolla, and Mascarpona – are declared co-Empresses, as outlined in Diacrexian’s will
      • beginning of "Triarchy"
    Mascarpona
    • administers northern provinces (defined as the Teninukal and Makuku regions)
    • despite being personally irreligious, she believes in religious harmony and religious freedom
      • pushes syncretism of Imperial Cult, Sillenic polytheism, and native beliefs
      • constructs the “Lesser Pantheon” in her capital; though the construction program are met with little success due to native resistance
    • nevertheless, she enforces the prohibition of Anystessean activity
      • declares that all known Anystesseans (sans children and the elderly) are to be condemned to death by burning at the stake
      • believes Anystesseans are an elusive and dangerous cult
    • heavily promotes education
      • promotes the construction of municipal schools in rural areas
      • commisions a ruby script so that the peasantry could read > would eventually becomes the Sillenic alphabet
    • a native of South Dasmarinias, her unfamiliarity w/ the region means she heavily relies on local aristocracy for political advice
      • gives the local aristocracy generous land grants, triggering mass movement of landless farmers southwards
      • she expects aristocrats to give back to community (a commonly withdrawn promise)
    Gorgonzolla
    • administers the central provinces (provinces of Lesser Sillas and Kaloma)
    • affirms social mobility (though nominal and rather ineffective)
    • promulgates the extensive “Code of Gorgonzolla”
      • becomes class system until its simplification under Bria the Great; though it is mainly used for tax collection
      • divided nobility into heredtiary upper and non-hereditary lower, depending on amount of land owned; latter must enter civil service to retain / pass on title
      • other classes (in descending order), are: merchants, yeomans, and tenant farmers – as well as penal slaves
    • however, she develops a dictatorial complex – thus becoming known as a tyrant
      • heavily promotes the Imperial Cult; she deifies herself (usually a post-humous practice)
    • develops edifice complex: known for lavish public spending on monuments
    • she openly support the Anystessean persecutions – extending the same manner of treatment to Ulmians
      • she believes all monotheistic religions, as well as organized religions, are a threat to the state
    Konstantina the Younger
    • recorded to have a lackluster rule – being uninterested in administering the affairs of the state and instead dedicating time to studying the arts and military tactics
      • believes administrative duties to trusted and meritious advisees
    • public is largely ambivalent of her
    • due to her tolerance of the Anystesseans, she does not enforce the persecution against them
      • this, alongside rumors of her husband’s and daughter’s conversions, fuels suspicions that she is also a convert herself

    1001 – 1100[edit | edit source]

    Sillas: Empress Mascarpona assassinates her co-Empress Gorgonzola, due to the latter’s support for populist beliefs and progressive reforms. In hopes of establishing her legitimacy, she is coronated in the capital, and declares herself the sole Empress. To further consolidate her executive authority, she relocates her imperial court to the capital. However, her religious policies in the North have tainted her reputation, being known by the general public as a zealous despot. To evade Mascarpona’s armies advancing southward, Costanqina flees from her seat in Madiuyoúgne – establishing a provisional seat of government in Alabagnē, due to its distance from the front; as well as fortifying the river, which offers a natural boundary and heightens the effectiveness of the defensive fortifications.

    Costanqina authors the “Grievances”, which is a manifesto which also effectively serves as a declaration of war. To gain popular support, and to provide an ideological basis to the war, Costanqina appropriates Gorgonzola’s populist policies and enacts similar progressive reforms onto the inhabitants of the land which she administers. Similarly, she counters Mascarpona’s claim to the throne by declaring herself as the true sole Empress in a separate coronation. In anticipation of anti-Cixian pogroms, Costanqina issues the “Edict of Toleration”; which legalizes worship of all religions and cults – including Cixism, returns all properties confiscated during the persecutions, as well as renders the worship of the imperial cult as optional rather than mandatory. Costanqina launches a counter-offensive Northward, with the intent of moving the front to the Central River.

    Her tactics affirm and expand upon Costanza’s principles of mobility and flexibility; emphasizing swift decisive victories rather than inflicting attrition. The phalanx is retired–due to its reliance on skirmishers to secure its flanks and rear – while longer pikes and more varied formations are used to enhance the shock power of the foot-soldiers. Similarly, cavalrymen are prohibited from using their bows in close combat; being only permitted to use them from a distance, whilst chasing a routed enemy, or whilst retreat. They are equipped with thicker and more durable lances capable of withstanding impact, thus permitting multiple use. While she fulfills her strategic goals of acquiring an easily defensible border, her tactics are ineffective against the defensive lines established across the river; a weakness enhanced by her army’s lack of any skilled military engineers nor siege engines.

    Despite this, the Battle of North Fúerbzē results in a victory for Costanqina’s forces. She attributes this to an event that occured in the night prior to the battle, during which she had gazed up at the sky and saw a pentagram. Later in her dream, she claimed to have had a vision of the Anointed One telling her, “through me, and solely me, thou shall achieve victory.” Later that night, a bolt of lightning struck the enemy and set their fortification aflame. After occupying Central Sillas, Mascarpona’s court once again relocates to Macucuas. Due to her lack of military, she becomes reliant on allied military officials for military advice and aid; thus promoting disorganization and disunity among the ranks. Meanwhile, Costanqina officially converts to Cixism; declaring it the state religion of Sillas while still upholding religious unity. As a result, Cixism continues to resume its rapid growth.
    Sillenic Civil War – 1st Phase (Konstantina–Mascarpona v. Gorgonzolla)
    • stems off debate over the allocation of national revenue
      • Gorgonzolla argues it should be apportioned depending on the population of the co-monarch's respective regions; others argue it should be split evenly
      • after disagreement, the two declare Gorgonzolla's government illegitimate
    • Gorgonzolla initiates the fortification of Sillas rather than going on the offensive; this is against the advice of her military advisors
      • Gorgonzolla believes it will tire the rival armies + destruction of countryside will draw support for her
    • couriers maintain link between Mascarpona & Konstantina
      • Mascarpona relies on local military officials, who initiate an unsuccessful charge into the city of Sillas; failure to penetrates the walls leads to her berrating the latter, generating distrust from the aristocracy she used to derive legitimacy from
      • Konstantina attempts to embargo the city, after hearing of Mascarpona's failed attempt to siege it
    • Konstantina, according to Anystessean tradition, witnesses a miracle
      • she looks up to the night sky and sees a pentagram – a voice then told her of a weak spot in the wall, which she bombarded w/ artillery, thus penetrating through it
    • Konstantina captures Gorgonzolla unexpectedly
      • she and Mascarpona win first phase and split national revenue into thirds
    • Konstantina lifts Anystessean persecution in her region (via "Edict of Toleration") + publicly converts into it
      • Anystesseanism is now effectively legalized
    Sillenic Civil War – 2nd Phase (Konstantina v. Gorgonzolla–Mascarpona)
    • both Gorgonzolla and Mascarpona denounce Konstantina's conversion
      • Gorgonzolla believes it is a threat to the tradition of maintaining control via the Imperial Cult (as
      • Mascarpona believes that the religion is a destabilizing force
    • Gorgonzolla and Mascarpona secretly desposes Konstantina, thus establishing a diarchy (w/ Kaloma and portions of the Olmac region being given to the latter)
      • refuted by Konstantina and her court, as it was unilateral (did not have the approval of the Popular Assembly, who were split over the issue)
    • Konstantina initiates a march to Sillas, but are repelled by a larger force of the diarch's combined forces
      • the forces occupy North Olmac – but halt at the TBD River
    • Konstantina relocates her court to Alaban (far south of front lines)
      • she encourages territories formerly under control to revolt
      • she thus, directly incites the Anystessean Revolt
    • Konstantina reclaims North Olmac, but border w/ Inner Sillas remain static due to heavy fortifications on both sides
      • during this time, she corresponds (secretly) w/ Mascarpona, who accepts the validity of the Anystessean faith and legalizes adherence to it in the territories she control – despite the Anystesseans generally restricted to major urban areas
    • Mascarpona tries to meet w/ Konstantina (by herself) as part of a reapproachment
      • she is assassinated by members of Gorgonzolla's army, who resented her attempted reapproachment; however, this was not done w/ Gorgonzolla's consent
    • Mascarpona's armies, which now fell to Gorgonzolla's jurisdiction, nitiate a revolt related to lack of pay and falling rations (w/ rumors circulating that is it due to Anystesseans sabotaging supplies)
      • this was compounded by a faulty harvest that year, which Anystesseans attribute to as a divine intervention
    • Gorgonzolla limits her political entourage to trusted officials, mainly high-ranking military officials
      • she also abolishes the Popular Assembly + institutes martial law (but only temporarily)
    Sillenic Civil War – 3rd Phase (Konstantina v. Gorgonzolla)
    • end of phalanx
      • return to shallower, eight-rank formations; infantrymen now wield spears or rapiers (instead of pikes)
      • emphasis on lancers
      • heavier reliance on shock troops over ranged troops

    Future[edit | edit source]

    Template[edit | edit source]

    • reforms
      • social
      • cultural
      • religious
      • economic
      • political
      • military
    • personal life
      • childhood
      • teenage years
      • early adulthood
      • early career
      • later career
      • senility + death

    Continuation of Ignesca the Moderate's rule[edit | edit source]

    • Qeran nobility converts to Anystesseanism
      • Anystessean practices spread within Qeran peasantry; within Sayalen, Anystessean proselytization is particularly successful
      • Sayalen becomes a center of Anystesseanism, whereas rest of Qera (except nobility) is largely only nominally Anystessean
    • Union of Cyrpeteccua

    Bria the Great***[edit | edit source]

    (N) Provolonia the Conqueress[edit | edit source]

    • conquers Greater Draka
      • becomes vassal
    • conquers Tohatian Exhula
    • second (and failed) attempt to conquer Beraba

    Vandenio the Mediator[edit | edit source]

    • second male regnant in Sillenic history (after Adrianos)
    • purchases Thayvoekan colonies

    Nataniella the Pious[edit | edit source]

    • incorporates Thayvoeka
    • reign considered height of Sillas
    • patronizes high arts
    • colonization

    Empress during latter phase of Sillenic Empire[edit | edit source]

    • highly-religious upbringing
      • enforced orthodoxy; simultaenously open to heterodox beliefs (which put her at odds w/ members of the high clergy)
      • later in life, patronized construction of temples (which was criticized as a waste of government funds) – however, public favorably viewed this and this contributed to her being canonized as a passion-bearer then a saint
      • justified her place on the throne as a divine mandate – her perceived incompetence led some scholar–officials to expose the "democratic system" (w/ exception of local and city-level posts, results were generally falsified)
    • regarded by contemporary historians as feeble
      • sought to limit power of military magnates + put restrictions on membership to professional army – she argued that it had gained more power than the scholar–gentry
      • hesistant on further expanding territory (focused more on appeasement of frontier rivals and fortification)
      • viewed as a "traitor" by nationalists; viewed much more favorably by the general public due to religiousness and religious acts
      • modern historians hold a more mixed but generally positive reception
    • sought to implement "humanitarian" approach to peripheral regions (due to influence from her Anystessean upbringing)
      • ended the commanderies + vassals (constituent kingdoms); incorporated as provinces
      • sudden enfranchisement of millions of unrelated peoples > weakened bureaucratic apparatus + hindered legislative actions
      • repurposed charity tax (~2.5%) to giving welfare to destitute provincial subjects
    • in core regions, promoted economic development and religious laws – for example:
      • land distribution to the peasantry
      • to avoid usury, Anystesseans banned from doing commercial banking; as a result, Ulmians monopolized that position
      • implementation of public courtesy / morality laws
      • renewed crackdown in prostitution, brief prohibition of gambling and alcohol consumption (later just an unpopular tax placed)
    • promoted that all Anystesseans are "Sillene" (which was rejected / condemned)
      • promoted increased settlement of peripheral regions + establishment of more reductions
      • patronized increased assimilation
      • contrary to her perceived ethical treatment of subjects, the provincials rejected the policies (particularly in Qaryaat and Beraba)
    • end of life events
      • revolt in Chrystalia > half of Sillenic population massacred in a genocide; remainder are relocated to Olmec province
      • concurrently, revolt in Qaryaat + Beraba (due to lack of autonomy + forced cultural assimilation)
      • she is then killed by a military uprising along w/ her family, thus terminating her line (contributed to her canonization)
    • aftermath
      • commanderies and vassals restored
      • Chrystalia re-designated as commandery, Chrystalians regain majority
      • renewed vassal status of Qaryaat + Beraba; growth of secessionist sentiment