History of Modern India
This article is about the History of the Union of India established in 1932.
- 1 Rise of the Extremists
- 2 The Indian Home Rule Movement (1918-1921)
- 3 Rufus Act and the Civil Disobedience Movement (1930-1932)
- 4 (1932-1946)
- 5 Contemporary Political Issues in the Union of India
Rise of the Extremists
The Indian Home Rule Movement (1918-1921)
Rufus Act and the Civil Disobedience Movement (1930-1932)
Jallianwala Bagh Massacre
The Indian Revolt of 1932
At the end of the First Great War, the independence of India was recognized by the nations of the World and India entered the League of Nations on 26 July 1948. India remained in a period of War Mobilization maintaining a large army and a rapid expansion of its industries under the guidance of the Union Government by Worker-Cooperatives, Government-Private partnerships and independently by the Private Companies as well mainly in the Bengal-Bihar region.
During this time, the vast majority of India achieved independence from the yoke of Imperialism but several parts of India remained under colonial control. Moreover, the newly independent India faced several challenges from the Princely States some of which declared independence and others swore allegiance to Britain. Most of those that swore allegiance to Britain were smaller states and were soon overthrown by local mobs with little to no bloodshed. The people of India were united by a Nationalist fervor that gripped the nation and led to a rapid expansion of cottage industries.
The Indian Revolutionary Army was formed as a vanguard to protect the independence of India and fought with the remaining British and Princely forces. The Princely forces were ultimately defeated in 1934 and a Constitutional Convention was called in Delhi and drew up the Provisional Constitution of 1934 which laid much of the ground for the remaining constitution which was withheld till the complete liberation of India. The final Constitution was drafted and adopted in 1947 with a few additions and changed to the Provisional Constitution.
The First Great War
Main Article: India in the First Great War
It was only after the First Great War that the Complete of Independence of India from Imperialist oppression (Purna Swaraj). The First Great War saw the emergence of the Indian Nation on the global stage.
Contemporary Political Issues in the Union of India
Insurgency Movements in North-East India
Lhotshampa Crisis of Bhutan (1988-1995)
The Kingdom of Bhutan declared the large Lhotshampa community as illegal aliens and this led to major inter-ethnic conflict in Bhutan. A movement led by the Nepali people in India called for India to intervene.
The Indian Revolutionary Army captured the Druk Gyalpo and a treaty was signed transforming Bhutan into an open democracy with guaranteed rights to all people. Lhotshampa constituted 35% of the population and hence Nepali also became the National Language of the Kingdom of Bhutan and the Kingdom was forced to accept an official Bi-lingual policy.
Movement for a Sikh State
The Two-Nation Movement
The Two-Nation Movement emerged in a faction of the Hindustan Muslim League (renamed from the All India Muslim League) which called for the creation of a separate state for Hindus and Muslims. This movement was largely unsuccessful. A separate political movement could not develop around the theory because of a lack of interest by the Muslim communities of the the Muslim majority area. The area of Punjab and Sindh were dominated by the Ghadar Party and the Unionist Party. The Hindustan Muslim League continued to play a major role in the states of Bengal and Kerala. The main support for this movement came from the Muslims living in Muslim minority areas. The movement eventually lost support and was relegated to the pages of history.
Integration of Lanka (Ceylon) and other islands
A series of amendments were made to include Sinhala and Divehi as national languages. The island of Lanka was divided into two areas, a new Sinhala state was created called Lanka, the northern Tamil region was merged with Tamil Nadu. While this was resisted by the Sinhala people, the lack of an organic national movement and the severe British crackdown on attempts at any such movements following the Indian Declaration of Independence made any feasible attempts unlikely. Several movements occurred later on but did not gain enough popularity. However, the Sinhala Rajya Party (Sinhala National Party or SNP) was created and is significantly popular in the Sinhala state, calling for an independent Sinhala nation.
One of the main reasons for the success of the Indian State as a united political entity is the state-of-war in which independent India remained from 1932 to 1946. The National Struggle as the period is often known united the Nation against a common enemy and forms much of the basis of India's identity as a strongly anti-colonial nation and the leader of the ex-colonial world. This identity also explains India's close ties to the small African and Southeast Asian nations towards which it has adopted a paternalistic attitude as was the case with Burma.
Indian intervention in Nepal and the Nepali Referendum
India intervened on behalf of the Nepali People when the King of Nepal dissolved the democratically elected government.