House of Columbia
|House of Columbia|
Taigh nan Coluimbia
House coat of arms
Sierran coat of arms
Clockwise from top right: English coat of arms, Irish coat of arms, Scottish coat of arms, British coat of arms
Han coat of arms
Hani (1902–1945, de jure 1905–41, de facto)
Northern Mariana Islands (1975–present)
Tlingit and Haida Gwaii (2007–present)
United Kingdom (1858–present; disputed)
|Parent house||Clan Stewart → House of Stuart|
Monarch of Guam (1975–present)
Monarch of the Northern Mariana Islands (1975–present)
Monarch of Tlingit and Haida Gwai (2007–present)
Emperor of Hani (1902–1945)
Monarch of Superior (1943-present)
Monarch of Hanover (1929-present)
Monarch of Lakota (1993-present)
|Current head||Elizabeth II|
|Ethnicity||Scottish, English, German|
|Cadet branches||House of Welfburg|
The House of Columbia (also referred to as the House of Sierra or the Jacobite House, and in Scottish Gaelic, Taigh nan Coluimbia) is the ruling and founding royal house of the Kingdom of Sierra and the official successor and continuation of the historic House of Stuart. It also the royal house of the monarchies in Alaska, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, and Tlingit and Haida Gwaii. Founded on November 28, 1858 by King Charles I, on the same day of the promulgation of the new constitution and creation of the current government of Sierra, the House of Columbia is one of the three royal houses reigning in the Americas (the others being the Superian House of Welfburg and the British House of Windsor).
The House is also officially recognized and regarded by the Jacobites as the rightful successors to the throne of the United Kingdom (including England, Scotland, Ireland, and erroneously, the Wales) The claims to the first four titles were made by Charles I by royal edict on March 18, 1859 and remain sanctioned to the present-day with current head Elizabeth II holding the title of Queen of Great Britain respectively, and other associated titles, although these are purely nominal. The original claim to the French throne was dropped although not formally relinquished in 1919 by King Louis I. For a time, the House of Columbia was also the ruling house of the Great Han Empire, ruling the nation during the Han colonial period (1905-1941), having removed the House of Li from power. After Sierra recognized Hani's independence in 1945, the House of Columbia continued to rule the Han islands of Palawan and Cuyo until its eventual retrocession to Hani in 1995.
The House of Columbia has not revived a state-sponsored Anglican Church or a religious equivalent in Sierra for both legal and personal reasons (the separation of church and state embodied in the Sierran constitution strictly prohibits such establishment and the House members has traditionally been privately affiliated with the Catholic Church in a religiously diverse nation. Despite this, the House monarchs have all used the traditional British title of Defender of the Faith in their styles, with the rationale of being in the defense of all faiths, and even the lack thereof. In addition, Columbia has historically claimed the additional throne to France, a claim initially adopted by James VI and I, although this claim has since officially been dropped, by Louis I in 1902. The House of Columbia's claims are unrecognized by the government of United Kingdom, which removed the heirs of James II from the line of succession through the Bill of Rights 1689, and asserted a new line of succession with the Hanovers through the Act of Settlement 1701.
The House of Columbia was formed in response to the selection of founder Charles I as the first king of the new monarchy established in Sierra under the 1858 Constitution. The California Republic, the predecessor state of Sierra, had gained its independence from Mexico in 1848 through the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo following the Mexican-American War, but after ten years, was considered a bureaucratic disaster. In need for a more efficient and stable government, Californian delegates were called to draft a entirely new constitution. The delegation comprised primarily of two factions: republicans and royalists, the former that demanded an American-styled republic and the other a monarchy.
Through compromise, it was agreed that the new constitution would incorporate elements of both a monarchy and a democratic republic, with a weak, figurehead monarchy and an American-styled civil government. Convention president Smith Charles Miller, a man who had worked extensively in the Californian government and had ancestral origins to the House of Stuarts, was chosen to lead the nation as its king. Acceding, Smith was crowned King Charles I, and consequently became the head of the newly formed House of Columbia.
Today, the House of Columbia is composed of 5 members in the Royal Family which includes the King and Queen and their children; 11 members in the Extended Court; and hundreds more relatives without a formal title or distinction proscribed. The official motto of the House is Renatus et redemit or "Redeemed and reborn" in Latin–a reference to the House's connection to the fallen House of Stuart.
House of Stuart
- Main article: House of Stuart
The House of Columbia has lineage to the extinct British House of Stuart through James II of England. Prior to the Revolution, the House experienced a lapse in reign when Oliver Cromwell seized control from Charles I, and had him executed in 1649. After the brief interregnum rule under the Commonwealth, Charles II restored the monarchy and assumed power. Following his death, his brother, James II succeeded the throne as Charles II produced no legitimate children. James II's reign was embroiled with disagreements with Parliament, and James II was ultimately deposed and exiled by his daughter, Mary, and her husband, William of Orange in the Glorious Revolution.
The political event was partially motivated by religious reasons. During the king's short, three-year long reign, James II troubled members of the opposition with his belief in the divine right of king, his policies of religious tolerance, his open Catholicism, and his close ties with France. The disagreements conflicted with the Parliamentarians' desire to keep England Protestant, and feared the king would undermine Britain's move towards a parliamentary democracy.
By 1688, James II had amassed a large standing army of loyal Catholics from all over the British Isles, given important state positions to Catholics, and issued the Declaration of Indulgence. He also forged an alliance with the Dissenters and Nonconformists, with the hopes of bringing down of Anglican supremacy in Britain. Despite this development, up until this point, opponents tolerated the King's rule. They believed that his reign would only be a temporary setback, as once he died, Mary would succeed him, returning the throne to a Protestant. However, the birth of his son, James, altered the line of succession. Prior to the young prince's birth, the throne would have passed to the King's daughter, Mary, who was a Protestant. With a Catholic as the heir apparent, the possibility of a Catholic dynasty in England became very likely.
Opponents of James II began to conspire against the king, by seeking help from James II's nephew, William Henry of Orange, who was a Stadtholder in several Dutch provinces. William himself was married to James II's daughter, Mary. Being both Protestants, the two were viewed as the prime candidates to replace James II. Although William had entertained the idea of conquering England, he was fearful of receiving retaliation from his rival, Louis XIV of France, back in the Dutch Republic. Once William was assured he had English support, and he had received financial, military, and political backing from his home country and the Holy Roman Empire, William launched an invasion in England. He issued the Declaration of the Hague, which essentially was William's promise to defend British Protestants, and landed off the coast of Southern England in Brixham on November 5, 1688.
Within weeks, the mere presence of William had inspired thousands of Protestants to riot, and caused many Royalist troops to defect towards the invader's side. William deliberately waited out for James II's regime to collapse on its own, and patiently stalled the advancement of his troops. For James II's part, he was hesitant to muster up a large force to oppose William. Indeed, many of his loyal troops were not eager to fight, and even his own commanders doubted their king's willpower. As rioting worsened in London, James II, his wife, and the Prince of Wales attempted to flee on December 10. The following day, the King was captured, and was sent back to London to conduct formal negotiations with his son-in-law. On December 16, James II sent an envoy to arrange a meeting with William. William had, at this point, no more desire to keep the king in power, yet he did not wish to arrest James II. Instead, William sent a letter warning the king that his own personal safety could not be guaranteed. As anti-Catholic rioting intensified, and Queen Mary pleaded him to leave, James II departed from England under the protection of Dutch guardsmen.
Fleeing to France, the Bill of Rights 1689 declared James II's departure from England as an effective abdication, transferring the Crown to William and Mary. In addition, the Bill of Rights modified the rules of succession, notably by forbidding any Catholic from inheriting the throne. When William and Mary died, Mary's sister, Queen Anne, succeeded the throne as Mary died childless, and William did not remarry. Anne herself would die without a legal heir, with her only son surviving past infancy, Prince William, dying at the age of 11. Although James II's son, James Edward Francis Stuart, was the closest living relative to Anne at the time of death, he and the rest of James II's children were ineligible for succession as the Bill of Rights forbade Catholic monarchs. Since the Bill of Rights did not provide for any succession beyond Anne, Parliament realized this prior to Anne's death, and passed the Act of Settlement 1701 to ensure that the Crown would be preserved in the hands of Protestants. The Act made Sophia, Electress of Hanover, the granddaughter of James VI and I, the new heir presumptive of Anne.
In 1714, two months before Anne's death, Sophia died, thus rendering her son, George, the successor. George became the first Hanover monarch of Britain, thus ending the Stuarts' control over the throne. George's ascension greatly angered Jacobites, who sought to restore the Crown to James II and his heirs, and saw the Hanover succession as illegitimate. In addition, many Tories themselves were sympathetic to the Jacobite cause, and the Spanish Crown supported the Jacobites cause, thus enabling the outburst of the decades-long, albeit sporadic Jacobite risings, that were waged by the Stuart heirs.
Following the failed Jacobite rising of 1745 where House heir Charles Edward Stuart was defeated at the Battle of Culloden, the Stuarts extinguished any further prospects to the throne and fled to Spain. The exile in Spain was short-lived, and by 1772, through safe passage by Spanish ship, the Stuarts arrived in the British colony, New Jersey, to meet up and rally Jacobite supporters. The Stuarts hoped to gain the approval of the colonists, have them revolt against King George III, and restore the monarchy in the former American colonies. With colonial sentiment fiercely opposed to a monarchy, the Stuarts failed to gather significant support, but their cause was half-fulfilled through the American Revolution in 1765 when the American colonies fought to overthrow British control.
In the United States
With the formation of the United States, the republican government stripped the Stuarts of their titles, formally ending the House of Stuart. Disgraced and reviled, the Stuart's patriarch, Charles died in 1788 after years of prolonged alcoholism and depression. Charles' brother, Henry Benedict Stuart, disenfranchised of his brother's rights and titles as head of the Stuarts, still chose to pursue the title and but, became a Catholic priest, seemingly threatening to end the House of Stuart, at least, the direct lineage of descendants of James Francis Edward Stuart. Charles' only child who survived past infancy, Charlotte Stuart (whose legitimacy remains up to debate) married former Revolutionary War captain James Miller and settled in Newark, New Jersey. Prior to her father's death, Charlotte was named the official heir in Charles Edward's will. Historians have disputed on whether or not her father and mother, Clementina Walkinshaw, were married but Jacobites and the House of Columbia have asserted that Charlotte was indeed legitimate as legal documents signed by Charles Edward indicated that he perceived Charlotte as his rightful heiress. However, there has been no verifiable evidence of any form of marriage between her father and mother, suggesting that either her parents married in secret, and Charlotte was truly a bastard under law. Although she had secured the property of her father following his death, Charlotte Stuart was unable to secure correspondence from any of her relatives or benefactors in France or Italy. Fearing the hatred attached to her family name in both the United States and in her ancestral home, Britain, Stuart took up her husband's name, Miller, and legally renamed herself to Belle to remove local suspicion of her connection to the disgraced family. Nonetheless, public knowledge of her bloodline was widespread, due to her association with her uncle, Bishop Henry, who was open regarding his family, and serviced the Catholic diocese in New Jersey. Belle and James fathered three children, including eldest son Gregory, the father of future king Charles I.
Gregory grew up groomed by his parents to lead the family company, Miller & Stuart Company, a business that specialized in shipbuilding and maritime trading. The family was supported by Charlotte's heirlooms and property given to her by Charles Edward Stuart, as well as James Miller's own assets and fortunes from his service in the military. When James Miller died in 1817, Gregory took over the company, and became a locally powerful and well-known leader in the business community, and secured a large estate outside Newark. Prior to his assumption of the family business, Gregory met his wife, Anna Clemens in 1810 during a trip to New York City. Falling in love, the two married the following year and settled in his home in Newark. When the War of 1812 broke out, Gregory enlisted and left his pregnant wife in the care of his family. Returning back, Gregory sustained minor injuries, and recovered quickly. The couple welcomed their first child, George in 1813, and Walter in 1819.
Gregory and Anna's youngest child, Smith, was born on March 18, 1822. Smith, grew up wealthy, and was groomed by his father, alongside his brothers, to take charge of the company. After two economic panics, his father's company was left in ruin, and forced Gregory to file for bankruptcy, and liquidate much of his assets, including selling the estate. Moving into an apartment, the family's problems were further complicated when Smith's older brothers were killed in a ferry accident, just days before his own 15th birthday. Emotionally torn and feeling pressured by his parents, he ran away from home, only to return months later. Reconciling with his parents and grandmother, he sought to restore his family's greatness and honor, and developed new skills through different professions including a seaman, notary public, and carpenter.
When news of gold came to light in California, Smith disembarked for San Francisco City where he would set up a shop and a local newspaper. Growing popular, Smith secured the position of mayor of the city in 1849 and then state treasurer of the California Republic in 1854. While in California, he met his wife, Rachel Miller (neé Miller) and paid for his parents to move into the country.
By 1857, the California Republic had begun showing signs of failure with an incredulous amount of debt to Mexico and the United States and the general costs from the Mexican-American War. In addition, law enforcement was sparse, weak, and unorganized, making laws and court orders unenforceable and crime rampant in cities and rural areas alike. Inefficient and dysfunctional alongside calls from the public for action, the Republic called upon a constitutional convention to draft up an entirely new constitution and a new form of government that would target the issues of the Republic. Smith was among the 45 delegates invited to the convention and from there, he was selected as its president due to his charisma, prestige, and experience.
The convention was dominated primarily between two factions: the Republicans and the Royalists, the former who favored an American-styled republic while the latter a monarchy reminiscent of the historic British model. Ironically, Smith at the time aligned himself with the Republicans, believing that the previous core model of the Californian government was appropriate.
In time, however, Smith began leaning towards the center, favoring a combination of republican and monarchist elements, due in part to the bitter disagreement between the factions. Smith himself, also began seriously considering his own ancestral roots and believed that he could be in the position of attaining the position as King if a monarchy form of government were approved. Ultimately, under his leadership, the new constitution would incorporate a government featuring a mostly ceremonial government with a strong civilian government modeled closely after the American form of government. When it had come to selecting a monarch, the choice was naturally divested to Smith who initially declined but ultimately acquiesced to.
|Royal Family of the Kingdom of Sierra|
On November 28, 1858, Smith and Rachel were crowned as King and Queen Consort of Sierra respectively and Smith founded the House of Columbia, declaring it the direct, contemporary successor house of the House of Stuart by right in his relation to Charlotte Stuart, Charles Edward Stuart (the Bonnie Prince Charles; Charles III in Jacobite succession), and King James II.
As the King, Smith set the precedent of abstaining from partisan politics whilst maintaining constant cooperation with Parliament and the public. Attentive in his role as the King, he nonetheless met backlash from the agrarian-populist Democratic-Republican Party which opposed the monarchy and Smith's apparent interference in parliamentary affairs. Nearly witnessing the abolition of the monarchy by Parliament led by Prime Minister Ulysses Perry as his fourth great-grandfather, Charles I, did, Smith survived the political ordeal following the prime minister's death, and drastically improved his relationship with his historically disoriented subjects thereafter. Overseeing rapid technological development and the colonization of the vast Sierran wilderness, Smith commissioned great railroad projects and communication networks. Promoting industrialization and international trade, Smith expanded his horizons during his reign by starting an ambitious imperialist plan for Sierra. Strengthening the military and hoping to bring prestige to the young kingdom, in the late 1870s to 1890s, he saw the acquisitions of the Deseret, the Gilbert and Ellice Islands, Rapa Nui, Hawaii, and the Samoan Islands.
Towards the end of his reign, Smith continued to cultivate dialogue between the monarchy and the civilian government. Dedicated towards the improvement of the public, Smith approved various public works projects and economic plans towards infrastructure, agriculture, education, defense, and health. In addition, Smith voiced his disdain for slavery and called for its total ban in Sierra which culminated with the passage of the First Amendment.
In 1893, Smith's health complications compounded when he suffered a flu that deteriorated into pneumonia. Recovering, the king found himself weaker and fell down the stairs of the Parliament Building in July, suffering a hip fracture, broken nose, and a minor head injury. From then on, Smith was confined to the bed, where he eventually passed later in August after developing a fever. His son, Louis I, the Crown Prince, succeeded him immediately and Smith's body was laid in state for public display at the Parliament. His body was then buried in a crypt below the Parliament Building known as the Tomb of the West where it remains today.
Succeeding his father in 1893, Lewis was aged 37 at the time and was the heir apparent to the throne. Having been groomed by his father for the throne, Lewis ascended the throne with a deep understanding of the Kingdom and the needs of his people. Hailed as a progressive during his reign, Lewis supported the Sierran civil rights movement for ethnic and religious minorities, and tighter business regulations. Sierra underwent fundamental changes under Lewis, most notably its culture, where white European and East Asian ideas were unified and incorporated into one. Dedicated to the domestic affairs of Sierra, Lewis nonetheless pursued a concilatory role with the world, especially with Sierra's Anglo-American neighbors, particularly Brazoria, a fellow monarchy. During World I, Lewis initially tried maintaining neutrality and provided humanitarian aid, but ultimately entered the conflict alongside the other Anglo-American nations on the side of the Allies. He was also the first Sierrna emperor of Hani, placing the Han nation under suzerainty starting in 1902 following the Han–Sierran War, and overseeing a highly controversial colonial administration there.
Economically, Lewis worked closely with his prime ministers on plans to expand social welfare and protecting the interests of small farmers and laborers. Lewis also campaigned quite seriously on the protection of workers' rights and supported anti-trust laws to break up the monopolies arising in Sierra. During the Great Depression, Lewis worked closely with Parliament and economists to provide relief to the people and a swift recovery.
Succeeding his father, Louis II tackled the Great Depression and World War II, pushing for closer ties with the Anglo-American states in mutual defense, trade, and infrastructure. He oversaw the creation of the Interprovincial Highway and the K.S. National Highway systems, and the prime ministries under his reign undertook towards expanding the social welfare programs and labor regulations introduced under his father's tenure. The king's gravitation towards Anglo-America marked a time when Sierra had grown increasingly dependent on its neighbors. Joining the North American Defense Organization (NADO), the King oversaw the joint commission of the Pearl Harbor Naval Base in Oahu, Hawaii with the other Anglo-American naval fleets. When World War II broke out, Sierra and the Anglo-American states (with the exception of Canada), opted to remain neutral. However, when Japanese aerial forces attacked Pearl Harbor, crippling over half of the joint Pacific Fleet, the King assented to Parliament's declaration of war, and followed the other Anglo-American states in entering the conflict against the Axis powers in both the Pacific and European theaters.
Rather controversially, he had forefront knowledge of the Sierran government's participation with Brazoria, Hudson, and the United Commonwealth in developing and testing nuclear weapons of mass destruction on various bases and military facilities, including Area 51 through the Manhattan Project. The nuclear weapon program, by the end of World War II, produced a viable bomb, two of which would be dropped in Japan in the cities of Nagasaki and Hiroshima. Public knowledge of Sierra's involvement in the Manhattan Project arose following the end of the war when former scientists and officials disclosed the existence of Area 51, and various other documents. The public backlash and political fallout experienced thereafter became known as the Great Basin controversy.
On September 18, 1945, just more than two weeks after the end of World War II and the victory of the Allied Forces, Louis II was killed in an automobile accident, being struck in his Cadillac by a transportation truck, in Pasadena. Sitting in the passenger side, the truck rammed into the king's side, killing the king instantly. Louis II's death prompted widespread adoption of newly introduced federal traffic law and regulations, and other road safety provisions, now collectively known as the King Louis II Memorial Acts.
Angelina ascended the throne after her father, Lewis, died in 1943. Originally the third in the line of succession at birth—after her two older brothers, she became the heir apparent when her father evicted the princes from the House and invalidated their royal titles for their involvement in damaging scandals. At her coronation, her gown was embroidered with the symbols of all the Sierran provinces, territories, and controversially, the English Tudor rose, Scots thistle, Irish shamrock, and Welsh leek—a quiet political message that the new Queen would continue to claim the title as Monarch of Britain, England, Scotland, Ireland, Wales. Having already married Prince Adam while she was princess, she decided to retain the house name of Columbia instead of Lewis' family name, Huntington.
Her early reign was marred by the unveiling controversy involving Sierra and the United States' joint nuclear war program: the Manhattan Bomb Project. Sierra, which was neutral at the outbreak of the war, allowed the United States access to Sierran land for nuclear bomb testing and development directly for the war effort in exchange for mutual nuclear exchange. News of this disturbed the public which were under the impression that the government had only joined the war because of the attack in Pearl Harbor. It had been assumed that Japan, Sierra's former ally, had betrayed Sierra but with the revelation, it had been apparent that Sierra's entry to war was already premeditated and actively participating in a program that would result in the destruction of Nagasaki and Hiroshima.
Although the scandal placed most blame on the civilian government, Angelina worked effortlessly to clear it from the Royal Family, stressing that her father would have never had involved himself in such a project. Respected for her efforts, she supported more open transparency in the government, and asked the civilian government to declassify thousands of documents, recordings, and footage which proved Sierra's involvement and the extent of its involvement in the Manhattan Project.
Unlike her father, Angelina dedicated her reign in nonpartisan issues from raising awareness on obesity, illnesses, and poverty. Despite this, Angelina kept herself well-informed in political issues and happenings, often conferring with her prime ministers and the Privy Council. Although she upheld abstinence from partisanship, scholars have described her views as conservative. She made 67 state visits and visited 47 nations throughout her life as princess, crown princess, and queen, making her the most prolific traveling monarch as of yet. The longest-reigning Sierran monarch, Angelina ruled for 59 ¾ years before succumbing to an age-related illness on October 17, 2005. She was only a little more than 4 months away from her Diamond Jubilee in the February of 2006.
Charles II succeeded his mother as King of Sierra on October 17, 2005 following the death of his mother, Queen Angelina. The Crown Prince, Smith had founded and led the successful telecommunications company, Cabrillo Technologies as its chief executive officer, during his tenure and established himself as a well-known, prolific figure in the House. His ascension was well-received with Smith seen as a visionary and an open-minded king who would be open to reform and progress.
As king, up until recently, Smith enjoyed uniform support from the general public and from the civilian government. While still viewed positively towards the end of his reign, mounting opposition to his capacity as King has grown. Smith and his family have also contributed millions of dollars towards charity and public works through either official patronage or private financial support. In addition, Smith has made frequent visits to local communities throughout Sierra and abroad, to represent the Crown and the people. Generally nonpartisan, Smith has at times, through his capacity as King, voiced his support for certain policies, generally economic ones, implemented by his prime ministers and Parliament.
Smith however, was not been spared from opposition and controversy. Although he was a self-described libertarian, critics decried his views seeming hypocritical through his capacity as a monarch at the pinnacle of Sierra's government. Resurgent anti-monarchist sentiment ignited following Smith's invocation of a royal edict in 2015. Following the June 6 attacks, Parliament tried passing a bill that would authorize the use of aggressive military force against Mexico. The bill failed short of a few votes in order to pass but despite this concluded parliamentary process, Smith used his royal prerogative of the issuance of an edict to override the bill's defeat, and allowed the Sierran Crown Armed Forces to attack Mexico. Although regarded by political analysts as technically legal, critics believed the king overextended his powers from his traditional capacity of nonpartisanship. Despite widespread popular support for war, wariness of the precedent act and implications of future royal use troubled republicans who called for Smith's abdication and the dissolution of the monarchy. Smith himself at one point (before his controversial act), believed that if enough Sierrans desired for the abolition of the monarchy, he himself would support it. Even with the war ultimately becoming a success, opposition remained bitter and he abdicated in favor of his daughter, the Crown Princess Elisa.
Queen Elizabeth II is the current head of the House and succeeded the throne on July 21, 2015, following the abdication of her father, Smith, Duke of Cabo, that same day. She was formally coronated exactly three months later on October 21 at the Parliament Building in Porciúncula. Becoming queen at the mere age of 18, Angelina had been known for virtually all her life to Sierrans as Elise, Crown Princess of Mojave, who was largely kept out of public eye while her father reigned. The media continued to refer to the queen by her princely name, Elise, until her coronation, where from then on, she became customarily called by her regnal name, Elizabeth II, in honor of her grandmother, the late Elizabeth I.
The 1858 proclamation of the House of Columbia's creation stated that all Sierran descendants of Charles I and Rachel in the male line were to bear the name Columbia, except for women who married into other families, both royal or common. Presently, all living Sierran male-line descendants descend from the children of Louis I and Martha, including those of Charles, Prince of Mojave and George, Prince of Sonora whose names and issue were restored with their royal titles and rights by Elizabeth I in 1963.
List of Stuart and Columbia heads
Monarchs of Scotland
|Portrait||Name||From||Until||Relationship with predecessor|
|Robert II of Scotland||February 22, 1371||April 19, 1390||nephew of David II of Scotland who died without issue. Robert's mother Marjorie Bruce was daughter of Robert I of Scotland.|
|Robert III of Scotland||April 19, 1390||April 4, 1406||son of Robert II of Scotland.|
|James I of Scotland||April 4, 1406||February 21, 1437||son of Robert III of Scotland.|
|James II of Scotland||February 21, 1437||August 3, 1460||son of James I of Scotland.|
|James III of Scotland||August 3, 1460||June 11, 1488||son of James II of Scotland.|
|James IV of Scotland||June 11, 1488||September 9, 1513||son of James III of Scotland.|
|James V of Scotland||September 9, 1513||December 14, 1542||son of James IV of Scotland.|
|Mary I of Scotland||December 14, 1542||July 24, 1567||daughter of James V of Scotland.|
Monarchs of Great Britain and Ireland
|Portrait||Name||From||Until||Relationship with predecessor|
|James VI of Scotland
James I of England
|July 24, 1567
March 24, 1603
|March 27, 1625||son of Mary, Queen of Scots and Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley. Served as King of Scotland alone, 1567–1603, before inheriting the titles King of England and Ireland, including claim to France from the extinct Tudors.|
|Charles I of England, Scotland & Ireland||March 27, 1625||January 30, 1649 (executed)||son of James VI of Scotland & I of England & Ireland.|
|Charles II of England, Scotland & Ireland||January 30, 1649 (de jure); May 2, 1660 (de facto)||February 6, 1685||son of Charles I of England, Scotland & Ireland. Prevented from ascending the throne during the republican rule of the Commonwealth of England, but then accepted retroactively as king.|
|James VII of Scotland
James II of England and Ireland
|February 6, 1685||February 13, 1689
|brother of Charles II of England, Scotland & Ireland, who died with without legitimate issue. Son of Charles I. Overthrown at the Revolution of 1688 and exiled to France. Direct ancestor of the House of Columbia.|
|Mary II of England, Scotland and Ireland*||February 13, 1689||December 28, 1694||daughter of James II of England and Ireland & VII of Scotland, who was still alive and pretending to the throne in France. Co-monarch was William III & II who outlived Mary.|
|Anne of Great Britain and Ireland*||March 8, 1702||August 1, 1714||sister of Mary II. daughter of James II of England and Ireland & VII of Scotland. Name of state changed to Great Britain with the political Acts of Union 1707, though family used the title since James I & VI. Died issueless, rights legally passed to House of Hanover. Transfer of rights unrecognized by Jacobites.|
Pretenders of Great Britain and Ireland
|From||Until||Relationship with predecessor|
|James VII of Scotland
James II of England and Ireland
|December 11, 1688 (England and Ireland)/March 14, 1689 (Scotland)||September 16, 1701||son of Charles I. Overthrown at the Revolution of 1688 and exiled to France. Direct ancestor of the House of Columbia.|
|James Francis Edward Stuart
(James III & VII)
(The Old Pretender)
|September 16, 1701||January 1, 1766||son of James II and Mary of Modena. Contested the throne with Hanover King George I.|
|Charles Edward Stuart
(The Young Pretender)
(Bonnie Prince Charlie)
|January 1, 1766||January 31, 1788||son of "James III" and Maria Klementyna Sobieska. Contested the throne with Hanover King George II.|
|Henry Benedict Stuart
(Henry IX & I)
(Bishop Duke of York)
|January 31, 1788||July 13, 1807||brother of "Charles III". Inheritance to the throne originally the result of the initial belief that "Charles III" produced no legitimate children. Became Bishop of the Diocese of Newark.|
Heads in America and Monarchs of the Columbia Realms
(Romanized era name)
|From||Until||Relationship with predecessor|
(Duchess of Albany)
|—||July 13, 1807||February 16, 1831||niece of "Henry IX & I". Natural daughter of "Charles III". Later legitimized by "Charles III" and recognized by "Henry IX & I" as his successor.|
(James IV & IX)
|—||February 16, 1831||November 28, 1858
|son of "Charlotte I" and James Miller. Founder of the Miller & Stuart Co..|
|Charles I of Sierra
(Charles IV & I)
(The Redeemed Pretender)
|November 28, 1858||August 15, 1893||son of "James IV & IX" and Anna, Duchess of Napa. Founder of the House of Columbia. First Jacobite successor since James II to assume a royal title (as King of Sierra).|
|Louis I of Sierra
(Charles V & II)
|August 15, 1893||June 23, 1927||son of Charles I of Sierra. Became the first King of Alaska in 1912. Dropped the claim to the defunct French throne. Became Emperor of Hani in 1902.|
|Louis II of Sierra
(Henry X, II, & I)
|June 23, 1927||September 18, 1945||son of Louis I of Sierra.|
|Louis III of Sierra
(Robert I & IV)
|September 18, 1945||September 9, 1965||son of Louis II of Sierra. Dropped the title of Emperor of Hani.|
|Elizabeth I of Sierra
|September 9, 1965||October 17, 2005||daughter of Louis III. Became the first monarch of Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands in 1975. Succeeded the throne instead of her older brother, Prince Charles, Duke of Puerto Princesa|
|Charles II of Sierra
(Duke of Cabo)
|October 17, 2005||June 21, 2015
|son of Elizabeth I of Sierra. Became the first monarch of Tlingit and Haida Gwaii in 2007. Abdicated in 2015 in favor of his eldest daughter, Elisa.|
|Elizabeth II of Sierra
|June 21, 2015||Incumbent||daughter of Charles II of Sierra.|
- ^a. Literally Redeemed Gui; deviation from 赎回贵族 ("redeemed nobility")
- ^b. Literally great man
- ^c. Literally true peace, but conventionally understood as true true ("true and true"); deviation from 認真和諧 (serious and harmonious)
- ^d. Literally honorable glory or pride
- ^e. Literally protect interest or care; deviation from 保護消息 ("protect the message'")
- ^f. Literally "peaceful road"; deviation from 和平的道路 ("the road to peace")
- ^g. Literally loving virtue; deviation from 愛的美德 ("the virtue of love")
- ^h. Given era name posthumously
Royal family tree
The family tree below depicted only includes the monarchs, their consorts, and their issue starting with the respective civilian parents of Charles I and Rachel of Sierra.
King/Queen of Sierra
- Ceremonial Titles
- Protector of All Sierrans
- Archduke/Archduchess of Sierra
- Duke/Duchess of Sonoma 22x20px
- Duke/Duchess of Monterey 22x20px
- Jurisdictional Titles
- Sovereign of Sierra
- Sovereign of Los Pacifícos /
- Sovereign of the Gilbert and Ellice Islands
- Sovereign of Rapa Nui
- Sovereign of Bénieîle
- Sovereign of the Channel Islands
- Sovereign/Paramount Chief of the Sierran Samoa
- Sovereign/Paramount Chief of the Hawaiian and Midwayan Islands
- Righteous Sovereign of the Deseret
- Most High Lord/Lady of Cancún and Yucatán /
- Sovereign of All Other Loyal Lands and Islands of Sierra
- High Lord Superintendent of the Realm
Monarch of the United Kingdom (disputed; nominal)
- Titles of Pretense
- Monarch of England
- Monarch of Scotland (Monarch of the Scots)
- Monarch of Ireland
- Monarch of Wales (erroneous claim)
Monarch of France (disputed; nominal) (historical; 1859–1919)
- Title of Pretense
- Sovereign of Palawan and Cuyo (historical; 1946–96)
Commander-in-Chief of the Sierran Crown Armed Forces
- Military Ranks
- Colonel-in-Chief of the Occidental Guards
- Colonel-in-Chief of the King/Queen's Loyal Regiments
- Captain-General of the Royal Army
- Brigadier-in-Chief of the Royal Air Force
- Lord/Lady High Admiral of the Royal Navy
- Colonel-in-Chief of the Royal Marines Corps
- Lord/Lady High Admiral of the Royal Coast Guard
- Patron of the Royal Cyber Defense Force
- Honorary Paramount Chief of the National Guard
- Grand Scoutmaster of the Royal Surveyors' Commissioned Corps
- Honorary Director-General of the Royal Park Services Commissioned Corps
- Colonel-in-Chief of the Royal Engineers Corps
King/Queen of Alaska
King/Queen of Guam
King/Queen of the Northern Mariana Islands
King/Queen of Tlingit and Haida Gwaii
Queen Consort/Prince Consort of Sierra
- Archduchess of Sierra/Duke of El Capitan
- Grand Dame/Knight of the Celebrated Order of the Golden Poppy
- Grand Dame/Knight of the Order of Merit
- Grand Dame/Knight of the Royal Order of the Rose of Sharon
- Grand Dame/Knight of the Royal Order of the Navel
- Coronet of the Order of the Harmonious Kingdom
- Coronet of the Order of the Pacific
- Member First Class of the Royal Family of King Charles I
- Member First Class of the Order of the Tricolor
- Member First Class of the Order of the Encircled Star
- Member First Class of the Order of King Charles I
- Member First Class of the Order of King Louis I
- Member First Class of the Order of Queen Elizabeth I
- Member First Class of the Royal Family of King Charles II
- Lady/Lord of His/Her Royal Highness' Most Honorable Privy Council
- Personal Aide-de-Camp to His/Her Royal Highness
- Lady/Lord Patron of Sierra
Crown Prince/Princess of Mojave
- Crown Prince/Princess of Sierra
- Duke/Duchess of Mojave
- Earl/Countess of Palm Springs
- Baron/Baroness of Barstow
- Lord/Lady of the Channel Islands
Prince/Princess of Sonora
Prince/Princess of Colorado
Prince/Princess of Tahoe
Prince/Princess of Monterey
Prince/Princess of Sonoma
Duke/Duchess of Cabo
House of Stuart
|New house|| Ruling house of the Kingdom of Sierra
|New house|| Ruling house of the Kingdom of Alaska
|New house|| Ruling house of the Commonwealth of Guam
|New house|| Ruling house of the Federation of the Northern Mariana Islands
|New house|| Ruling house of the Federation of Tlingit and Haida Gwaii
| Ruling house of the Great Han Empire