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Republic of India

Bharat Ganrajya
Flag of India
Lion Capital of Ashoka.svg
National Emblem
Motto: "Inquilab Zindabad" (Hindustani)
"Long Live the Revolution"
Anthem: "Vande Mataram" (Sanskrit)
"I Bow to Thee, Mother"
Capital Delhi
Official languages Hindustani, English
Demonym(s) Indian
Government Federal parliamentary constitutional republic
Legislature Sansad
Rajya Sabha
Lok Sabha
23 May 1935
23 May 1938
28 August 1940
Currency Indian Rupee (INR)
Date format dd/mm/yyyy
Driving side left
ISO 3166 code IN

India, officially the Republic of India (Hindustani: Bharat Ganrajya), is a country in the Indian subcontinent. It is the world's x-largest country in land area, the world's most populated country, and most populous democracy. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Iran to the west, China to the north; and Burma to the east. India is close to the Maldives in the Indian Ocean, and its Andaman and Nicobar Islands have maritime borders with Thailand, Myanmar, and Indonesia.

No later than 55,000 years ago, modern people (an early variant of Homo sapiens) arrived on the Indian subcontinent from Africa. Their lengthy occupancy, which began in various forms of seclusion as hunter-gatherers, has resulted in an extraordinarily varied area, second only to Africa in terms of human genetic diversity. Settled life first appeared on the subcontinent 9,000 years ago on the western borders of the Indus river basin, gradually developing into the Indus Valley Civilisation of the third millennium BCE. By 1200 BCE, an early version of Sanskrit, an Indo-European language, had spread into India from the northwest, becoming the language of the Rigveda and documenting the birth of Hinduism in India. In the northern and western parts of India, an archaic form of Sanskrit replaced the Dravidian languages. By 400 BCE, caste stratification and exclusion had evolved within Hinduism, simultaneous to the birth of Buddhism and Jainism, which declared social systems unrelated to heredity. The loose-knit Maurya and Gupta empires centered in the Ganges basin arose from early political consolidations. A wide range of innovations characterized this age. The deteriorating status of women and the integration of untouchability into an organized system of religion also occurred during this period. The Middle countries of South India introduced Dravidian-language scripts and religious traditions to Southeast Asian kingdoms.

Christianity, Islam, Judaism, and Zoroastrianism established themselves on India's southern and western coastlines in the early mediaeval era. Muslim forces from Central Asia regularly invaded India's northern plains, eventually creating the Delhi Sultanate and entangling northern India in the cosmopolitan networks of mediaeval Islam. The Vijayanagara Empire established a long-lasting composite Hindu culture in southern India in the 15th century. Sikhism arose in Punjab, opposing institutionalized religion. In 1526, the Mughal Empire ushered in two centuries of relative calm, leaving behind a legacy of brilliant architecture. The British East India Company progressively expanded its authority, transforming India into a colonial economy while simultaneously strengthening its sovereignty. British Crown rule began in 1858. The rights promised to Indians were gradually granted, technical advances were made, and ideas about education, modernity, and public life took hold.

The nationalist movement arose in the late 19th century. The movement initially advocated for reform and self-rule and employed mass nonviolent non-cooperation movements across India to pressure the colonial government to accept their demands. A revolutionary movement also emerged during the early 20th century, which called for the violent overthrow of the colonial government and received substantial support from the Triple Alliance and the Landonist International just before and during the First Great War. The First Great War led to a new phase of the Indian Independence movement with the demand for home-rule (Dominion-hood) in exchange for the support of the Indians in the First Great War. The domestic upheaval caused by the revolutionary movement and the Japanese and the Japanese-backed Indian National Army threatening the liberation of India following the liberation of Burma in the First Great War led the British government to grant full Dominion-hood to India. The Government of India Act, 1935 was enacted setting up the Dominion of India, with the vast majority of the minor Princely States joining the Dominion.

Etymology[edit | edit source]

According to the Oxford English Dictionary (third edition, 2009), the name "India" is derived from the Classical Latin India, a reference to South Asia and an uncertain region to its east; and in turn derived successively from: Hellenistic Greek India ( Ἰνδία); ancient Greek Indos ( Ἰνδός); Old Persian Hindush, an eastern province of the Achaemenid empire; and ultimately its cognate, the Sanskrit word Sindhu, or "river," specifically the Indus and, by implication, its well-settled southern basin. The ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi (Ἰνδοί), which translates as "The people of the Indus".

The term Bharat (Bhārat; pronounced, ˈbʱaːɾət), mentioned in both Indian epic poetry and the Constitution of India, is used in its variations by many Indian languages. A modern rendering of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which applied originally to northern India, Bharat gained increased currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India.

Hindustan (ɦɪndʊˈstaːn) is a Middle Persian name for India, introduced during the Mughal Empire and used, colloquial, very widely since.

History[edit | edit source]

Ancient India[edit | edit source]

A 19th-century extract from the Rigveda. This particular text dates back to the 15-century BCE, and is composed in a manner reminiscent of the 14th-century.
The magnitude of Ashoka's empire (circa. 250 BCE). The outline of his empire was very similar to the borders that present-day India boasts.

The earliest modern humans, or Homo sapiens, came on the Indian subcontinent 55,000 years ago from Africa, where they had previously evolved. The earliest modern human remains discovered in India stretch back around 30,000 years. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, and storage of agricultural surplus appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now the Baluchistan district. These subsequently evolved into the Indus Valley Civilisation, India's earliest urban civilisation, which flourished in what is now western India between 2500 and 1900 BCE. The civilisation was centred on towns like as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa, Dholavira, and Kalibangan, and dependent on various types of sustenance, participating vigorously in crafts production and wide-ranging commerce.

Many parts of the subcontinent changed from Chalcolithic to Iron Age cultures between 2000 and 500 BCE. The Vedas, the earliest Hindu texts, were written during this time period, and historians have used them to establish a Vedic civilisation in the Punjab area and the upper Gangetic plain. Most historians believe that this time period also included multiple waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. During this time, the caste system developed, which established a hierarchy of priests, warriors, and free peasants while excluding indigenous peoples by labelling their activities unclean. Archaeological evidence from this time shows the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation on the Deccan plateau. The enormous number of megalithic structures dating from this time, as well as surrounding indications of agriculture, irrigation tanks, and craft practises, suggest a transition to sedentary life in South India.

The minor kingdoms and chiefdoms of the Ganges plain and the northwestern areas had coalesced into 16 large oligarchies and monarchies known as the mahajanapadas by the late Vedic era, about the 6th century BCE. As communities grew in size, non-Vedic religious groups arose, two of which became separate faiths. During the lifetime of its exemplar, Mahavira, Jainism rose to popularity. Buddhism, founded on Gautama Buddha's teachings, drew adherents from all socioeconomic levels except the middle class; documenting the Buddha's life was essential to the beginnings of recorded history in India. Both faiths held renunciation up as an ideal in an age of rising urban affluence, and both developed long-lasting monastic institutions. Politically, by the third century BCE, the kingdom of Magadha had acquired or subdued neighbouring kingdoms to become the Mauryan Empire. The empire was formerly considered to dominate the most of the subcontinent save for the extreme south, but its main territories are now regarded to be divided by huge autonomous zones. The Mauryan monarchs are notable for their empire-building and decisive administration of public life, as well as Ashoka's renunciation of militarism and wide-ranging support of Buddhist dhamma.

The Tamil languaged Sangam literature shows that the southern peninsula was governed by the Cheras, Cholas, and Pandyas between 200 BCE and 200 CE, dynasties that dealt heavily with the Roman Empire as well as West and South-East Asia. Hinduism asserted patriarchal dominance inside the household in North India, resulting in greater female subordination. By the 4th and 5th centuries, the Gupta Empire had established a sophisticated system of administration and taxes on the wider Ganges plain, which served as a model for subsequent Indian kingdoms. Under the Guptas, a reinvented Hinduism focused on devotion rather than ceremonial control began to emerge. This revitalization was mirrored in a blossoming of art and architecture, which found supporters among the urban elite. Classical Sanskrit literature flourished as well, and important breakthroughs were achieved in Indian science, astronomy, medicine, and mathematics.

Medieval India[edit | edit source]

The Thanjavur Brihadeeswara Temple, in Tamil Nadu is an excellent depiction of the architecture of India prior to the rule of the Central Asians.
Contrasting heavily from the Thanjavur Brihadeeswara Temple, the Qutb Minar in Delhi is a pioneering of the minds of architects and sculptors that fled from the Mongols to find a haven in the Delhi Sultanate.
India during the 9th-century, with the Hindu Rajputs being a dominant force in much of northern and central India.
India during the 12th-century, with the Delhi Sultanate (here named the Afghan Empire) taking up a vast majority of the surface area—a foreshadowing to the years of Muslim rule that was to follow.

Regional kingdoms and cultural variety characterise the Indian early mediaeval period, which lasted from 600 to 1200 CE. Harsha of Kannauj, who controlled most of the Indo-Gangetic plain from 606 to 647 CE, was defeated by the Deccan Chalukya king when he sought to push southwards. His successor was defeated by the Pala king of Bengal when he sought to push eastward. When the Chalukyas sought to push southward, they were beaten by the Pallavas, who were in turn challenged by the Pandyas and Cholas, who were even farther south. No ruler of this era was able to establish an empire and maintain stable authority over areas much beyond their primary territory. During this period, pastoral peoples whose land had been destroyed to make room for the expanding agricultural economy, as well as new non-traditional governing elites, were accommodated within caste system. As a result, regional variations in the caste system emerged.

The first devotional hymns were written in Tamil in the 6th and 7th century. They were replicated throughout India, resulting in the revival of Hinduism as well as the creation contemporary languages. Indian aristocracy, both large and little, and the temples they frequented brought a large number of residents to the capital cities, which also served as commercial centres. As India continued to urbanise, temple towns of all sizes began to spring up all over the place. South Indian culture and political systems were transported to territories that formed part of modern-day Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, and Java by the 8th and 9th century. This transmission was carried out by Indian merchants, academics, and occasionally armies; South-East Asians also took the initiative, with many studying at Indian seminaries and transcribing Buddhist and Hindu scriptures into their languages.

After the 10th century, Muslim Central Asian nomadic tribes periodically overran South Asia's northwestern plains, utilising swift-horse cavalry and creating huge armies unified by race and religion, eventually culminating to the formation of the Islamic Delhi Sultanate in 1206. The sultanate was to rule over much of North India and to make many incursions into South India. Although initially inconvenient for Indian elites, the sultanate mainly allowed its massive non-Muslim subjects to practice its own laws and traditions. By repelling Mongol raiders on multiple occasions in the 13th century, the sultanate saved India from the devastation visited on West and Central Asia, paving the way for centuries of migration of fleeing soldiers, learned men, mystics, traders, artists, and artisans from that region into the subcontinent, resulting in the formation of a syncretic Indo-Islamic culture in the north. The sultanate's raids and weakening of South Indian regional rulers prepared the way for the indigenous Vijayanagara Empire. Embracing a strong Shaivite tradition and expanding on the sultanate's military technology, the empire grew to rule most of peninsular India and was to impact South Indian civilisation for a long time.

Early modern India[edit | edit source]

The territorial expanse of the Mughal Empire, under the rule of Akbar. Arguably, this was the first time since the Maurya administration that a state was able to encompass a vast majority of Indian land under stable governance.
The Taj Mahal, the most famous landmark representative of India, is highly reminiscent of the intellectual and artistic zenith that Indian society reached under the Mughal administration.

Northern India, then ruled mostly by Muslim monarchs, again fell victim to the greater mobility and firepower of a new generation of Central Asian warriors in the early 16th century. The resultant Mughal Empire did not extinguish the local communities over which it came to govern. It instead balanced and pacified them through new administrative procedures, and, varied and inclusive governing elites, resulting in more methodical, centralised, and uniform mode of governance. The Mughals unified their far-flung domains via allegiance, expressed through a Persianised culture, to an emperor who had near-divine status, eschewing tribal connections and Islamic identity, notably under Akbar. The Mughal state's economic policies, which relied heavily on agriculture and required taxes to be paid in the well-regulated silver coinage, pushed peasants and artisans into bigger marketplaces. The empire's relative calm for much of the 17th century aided India's economic expansion, resulting in increased patronage of painting, literary forms, textiles, and architecture. During Mughal rule, newly cohesive social groups in northern and western India, such as the Marathas, Rajputs, and Sikhs, developed military and ruling ambitions, which, via collaboration or adversity, provided them with both recognition and military experience. During Mughal administration, the expansion of commerce gave rise to new Indian economic and political elites along the coasts of southern and eastern India. As the empire crumbled, many of these elites were able to pursue and manage their own fortunes.

With the borders between economic and political power becoming increasingly blurred by the early 18th century, a number of European trade enterprises, including the British East India Company, had built coastal outposts. The East India Company's control of the seas, greater resources, and more advanced military training and technology caused it to increasingly assert its military strength, making it appealing to a portion of the Indian elite; these factors were critical in allowing the company to gain control of the Bengal region by 1765 and push out the other European companies. Its greater access to Bengal's wealth, as well as the resulting growth in strength and size of its army, allowed it to annex or subdue much of India by the 1820s. India was no longer exporting produced commodities as it had previously done, but was instead sending raw resources to the British Empire. Many historians consider this to be the onset of India's colonial period. With its economic authority severely limited by the British government and virtually reduced to the status of an arm of British administration, the business began to explore non-economic fields such as education, social change, and culture.

Modern India[edit | edit source]

The 1909 Map of the British-Indian Empire
Victoria, in 1876, took on the title "Empress of India", which marked a formal end to Company rule in India, and the beginning of direct British governance, under the British crown.

Historians believe that the modern era in India began between 1848 and 1885. The accession of Lord Dalhousie as Governor General of the East India Company in 1848 set in motion the adjustments required for a modern state. These included the consolidation and delineation of sovereignty, population surveillance, and citizen education. Technological advancements, such as railways, canals, and the telegraph, were implemented not long after their debut in Europe. However, dissatisfaction with the Company increased during this period, sparking the Indian Rebellion of 1857. The revolt rocked various parts of northern and central India. It undermined the foundations of Company authority, fueling varied resentments and views such as invasive British-style social reforms, punitive land taxes, and summary punishment of certain affluent landowners and princes. Although the revolt was put down by 1858, it resulted in the collapse of the East India Company and the British government's direct control of India. The new rulers declared a unified state and a progressive but restricted British-style parliamentary system while protecting princes and landed gentry as feudal protection against future rebellion. In the decades that followed, public life gradually evolved throughout India, eventually leading to the establishment of the Indian National Association in 1885.

The advent of technology and agricultural commercialization occurred in the second part of the nineteenth century. Economic failures marked this period, and many small farmers depended on distant markets' whims. The incidence of large-scale famines increased. Despite the risks of infrastructure development funded by Indian taxpayers, there was little industrial employment for Indians. Commercial farming, particularly in the recently canalized Punjab, resulted in increased food output for domestic use. The railway network provided essential famine relief, significantly decreased the cost of carrying commodities, and aided the emergence of the Indian-owned industry.

The early political associations started in India were local associations limited in their geographical reach and aligned themselves with narrow demands pertaining to the upper class. The Indian intelligentsia and the middle class realised the need for a new type of nationalist political organisation. The East India Association was organised in 1866 in London by Dadabhai Naoroji and branches were established in the major Indian cities. The Poona Sarvajanik Sabha was organised in 1870, the Indian Association in Calcutta in 1876, the Madras Mahajan Sabha in 1884 and the Bombay Presidency Association in 1885. These organisations were geographically limited and the need for a pan-India nationalist organisation was felt. The Indian Association sponsored an All-India National Conference in 1883. A second Conference was organised in 1885 in Bombay and the delegates decided to establish the Indian National Association as a pan-India nationalist organisation by merging the Poona Sarvajanik Sabha, the Indian Association, the Madras Mahajan Sabha and the Bombay Presidency Association.

Following the establishment of the Indian National Association, the nationalist movement began to proliferate with the formation of several nationalist groups across the nation and the spread of nationalist political consciousness and anti-colonialist ideology. The 20th century saw the beginning of a period of mass nonviolent non-cooperation and civil disobedience movements which came to be led by Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi. The 20th century saw the rise of the revolutionary movement for Indian independence, which sought the violent overthrow of colonial rule. The revolutionary movement developed roots overseas in nations hostile to the United Kingdom.

Quit India movement and the Indian Revolutionary War (1932-1938)[edit | edit source]

The 1930s saw a resurgence in the Indian independence movement and the emergence of a younger generation of leaders which sought to demand “complete independence” from the British Empire, they began pushing their demands following the beginning of the Great War which saw the colonial government bringing India into the war against the wishes of the Indian nationalists. A British mission to secure Indian nationalist support for the war effort failed and the Assembly adopted “complete independence” as its principal aim and launched the Quit India movement in 1932. The Japanese advance across Southeast Asia had led to the establishment of the Provisional Government of Free India and the Indian National Army. The Quit India movement invited severe repression from the colonial authorities which in turn led to the initiation of a series of uprisings and mutinies by the revolutionaries. The increased turmoil in the Subcontinent hindered the Allied war effort in Southeast Asia which aided the rapid Japanese advance through Southeast Asia and Burma and culminated in the capture of Chittagong by elements of the Indian National Army in early 1935. This was followed by a mass uprising in Bengal and the rapid loss of British control of India. The Indian National Army marched on and captured Delhi in May 1935. The Provisional Government of Free India was shifted to Delhi and Independence from British, French and Portuguese colonial rule was proclaimed on 11 May 1935, which was the 78th Anniversary of the beginning of the 1857 revolt against the British East India company. The Revolt of 1857 is commonly known in India as the First War of Independence.

This came to be known as the Indian Revolutionary War and ended with the Treaty of Calcutta which was singed on 11 May 1938, 3 years after the Declaration of Independence. The treaty recognized the Independence of India and Burma from the British Empire and recognized erstwhile French and Portuguese colonial possessions in the Indian subcontinent as a part of independent India.

Interim Government and the Constituent Assembly (1938-1940)[edit | edit source]

Following the Treaty of Calcutta and the cessation of hostilities, the Provisional Government of Free India was dissolved. The Interim Government of the State of India was declared in Delhi, consisting of members of the various nationalist groups which participated in the Independence movement. The Indian National Association was the central organization of the new Interim Government. The second most powerful bloc in the Interim Government consisted of the socialist revolutionary groups aligned with the Landonist International. There was another bloc of officers of the Indian National Army and those closely associated with the Japanese. This bloc was spread across several organizations, consisting of some of the most influential and powerful men in India at the time. The most important member of the bloc was Subhas Chandra Bose, arguably the most popular and influential man in India, who also became the President of the Interim Government. Subhas Chandra Bose was also a member of the Indian National Association.

During this period, the Interim Government, with the help of the Japanese, started the process of reconstructing the nation and consolidating the administration with the large-scale reorganization of services and began the Common Program that was agreed upon by most of the various nationalist groups that formed the Interim Government. The Common Program involved the extension of education and healthcare services, the organization of a food security program and land reform. The country's electrification was also a goal outlined in the Common Program.

The Japanese enjoyed immense popularity across India and significantly influenced the Interim Government. The Interim Government closely aligned itself with Japan and became a member of the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere, and invited several experts from Japan to help set up the institutions and industries in India. While the Imperial Japanese Army withdrew from India following the Treaty of Calcutta and the end of the War, the Imperial Japanese Navy continued to frequently use Indian ports and aided in establishing the Indian National Navy. Several joint Indo-Japanese bases were established in India during this period.

The Constituent Assembly was established in Delhi by the Interim Government to draft a Constitution. The Constituent Assembly completed the Constitution, and it was adopted in 1940. Vande Mataram (I Bow to thee, Mother), the popular song of the Swadeshi Movement (1903-1908) in Sanskrit, was adopted as the national anthem.

The Constitution put in place a federal democratic secular parliamentary republic. The Constitution enacted an initial policy of bilingualism with Hindustani and English as the official languages for 15 years, after which the use of English would be phased out.

The Early Republic and Great War II (1938-1957)[edit | edit source]

The Indian National Association, the leading organization of the Indian Independence movement, was dissolved in 1940, following the Constitution's adoption. Much of its cadre merged with the leftist-leaning elements of the revolutionary organizations to form the Socialist Party. The Socialist Party won the first General and Presidential elections held in 1940. Subhas Chandra Bose and Jawaharlal Nehru led the Socialist Party. The Socialist Party-led government instituted several significant reforms, including a ban on importing foreign capital and adopting a policy of rapid industrialization with active State assistance, State intervention and a policy of tariff protection. The Government set up State-controlled banks that provided financial subsidies, loans and guarantees to Indian industries by borrowing abroad and lending in India.

The Government of India uprooted the semi-feudal agrarian institutions of British India. The Government redistributed the land in conjunction with the expansion of irrigation and the setting up of the National Agricultural Bank to provide cheap credit to small farmers.

The Swadeshi movement, which involved the boycott of foreign goods, had been an essential aspect of the Indian Independence movement and was carried through and became an integral part of daily life in newly Independent India. Mahatma Gandhi also popularized his ideas of social harmony and ruralism into a mass movement during this time, opposing the policy of rapid industrialization of the Socialist Party. The Gandhian Association was established by his followers after his death and continues to be a significant social movement in India.

Geography[edit | edit source]

Biodiversity[edit | edit source]

Politics and government[edit | edit source]

Politics[edit | edit source]

Government[edit | edit source]

The National Volunteer Corps is a paramilitary force under the Ministry of Internal Affairs. The National Volunteer Corps is tasked with internal security, counter-insurgency operations, counter-terrorism operations, aiding provincial police forces, protection of important infrastructure and protection of significant persons. The National Volunteer Corps has an active strength of 573,691, making it one of the largest paramilitary organizations in the world.

The National Frontier Corps is a paramilitary force under the Ministry of Internal Affairs. The National Frontier Corps is India's sole border guarding force. The National Frontier Corps has an active strength of 294,184.

Administrative divisions[edit | edit source]

India is divided into 46 provinces and 3 territories.

Provinces[edit | edit source]

Provinces of India
State Vehicle code Capital Largest city Established Population (2011) Area Official languages Additional official languages
Andhra Pradesh AN
Arunachal Pradesh AR
Assam AS
Awadh AW Lucknow
Baghelkhand BA
Balochistan BL Quetta
Bundelkhand BU
Chattisgarh CH Raipur
Chattogram Pradesh CP Chattogram
East Bengal EB Dhaka
East Punjab EP
Goa GO Panaji
Gujarat GU
Harit Pradesh HA Agra
Haryana HR
Himachal Pradesh HI Shimla
Jammu and Kashmir JK Srinagar
Jharkhand JH Ranchi
Kerala KE Thiruvananthapuram
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa KP Peshawar
Kongu Nadu KN Coimbatore
Madhya Pradesh MP
Magadh MG
Maharashtra MH Mumbai
Manipur MN Imphal
Maru Pradesh MR
Mithila MI Purnia
Mizoram MZ Aizawl
Nagaland NA Kohima
North Bengal NB
North Punjab NP Lahore
North Karnataka NK
Odisha OD
Purvanchal PU Varanasi
Rajasthan RA
Saurashtra SU
Sikkim SI Gangtok
Sindh SN Karachi
South Punjab SP Multan
South Karnataka SK
Tamil Nadu TN Chennai
Telangana TE Hyderabad
Tripura TR Agartala
Uttarakhand UT Dehradun
Vidarbha VI Nagpur
West Bengal WB Kolkata

Territories[edit | edit source]

National Holidays[edit | edit source]

National holidays are observed in all states and territories of India. These are secular holidays celebrated to commemorate events in the formation of the Indian nation.

National Holidays of India
Date Name Commemorates
11 May Anniversary of 1857 Revolt of 1857, known in India as the First War of Independence
25 May Independence Day Declaration of Independence and signing of the Treaty of Calcutta
28 August Republic Day Adoption of the Constitution of India

Foreign, economic and strategic relations[edit | edit source]

Main article: Indian National Armed Forces

The Provisional Government of Free India was established in Japanese-controlled Southeast Asia in 1933 and the Indian National Army was established as the army of the Provisional Government. The Indian National Army was the primary organization responsible for the liberation of India from British rule. The Indian National Armed Forces were formally established in 1938 with the establishment of the Provisional Government. The Indian National Army continued its role as the land-branch of the Indian National Armed Forces and continues be its largest component. The Indian National Army Air Corps was established in 1934 as a branch of the Indian National Army, attempts to reform the Army Air Force into an independent Air Force were resisted by the Indian National Army till 1954, when the Indian National Air Force was established.

The Indian National Navy was established in 1938, following the Treaty of Calcutta, with the aid of the Imperial Japanese Navy. The Indian National Navy started out as an auxiliary force to the larger Imperial Japanese Navy but slowly grew to become a blue-water navy that dominates the Indian Ocean in the 21st century. The Indian National Navy Air Corps was established in 1940 and continues its role as the naval air arm of the Indian National Navy.

Economy[edit | edit source]

Industries[edit | edit source]

Energy[edit | edit source]

Socio-economic challenges[edit | edit source]

Demographics, languages and religion[edit | edit source]

Culture[edit | edit source]

Visual art[edit | edit source]

Architecture[edit | edit source]

Literature[edit | edit source]

Performing arts and media[edit | edit source]

Society[edit | edit source]

Education[edit | edit source]

12 years of primary, lower secondary and upper secondary education are compulsory in India and must take place at registered schools for children belonging to the ages of 4 to 16. Primary education (junior school) comprises Classes 1 to 6, lower secondary education (middle school) comprises Classes 7 to 9, and higher secondary education (senior school) comprises Classes 10 to 12.

National Council of Education[edit | edit source]

The National Council of Education was established by the Provisional Government to organise and promote education at all levels in independent India. The National Council of Education acts as India’s Ministry of Education. The Chairman of the National Council of Education is appointed by the Prime Minister and is a member of the National Cabinet.

National Technical Institutes[edit | edit source]

The need for technological development and the existence of a trained-class of engineers and technocrats for the successful and rapid industrialization of the economy of post-Independence India were quickly recognized by the leaders of the Independence movement. The Provisional Government nationalized the existing engineering colleges and created the National Technical Institutes Council, all the existing colleges were renamed and reorganized and provided hefty sums of money for the development of technological research and education in India. 13 existing institutions of technical education were nationalized and converted into National Technical Institutes in 1935. These National Technical Institutes have come to be the premier technical research institutes of India. The admissions to these institutes at the undergraduate and postgraduate levels are conducted through highly competitive national level exams conducted by the National Council of Education.

List of National Technical Institutes
S. No. Name Location Originally Established Formerly
1 National Technical Institute, Madras Chennai, Tamil Nadu 1794 College of Engineering, Guindy
2 National Technical Institute, Roorkee Roorkee, Uttarakhand 1847 Thomason College of Civil Engineering
3 National Technical Institute, Pune Pune, Maharashtra 1854 College of Engineering, Pune
4 National Technical Institute, Calcutta Kolkata, West Bengal 1856 Bengal Engineering College
Bengal Technical Institute
Bengal Tanning Institute
5 National Technical Institute, Dhaka Dhaka, East Bengal 1876 Ahsanullah School of Engineering
6 National Technical Institute, Patna Patna, Magadh 1886 College of Engineering, Bihar
7 National Technical Institute, Bombay Mumbai, Maharashtra 1887 Victoria Jubilee Technical Institute
8 National Technical Institute, Bangalore Bengaluru, South Karnataka 1917 College of Engineering, Bangalore
9 National Technical Institute, Banaras Varanasi, Purvanchal 1919 Banaras Engineering College
10 National Technical Institute, Kanpur Kanpur, Awadh 1920 Harcourt Butler Technological Institute
11 National Technical Institute, Karachi Karachi, Sindh 1921 Prince of Wales Engineering College
12 National Technical Institute, Lahore Lahore, North Punjab 1921 Punjab Engineering College
Mughalpura Technical College
13 National Technical Institute, Dhanbad Dhanbad, Jharkhand 1926 Indian School of Mines

Apart from the National Technical Institutes, the National Universities in each of the Provinces are the premier institutes of higher education for all academic fields not related to technical education. While the number of National Technical Institutes has been limited, the number of National Universities has grown, with each Province having its own Provincial National University, which is run in cooperation with the National Government.

Clothing[edit | edit source]

Cuisine[edit | edit source]

Sports and recreation[edit | edit source]

See also[edit | edit source]

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