- This article is about the Republic of India.
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Republic of India
Motto: Hindustani: राष्ट्रवाद, समाजवाद, लोकतंत्र
(Nationalism, Socialism, Democracy)
Anthem: Hindustani: सारे जहाँ से अच्छा
(Better than the entire World)
and largest city
|Official languages||25 languages|
|Government||Federal parliamentary republic|
|Uzair Ahmed Khan|
• Prime Minister
• Deputy Prime Minister
• Chairman of the Pratinidhi Sabha
• Chief Justice
• Declaration of _____
|9 May 1933|
• Treaty of _____
|25 May 1938|
• Constitution Day
|24 September 1940|
|4,075,522 km2 (1,573,568 sq mi)|
|GDP (PPP)||2020 estimate|
• Per capita
|GDP (nominal)||2020 estimate|
|$9.733 trillion (4th)|
• Per capita
|Currency||Indian Rupee (₹) (INR)|
|Time zone||UTC+5 / +6 (West / East)|
|Date format||dd/mm/yyyy (CE)|
India, officially the Democratic Republic of India (Hindustani: Bhārat Gaṇarājya), is a country in Asia with a population of 809 million, being the world's second most populous country. It is the world's ___ largest country and is also the world's ___ largest economy by GDP (nominal) and ___ largest by GDP (PPP). India is a federal democracy, the second largest democracy in the World. It is bordered by Iran and Afghanistan to the West, China and Bhutan to the North and Burma to the East. India shares a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia. It is bound by the Arabian Sea to the West, the Bay of Bengal to the East and the Indian Ocean to the South. India is the major power in the Indian Ocean Region. India is composed of two time zones, UTC+5:00 (Western Indian Time) and UTC+6:00 (Eastern Indian Time).
India was the cradle of one of the first human civilizations, the Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. The Indo-European Sanskrit language diffused into India from the Northwest during the 2nd millennium BCE which led to the Mahajanapada period in Northern India which gave rise to the Mauryan Empire which was the first Empire to unify almost all of the Indian subcontinent into a single-political entity. Buddhism and Jainism arose in India during this period. The Gupta Empire was another important political entity which controlled a large part of the Indian subcontinent during the 4th and 5th centuries CE. The Gupta period is also referred to as the Golden Period of Indian history. The Middle Kingdoms of South India spread Indian cultural influence into South-East Asia and the period also saw the spread and rise of Buddhism in East Asia. Buddhism in India declined during this period, becoming practically non-existent by the start of the 2nd Millennium CE.
Muslim armies from Central Asia intermittently ran over the North Indian plains during the 12th and 13th centuries which led to the establishment of the Delhi Sultanate, another state which was able to exert control over large parts of the Indian subcontinent over short periods of time. Babur, a descendant of Timur, established the Mughal Empire in India during the 16th century CE. The Mughal Empire also came to unify large parts of the Indian subcontinent under a single political entity during the 17th century CE. The Mughal Empire collapsed during the early 18th century AD and the Maratha Empire rose which was also able to exert control over a large part of the Indian subcontinent and came into conflict with the East India Company, fighting a series of wars and collapsing thereafter.
By the early 19th century, large parts of India came under the control of East India Company. The Indian Rebellion of 1857 (known as the First War of Independence in India) was a major, but ultimately unsuccessful uprising against the rule of the British East India Company. Following the Rebellion, the British government dissolved the East India Company and established direct rule over India in the new British Raj. Indian nationalism emerged during the last decades of the 19th century.
Etymology[edit | edit source]
The name "India" is derived from the Classical Latin India, a reference to the Indian Subcontinent. The name "India" is the most widely used name for the country in the Western World. The geographical region occupied by the country and its neighbors is also called the Indian Subcontinent. "印度" (Yindu) is the name used in the Chinese language and "インド" (Indo) is the name used in Japanese. The Latin term "India" is ultimately derived from its Sanskrit cognate, Sindhu, which is the name of the Indus river and refers to its well settled southern basin. The ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi (Ἰνδοί) which translates as "the people of the Indus".
The terms Bharat and Hindustan are the official names of the country as mentioned in the Constitution. Bharat is a modern rendering of the historical term Bharatvarsha which was used to refer to the Indian subcontinent. The term Bharat as the name of the country gained popularity in the late 19th-century. Hindustan is a middle Persian name for the region, the name was introduced during the Mughal Empire and has been widely used since. Hindustan is used concurrently with Bharat as the name for the country in the various Indian languages.
History[edit | edit source]
Medieval India[edit | edit source]
The Early modern period of Indian history begins with the conquest of North India in the 16th century by Babur, a Chagatai Turkic warrior based at Kabul and a great great grandson of Timur. The conquest of North India by Zahir-ud-din Muhammad Babur led to the dissolution of the Delhi Sultanate and ushered in a new era on the India subcontinent marked by the dominance of the Mughal Empire. The Mughal Empire went on to rule large parts of India from the time of its establishment in 1526 to its dissolution in 17XX barring the period between 1540 and 1555 when the Mughal Emperor Babur was exiled by Sher Shah Suri, an Afghan warrior who was a native of Bihar. Sher Shah Suri established the Sur Empire and ruled from Sasaram, Bihar. The Sur Empire collapsed after the death of Sher Shah Suri's successor, Islam Shah Suri after which the Mughal Empire was reestablished by Humayun. The Mughal Empire instituted several new administrative and economic policies which led to a more centralised, uniform and systematic rule. The Mughal Emperor, Akbar is credited with creating the imperial structure which led to a period of relative peace through the 16th century and stimulated economic growth in India. The Mughal Emperor, Aurangzeb is considered by many to be the last great Mughal Emperor. The Mughal Empire reached its zenith under the rule of Aurangzeb.
Later Mughal Period (1707-1739)[edit | edit source]
Following Aurangzeb's death in 1707 the Mughal Empre began to disintegrate. Aurangzeb's policies are considered to be a major reason for the disintegration of the Empire. The period between 1707 and 1719 saw six Mughal Emperors. The period between 1712 and 1719 also marked the rise of the Sayyid brothers who held the main administrative powers of the Empire between 1713 and 1719 and became Kingmakers. Muhammad Shah acceded to the throne in 1719 and deposed the Sayyid brothers. Muhammad Shah had a long reign but failed to control the disintegration of the Empire. The period also marked the rise of the Maratha Empire. In 1713, Balaji Vishwanath was appointed Peshwa (Chief Minister) by the Chhatrapati (King) Shahu Bhonsale I. Balaji Vishwanath's appointment began a long line of hereditary Peshwas under whose capable leadership the Maratha Empire rose rapidly. The Peshwas would go on to become the functional heads of the Maratha Empire. Nizam-ul Mulk, a capable noble, became Wazir in 1722 but his attempts to reform and reorganise the administration was frustrated by the Emperor Muhammad Shah. In 1724, he relinquished his position as Wazir and rode south to establish his own realm in the Deccan. The Mughal Emperor awarded the title 'Asaf Jah' to Nizam-ul Mulk.
The Marathas, under the leadership of Peshwa Baji Rao I began their northern expansion. The Marathas defeated Asaf Jah I and his Deccani forces at the Battle of Palkhed in February 1728. Asaf Jah I was forced to make peace and recognise the right of the Marathas to collect tax in the Deccan. Following this, the Marathas went on to conquer Malwa from the Mughals in 1728-29. Chhatrasal, a Bundela Rajput warrior, had rebelled against the Mughal Empire and established his own Kingdom in Bundelkhand. The Mughal General Muhammad Khan Bangash besieged Chattrasal's fort of Jaitpur and Chattrasal requested Maratha aid. In March 1929, Baji Rao I marched to Jaitpur. Chattrasal escaped and joined the Maratah forces. The unexpected entry of the Marathas and the cutting off of Bangash's supply lines by the Maratha light cavalry and Bangash was forced to retreat. In return, Chattrasal granted lands (almost a third of his territory) and diamond mines to the Marathas. Baji Rao I also married Mastani, Chattrasal's daughter as his second wife.
Peshwa Baji Rao I proceeded to conquer Gujarat in 1730 and the Mughal governor of Gujarat recognised the Maratha right to the revenues of the region. A power struggle ensued with the Dabhade clan of the Marathas. This led to Muhammad Khan Bangash forming an alliance with Trmibak Rao Dabhade, the Asaf Jah I and Sambhaji II against Shahu Bhonsale I and the Peshwa. At the Battle of Dabhoi in April 1731, Trimbak Rao was killed on the battlefield. Bangash Khan's alliance with the Dabhade clan and Sambhaji II dissolved following Trimbak Rao's death. Jai Singh was again appointed the Governor of Malwa and Muhammad Khan Bangash was called back by the Mughal Emperor. Sambhaji II was given territories but became a vassal of Shahu Bhonsale I. Trimbak Rao's son, Yashwant Rao was appointed as the Senapati (General) of Shahu Bhonsale I and this brought an end to the Maratha dispute with the Dabhade clan. At the battle of Mandsaur, the Maratha chief Holkar's forces had defeated Jai Singh, sent by the Mughals to pacify the Marathas in the Malwa. Following two more battles, the Mughal Emperor allowed the Marathas to collect tax revenue (chauth) from Malwa. The period between 1733 and 1736 saw conflict between the Siddis of Janjira and the Marathas. This ended with the pacification of the Siddis and their territories being limited to Janjira, Gowalkot and Anjnavel.
Baji Rao I moved north in March 1735 to secure the cession of Malwa from the Empire to the Marathas. Baji Rao I met with the Rajput Raja of Mewar and moved northward to meet with the Mughal emissary, Jai Singh in Bhambholao. The Mughals did not agree to cede Malwa to the Marathas. Baji Rao I returned to the Deccan and planned to march to Delhi to force the Mughal Emperor to agree. Jai Singh and Baji Rao I reached an agreement in March 1736 and Baji Rao I was appointed deputy governor of the region. It is believed that Jai Singh secretly encouraged Baji Rao I to march to Delhi to subdue the weakening Mughal Emperor. The Peshwa began his march towards Delhi in November 1736. Another force led by Malhar Rao Holkar crossed the Yamuna and raided the Mughal territories of the Doab. Saadat Ali Khan I, the Nawab Subahdar of Awadh moved to Agra to check the advancing army. He defeated Malhar Rao Holkar's force who was forced to retreat. Saadat Ali Khan I then retired to Mathura assured that the Marathas were retreating back to the Deccan. Malhar Rao Holkar's forces met up with Baji Rao's forces at Gwalior. Baji Rao advanced to Delhi through the hill route (avoiding the direct Agra-Delhi route) and caught the Mughal general by surprise when he reached the outskirts of Delhi. The Mughal general beat a hasty retreat from Mathura to Delhi. The Mughal Emperor at Delhi sent a small force led by Mir Hasan Khan Koka which was defeated by the Marathas in the Fourth Battle of Delhi (1737). Baji Rao was forced retreat from the Mughal capital due to the advance of a large Mughal force from Mathura towards Delhi. The Mughal Emperor called on Asaf Jah I to help defeat the Marathas and Asaf Jah I set out from the Deccan and met the Maratha forces near Bhopal. He was reinforced by a Mughal army (reinforced with artillery). Baji Rao besieged Asaf Jah I who was encamped in Bhopal and cut off his supply lines. Asaf Jah I was forced to make peace in January 1738. Malwa was ceded to the Marathas and the Mughals were forced to pay a large sum of money in reparations.
Nadir Shah Afshar, had deposed the Safavi dynasty from the throne of Iran in 1736 and made himself the Shah of Iran. Nadir Shah began marching into Mughal territory in 1738, attracted by the riches of India which he needed to finance his expeditions. He conquered Kabul in June, 1738. Nadir Shah marched further, sacking Jalalbad in September. Nasir Khan, the Mughal governor of Afghanistan, who was based at Peshawar assembled a force to fight Nadir Shah, but was defeated and forced to flee. Peshawar fell to Nadir Shah's invading forces in November. Nadir Shah captured Lahore in 1739 without any major Mughal attempt to stop his advance. A large Mughal force met his forces at Karnal, in February 1739. In the Battle of Karnal, the Mughal forces were defeated and the Mughal Emperor Muhammad Shah surrendered. Nadir Shah soon entered Delhi.
Early modern India (1739-18XX)[edit | edit source]
Reign of Nadir Shah Afshar (1739-1756)[edit | edit source]
On the advice of Asaf Jah I, Nadir Shah proclaimed himself the Emperor of India (Shahenshah-i-Hind), a week after entering Delhi on 27 March, 1739, at a great Durbar that was held in his honor. This event marked the end of the more than two centuries of Mughal rule. Nadir Shah arranged several marriages between the Mughal nobility and his family, including the marriage of Iffat-un Nissa Begum, a Mughal princess to his son, Nasrullah Mirza. Nadir Shah would remain in India for a few more years, having already sent his eldest son, Reza Quli Mirza, to handle affairs in Iran.
The Battle of Karnal and the proclamation of the Afsharid Empire at Delhi is considered by most historians to be the beginning of the early modern period of Indian history.
Following Nadir Shah's proclamation, his authority was quickly accepted by the Persianized Muslim elites of Awadh, Bihar and Bengal. In all the cities of the erstwhile Mughal Empire, the khutba was read and coins were struck in the name of Nadir Shah. Nadir Shah's rapid conquest of the Mughal Empire stunned the Indian nobility. Asaf Jah I, the most prominent noble of the Turani faction had advised and reasoned with Nadir Shah to place himself on the Peacock Throne. Asaf Jah I, also helped Nadir Shah cement his position and authority in the Mughal realm. With the establishment of the Afsharid Empire in India, the Nizam reached an agreement with Nadir Shah for his Deccan dominion. The Nizam would become a tributary-vassal of the throne at Delhi, recognizing Nadir Shah as his sovereign while maintaining significant autonomy. Safdar Jang, the Nawab of Awadh sought to reach a similar agreement but had to submit to the increased authority of the Peacock throne. Sarfaraz Khan, the Nawab of Bengal was replaced by Alivardi Khan.
Nadir Shah and the Afsharids followed a policy of extreme tolerance. This policy helped cement Nadir Shah's authority further among the Hindu nobility including the local Zamindars and Rajas. The semi-autonomous Rajas of the Rajputana and the Himalayan regions accepted a tributary-vassal agreement with the throne at Delhi in 1739.
Nadir Shah began a southern expedition in January 1740, aimed at the Marathas. The Nizam also sent a large force to help Nadir Shah conquer Malwa. A secondary force, under Nasrullah Mirza, swiftly conquered Gujarat in February and Nadir Shah began his march towards Malwa. He besieged the fortified city of Bhopal and entered the city in March 1740. The Nizam's forces linked up with Nadir Shah at Bhopal and they marched south to meet the Maratha army at the Second Battle of Palkhed. The Maratha army was routed and forced to retreat, Peshwa Baji Rao, weakened by the incessant campaigns, caught a fever and died soon after. The Marathas could not organize a proper defense of their territories following the death of the Peshwa, who was succeeded by his son, Balaji Baji Rao. The Maratha armies collapsed after the Second Battle of Palkhed and the Marathas sued for peace but the Afsharid forces continued on to Satara, the royal capital of the Marathas and captured the Maratha King. The Afsharid forces plundered the cities of the region and returned to Delhi. Nadir Shah appointed Muhammad Khan Bangash as the Nawab of the Marathwada region. After returning to Delhi, Nadir Shah reached an agreement with the Sikhs whereby the Sikhs were granted a jagir, their leader was granted the title of Nawab and restrictions on their religious practices were removed. Furthermore, Nadir Shah also recruited a significant part of the Dal Khalsa into his army, this contingent was led by Jassa Singh Ahluwalia.
Nizam Asaf Jah I, founder of the Asaf Jahi dynasty of the Hyderabad State[edit | edit source]
Having cemented his position against the Marathas with the aid of the Afsharids in the 1740 Afsharid-Maratha War, the Nizam sought to consolidate his territories. The capital of the semi-independent Deccan Sultanate was shifted to Hyderabad. The Nizam centralised control and organised the administration of the Carnatic under the Nawab of Arcot. The Nizam, being close to Nadir Shah, spent a considerable amount of his time in Delhi and worked to implement the reforms that he had failed to implement under Muhammad Shah. Nizam-ul Mulk's reforms are widely credited for providing a strong administrative and financial basis for the Afsharid Empire in India.
Nadir Shah returned to Iran in 1742. Nadir Shah appointed, his second eldest son, Nasrullah Mirza, as his viceroy in India. Nadir Shah's health had declined markedly by this point and he took on a more despotic personality, marked by increasing cruelty. He took with him a large number of Northern Indian nobles, including some Mughal princes and appointed them governors of the parts of his realm west of the Indus. A large number of Indian administrators, accountants and soldiers also followed to help set up an Indianized system of administration in Iran. Nadir Shah continued to recruit a large number of Indian soldiers to serve in his incessant campaigns against the Ottoman Empire and the Central Asian tribes. The court of Delhi paid a fixed sum of money to the court of Mashhad to finance Nadir Shah's campaigns. Nadir Shah also initiated the construction of an Afsharid Navy, taking over the Mughal ships and constructing several new ones at ports in India and Iran. Nadir Shah returned to India in 1751 and lead Nadir Shah returned to Mashhad in 1753 and ruled over a mostly peaceful Empire up till his death in 1756, at the age of 58.
First Carnatic War (1746)[edit | edit source]
The War of the Austrian Succession began in 1740, and Great Britain joined the war in 1744 against France. This led to conflict between the French and the British East Indian companies in the Carnatic region in what came to be called as the First Carnatic War (1746). The French East India Company seized Madras from the British and sieged the British Fort St. David at Cuddalore in 1746. This greatly irked the Marathas. A small force was sent by Asaf Jah I as a punitive expedition against the French and the British. It was led by Ghazi ud-Din Khan, Asaf Jah I's eldest son. The Deccani force cut off the French forces at Adyar and seized Madras. The smaller French force surrendered, but only after inflicting heavy casualties on Ghazi ud-Din's forces. Ghazi ud-Din and his soldiers noted the efficiency of European tactics and seized their guns and artillery, enlisting the help of the French trained Indian soldiers. Ghazi ud-Din Khan entered Madras, captured all the guns and ammunition and began dismantling the fortifications. After leaving a small garrison in Madras, he moved to Pondicherry and captured the city. Governor Dupleix was also captured. An agreement was made at Madras between the English, the French and the Marathas. The Treaty of Madras, as it has been called, demarcated the lines of the European settlements, forbade the Europeans from fighting wars on Deccani soil, forbade the Europeans from fortifying their settlements, limited the number of European forces and enforced the presence of a Deccani resident in each of the European settlements. The Deccani resident would oversee activity in the settlements and would be responsible for granting trade permits to the European traders. Madras was returned to the British.
Following the Battle of Adyar, Asaf Jah I appointed his eldest son, Ghazi ud-Din Khan, as the Nawab of Arcot. Nawab Ghazi ud-Din, hired several European mercenaries, including Louis Paradis, the Swiss engineering officer who led the French forces at Adyar. Ghazi ud-Din enlisted the French trained Indian troops into his forces and several French soldiers who accepted the offer to join. Ghazi ud-Din had a few thousand soldiers trained in the European style and established a small artillery corps with the guns he had captured from the Europeans. He also set up a small arsenal at Arcot in 1747 with the help of the hired mercenaries to manufacture guns and artillery in the European style.
Nizam-ul Mulk passed away in 1748, at the age of 77. Ghazi ud-Din Khan, his eldest son, succeeded him as the Nizam of the Deccan.
Reign of Nasrullah Mirza Afshar (1756-1787)[edit | edit source]
Following the death of his father, Nasrullah Mirza, his second eldest son, who had acted as his father's viceroy, declared himself as the Shahenshah-i-Hind (Emperor of India) and declared independence from his brother, Reza Quli Mirza, who succeeded Nadir Shah in Iran. Reza Quli Mirza was immediately faced with rebellion in the various parts of his realm and reached an agreement with Nasrullah Mirza and divided the territory of their father's empire at the Indus in the Treaty of Peshawar (1757). Nasrullah Mirza would continue to pay the fixed sum of money to the court of Mashhad and allowed his brother, Reza Quli Mirza to continue recruiting soldiers from India.
Nasrullah Mirza Afshar cemented the position of the Afsharid Empire in India. He instituted several revenue reforms and led the Afsharid Empire in India through a period of relative peace. He died in 1787, at the age of 62. He was succeeded by his eldest son, Yuldiz Khan Afshar. Yuldiz Khan ruled for 13 years from 1787 to 1800, dying at the age of 61.
Modern India[edit | edit source]
- British attempts to depopulate overpopulated parts of India by migrating Indians to British parts of Africa.
- Revolt of 18XX, soldiers mutineed and rallied under the colours of the Afsharid flag.
- Lahore Declaration of 1932/3
- The Organisation: Name TBD, big tent grassroots organisation, dominated by the overarching figure of one man (Ramesh Kumar Sharma)
- Ramesh Kumar Sharma defined the ideology of the Organisation. The Organisation emerged from the merger of several different revolutionary secret societies.
- Members who wanted to use peaceful/reformative means to achieve indpendence (dominion status).
- Changed to demanding complete independence once the GW1 broke out.
- The Organisation organized protests, marches, movements, etc. and spread across the countryside in conjunction with other organisations but occupied the centre stage.
- Semi-peaceful movement against British rule, the Organisation organises protests, Flag stayagrahas, people barging into government buildings and raising the National flag (name of the flag).
- Flag associated with the Revolt of 18XX.
Indian Independence Movement[edit | edit source]
The Indian Association was established in 1876 at Calcutta and was the first Indian nationalist organisation. The Indian National Union (INU) was established in 1885 as a forum to represent the opinion of Indians and present them to the authorities of the Colonial government. It was set up with the help of sympathetic British civil servants. The Indian Association merged with the INU in 1886 but its leader would go on to form the core of the Radical faction of the INU.
The INU started out as a forum representing the views of the English educated Indian elite. With the growth of the Indian independence movement, the INU grew to represent the masses and became the primary organization of the Indian independence movement. At the turn of the century, two factions emerged within the INU, the Moderates and the Radicals. The Moderates advocated for reform within the British system with the ultimate aim of achieving Dominion status for Indian under the British Empire. The Radicals pushed for complete independence, adopting the principle of Swaraj and a rejection of all things British.
The INU led a successful campaign against the partition of Bengal in 1905. The Swadeshi movement was the first mass civil disobedience movement in India but was geographically limited to the cities of Eastern India.
The Radical faction of the INU split in 1907 to form the Swaraj Congress. The Revolutionary movement for Indian independence also emerged advocating a violent overthrow of the British Empire. The 1900s saw the establishment of several secret societies across India engaged in acts of organized crime with the aim of organizing an India-wide revolution. All these secret societies were banned and labelled as terrorist organizations.
The Muslim League was established in 1908 at Lahore with the aim of representing the views and aspirations of the Muslim population of India. The Muslim League was split along Moderate and Radical lines which advocated for cooperation with the INU and the Swaraj Congress respectively.
By 1910, three main streams of the Indian independence movement had emerged. The Moderates, the Radicals, and the Revolutionaries. Over the following decades, the Swaraj Congress would become the dominant organization representing the views of the Indians, with the Muslim League also being dominated by the Radical faction and throwing its weight behind the Swaraj Congress. The INU continuously declined in popularity during the 1910s and suffered a great shock following the failure of the Indian Home Rule Movement (1915-1917) to bring any significant change in India.
The Indian Home Rule movement (1915-17) was a nationwide mass movement striving to achieve dominion status for India. The movement was organised by the Indian Home Rule League which was set up by the members of the INU and the Swaraj Congress and was supported by both. The Indian Home Rule movement was the first truly national movement and made major inroads into rural India. Throughout the 1920s, following on the progress made during the Indian Home Rule movement of 1915-17, the Swaraj Congress expanded itself into rural India.
The Swaraj party came to be seen as a bridge between the Moderate and the Radical streams. The Swaraj party promoted civil disobedience and non-violent tactics to achieve its goals, while also trying to protect and called for leniency on the arrested members of the revolutionary societies.
The India House was established in Berlin, Germany in 1913 advocating for Indian independence in France. The Ghadar Party was formed as a Landonist political party in the United Commonwealth in 1920 by Indian expatriates following the Continental Revolutionary War. The Ghadar Party became the major force in the Revolutionary movement for Indian independence by the end of 1920s. The Landonist movement and Socialist thought gained increased currency in India and considerably influenced the members of the Swaraj Congress. The Ghadar Party was also banned and labelled as a terrorist organization for advocating for the violent overthrow of the British Empire.
Following the outbreak of World War I on 16 April 1932, the Revolutionaries began planning for a potential revolution to overthrow the British Empire in India. The INU merged into the Swaraj Congress on 1 January 1933, adopting the principle of Swaraj. Following the fall of Paris on 9 May 1933 and the rout of the British Expeditionary Force, the Revolutionaries launched a series of attacks with the aim of starting an India-wide revolution.
Geography[edit | edit source]
Demographics[edit | edit source]
Education[edit | edit source]
Language Education[edit | edit source]
Politics[edit | edit source]
India is a constitutional federal republic with a parliamentary form of government. The Parliament of India (Sansad) is the unicameral legislature of India composed of the President of India and the Pratinidhi Sabha (Assembly of Representatives). The Rashtrapati Bhavan is the official residence of the President of India, while the Pratinidhi Sabha meets at the Sansad Bhavan in New Delhi.
The President serves as head of state and is elected for a six-year term. The President can serve at most two consecutive terms. The President has a primarily ceremonial role, but is entrusted with certain constitutional powers on the advice of the National council of Ministers (Rashtra Mantriparishad). The President has absolute discretion in some areas. The President is elected by popular vote using the method of instant-runoff-voting.
The Pradhan Mantri (Prime Minister) serves as the head of government and is appointed by the President upon nomination by the Pratinidhi Sabha. The Prime Minister usually belongs to the party that secures the highest number of seats in the Pratinidhi Sabha. The formation of coalitions by political parties in India has become increasingly common since the late 20th century.
The Mantriparishad is constitutionally limited to 20 members. Presently it consists of 19 members. The members are nominated by the Prime Minister. They must be or become members of the Pratinidhi Sabha within six months of their appointment in the National council of Ministers. The Pratinidhi Sabha is elected for 4-year terms. The Pratinidhi Sabha is elected by a constituency-wise first-past-the-post voting system.
Administrative divisions[edit | edit source]
India is a federal parliamentary republic. It is divided into XX states and X federal territories. States have their own unicameral legislatures (called the State Vidhan Sabha). The Mukhya Mantri (Chief Minister) is nominated by the state's Vidhan Sabha. The Chief Minister is appointed by the Rajyapal (Governor) of the state. The Governor plays a role similar to that of the President. The Governor is appointed by the President on the advice of National council of Ministers for a 6-year term.
The members of the State's council of Ministers (Rajya Mantriparishad) are nominated by the Chief Minister. They must be or become members of the State's Vidhan Sabha within six months of their appointment. The State Vidhan Sabha is elected for 4-year terms. The State Vidhan Sabha is elected by a constituency-wise first-past-the-post voting system.
The federal territories are ruled by a Governor appointed by the President on the advice of the National council of Ministers.