India

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This article is part of Altverse II.
This article is about the Republic of India.
This article is a part of Altverse II.
Republic of India
'भारत गणराज्य' (hi)

Flag of
Flag
Coat of arms of
Coat of arms
Motto: Sanskrit: सत्यमेव जयते
(Truth alone triumphs)
Anthem: Hindustani: क़दम क़दम बढ़ाये जा
(Keep stepping forward)
Capital New Delhi
Official languages 25 languages
Religion
Hinduism, Islam, Buddhism, Sikhism, Christianity, Jainism
Demonym(s) Indian
Government Indian Parliamentary Democracy
• Prime Minister
Pragyat Hora
• Deputy Prime Minister
Faiz Ahmed Faiz
• Speaker of the Gaṇa Sangha
Chaudhari Jayesh Satish
Legislature Gana Sangha
Establishment
• Independence Day
25 August 1932 (Common Era)
• Unification Day
26 August 1946 (Common Era)
• Republic Day
27 August 1947 (Common Era)
Area
• Total
4,075,522 km2 (1,573,568 sq mi)
Population
• 2014 estimate
809,129,748 (2nd)
• Density
198.53/km2 (514.2/sq mi)
GDP (PPP) 2014 estimate
• Total
$18.555 trillion
• Per capita
$22,932
GDP (nominal) 2014 estimate
• Total
$9.733 trillion (4th)
• Per capita
$12,029
Gini (2019) 0.297
low
HDI (2019) 0.779
high
Currency Indian Rupee (₹) (INR)
Time zone UTC+5 / +6 (West / East)
Date format dd/mm/yyyy (CE)
Driving side left
Internet TLD .in

India, officially the Republic of India (Hindustani: Bhārat Gaṇarājya), is a country in Asia with a population of 809 million, being the world's second most populous country. It is the world's 7th largest country and is also the world's 5th largest economy by GDP (nominal) and 4th largest by GDP (PPP). India is a federal democracy, the second largest democracy in the World. It is bordered by Iran and Afghanistan to the West, China and Bhutan to the North and Burma to the East. India shares a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia. It is bound by the Arabian Sea to the West, the Bay of Bengal to the East and the Indian Ocean to the South. India is the major power in the Indian Ocean Region. India is composed of two time zones, UTC+5:00 (Western Indian Time) and UTC+6:00 (Eastern Indian Time). Delhi is the capital and the country's largest city. Mumbai and Kolkata are generally considered the main financial centers of the Nation. Other major urban areas include Karachi, Chennai, Lahore and Indore.

India was the cradle of one of the first human civilizations, the Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. The Indo-European Sanskrit language diffused into India from the Northwest during the 2nd millennium BCE which led to the Mahajanapada period in Northern India which gave rise to the Mauryan Empire which was the first Empire to unify almost all of the Indian subcontinent into a single-political entity. Buddhism and Jainism arose in India during this period. The Gupta Empire was another important political entity which controlled a large part of the Indian subcontinent during the 4th and 5th centuries CE. The Gupta period is also referred to as the Golden Period of Indian history. The Middle Kingdoms of South India spread Indian cultural influence into South-East Asia and the period also saw the spread and rise of Buddhism in East Asia. Buddhism in India declined during this period, becoming practically non-existent by the start of the 2nd Millennium CE.

Muslim armies from Central Asia intermittently ran over the North Indian plains during the 12th and 13th centuries which led to the establishment of the Delhi Sultanate, another state which was able to exert control over large parts of the Indian subcontinent over short periods of time. Babur, a descendant of Timur, established the Mughal Empire in India during the 16th century CE. The Mughal Empire also came to unify large parts of the Indian subcontinent under a single political entity during the 17th century CE. The Mughal Empire collapsed during the early 18th century AD and the Maratha Empire rose which was also able to exert control over a large part of the Indian subcontinent and came into conflict with the East India Company, fighting a series of wars and collapsing thereafter.

By the early 19th century, large parts of India came under the control of East India Company. The Indian Rebellion of 1857 (known as the First War of Independence in India) was a major, but ultimately unsuccessful uprising against the rule of the British East India Company. Following the Rebellion, the British government dissolved the East India Company and established direct rule over India in the new British Raj. Indian nationalism emerged during the last decades of the 19th century. (---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------)

India is a pluralistic, multilingual and multi-ethnic society. Four major world religions originated in India, namely Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism and Jainism. India is also home to the second-largest Muslim population in the world. The Hindustani language acts as the official lingua franca of the country. India is home to 47 World Heritage sites, the 3rd largest in the world. India is a member of several international organizations including the League of Nations, International Monetary Fund, the World Bank and the World Trade Organisation. India has several international military bases and maintains a strong regional economic and military bloc called the Indian Ocean Cooperation Pact, informally known as the Seychelles Pact. India is a nuclear weapons state. India is widely regarded as a Great Power and is considered a rival of China at the World stage. India is a mineral-rich nation holding large reserves of Coal, Iron Ore, Manganese Ore, Mica, Bauxite, Chromite, Natural Gas, Diamonds, Limestone and Thorium. India currently has ongoing territorial disputes with its neighbor, China mainly over the Indian state of Arunachal Pradesh which is claimed by China as South Tibet. India is also involved in the Bhutanese territorial disputes with China.

Etymology[edit]

The name "India" is derived from the Classical Latin India, a reference to the Indian Subcontinent. The name "India" is the most widely used name for the country in the Western World. The geographical region occupied by the country and its neighbors is also called the Indian Subcontinent. "印度" (Yindu) is the name used in the Chinese language and "インド" (Indo) is the name used in Japanese. The Latin term "India" is ultimately derived from its Sanskrit cognate, Sindhu, which is the name of the Indus river and refers to its well settled southern basin. The ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi (Ἰνδοί) which translates as "the people of the Indus".

The terms Bharat and Hindustan are the official names of the country as mentioned in the Constitution. Bharat is a modern rendering of the historical term Bharatvarsha which was used to refer to the Indian subcontinent. The term Bharat as the name of the country gained popularity in the late 19th-century. Hindustan is a middle Persian name for the region, the name was introduced during the Mughal Empire and has been widely used since. Hindustan is used concurrently with Bharat as the name for the country in the various Indian languages.

History[edit]

Ancient India[edit]

Medieval India[edit]

Early modern India[edit]

Modern India[edit]

Main Article: History of Modern India

Geography[edit]

Biodiversity[edit]

Politics & Government[edit]

Politics[edit]

India is the world's second most-populous democracy.

Government[edit]

Administrative divisions[edit]

The Constitution of India describes India as a Union of States. The administrative divisions of India consist of States and Union Territories. All the states have their own elected legislatures and governments. The Union Territories are directly ruled by the central government through appointed administrators. The Governors of the Union Territories are appointed by the Union Government.

States of India
Province Vehicle Code Capital
Largest
city
Population
Area (km2) Official
language(s)
Chief Minister
Andhra Pradesh AP Hyderabad Telugu Manikonda Chalapathi Raju
Arunachal Pradesh AR Itanagar Tamo Mibang
Assam AS Dispur Asamiya, Bodo Nayandeep Deka Baruah
Bengal BG Dhaka Bengali Mohammed Abu Abdullah
Bihar BH Patna Hindustani, Maithili Neil Kama Gupta
Goa GO Panaji Konkani Chandrakant Keni
Gujarat GJ Ahmedabad Gujarati
Haryana HY Rohtak Hindustani Nand Ram Saini
Hazara HZ Haripur Hindustani
Himachal Pradesh HP Dehradun Hindustani, Sanskrit Zorawar Singh Negi
Jammu & Kashmir JK Srinagar Hindustani, Kashmiri, Dogri Iqbal Khan
Karnataka KT Mysore Kannada
Kerala KL Thiruvananthapuram Malayali
Ladakh LD Leh
Lanka LN Colombo Sinhala, Tamil
Madhya Pradesh MP Bhopal Hindustani Ram Sharan Maurya
Maharashtra MH Pune Marathi Umesh Dhule
Manipur MN Imphal Manipuri
Meghalaya MG Shillong
Mizoram MZ Aizwal
Nagaland NG Kohima
Nepal NP Kathmandu Nepali
Odisha OD Cuttack Odia
Punjab PJ Lahore Punjabi
Rajasthan RJ Jaipur Hindustani, Sanskrit Avnish Bhatia
Sindh SN Hyderabad Sindhi
Tamil Nadu TN Chennai Tamil
Tripura TR Agartala
Uttar Pradesh UP Lucknow Hindustani
Union Territories of India
Province Vehicle Code Capital
Largest
city
Population
Area (km2) Official
language(s)
Governor
Andaman and Nicobar AN Port Blair Luis de Menezes
Delhi DE New Delhi Shankar Prasad Sharma
Daman and Diu and Dadra

and Nagar Haveli

DD Daman Dilip Pendse
Maladweep ML Male Mohammad Hussain
Mahe MA Mahe
Puducherry

and Karaikal

PK Puducherry
Yanam YN Yanam

Foreign, economic, and strategic Relations[edit]

Main Article: Indian National Armed Forces

Economy[edit]

The Indian economy is described as a mixed state capitalist economy with strong welfare programs and a system of progressive taxation. The government maintains total control of essential utilities, these are electricity, water and petroleum sectors. The state-owned enterprises maintain a near monopoly in several strategic sectors such as atomic energy and related sectors, defense manufacturing, . It also maintains partial control over several strategic companies including a 49% ownership of Air India, the national flag carrier.

Notable Indian Companies[edit]

  • Oil & Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC): It is a state-owned multinational crude-oil and gas corporation. Formed by the merger of Assam Oil and Attock Oil and takeover of Burmah Oil Comapny's Indian assets.
  • PetroBangla: Founded by Karim Akhand in 1958 after the discovery of Natural Gas deposits in Bengal. Major natural gas corporation holding major assets in the Bay of Bengal.
  • Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR): Major state-owned research firm and parent company owning several research laboratories, educational institutions, production units and companies across India.
    • National Aerospace Laboratories (NAL): Established in 1941 by the Union Government. A subsidiary of the CSIR responsible for aerospace research and production.
    • National Electronics Laboratories (NEL): Responsible for the development of indigenous computer systems.
  • Hindustan Aircraft: Established in 1939, in Mysore state (now Karnataka) with the help of the then Mysore Rajpramukh, Maharaja Krishna Raja Wadiyar IV.
  • Tata Aircraft: Established in 1947, in Bombay State (now Maharashtra).
  • Tata Advanced Systems (TAS): Established in 1962 for the development of advanced defence technologies including armored vehicles, radars and missiles.
  • Anand Milk Union Limited (AMUL): Worker cooperative in the dairy industry. Largest dairy company in the world.
  • Visvesvaraya Iron and Steel Limited (VISL): Major Iron and Steel corporation in India. Headquarters at Bhadravati, Karnataka.
  • Air India: India's largest airline and private carrier. It is a part of the Tata group of companies.
  • Premier Automobiles: Part of the Walchand group of industries.
  • Tata Motors
  • Hindustan Motors
  • Walchandnagar Industries
  • Scindia Shipyard Limited: Shipyard, jointly owned by the Scindia royal family and Walchand Group.
  • Free Press of India: Major news-media company, owned by Walchand Group.
  • Scindia Steam Navigation

Industries[edit]

Socio-economic challenges[edit]

Demographics, languages, and religion[edit]

India is the world's second most populous nation, behind China, with a population of approx. 809 million according to the 2020 census. India is home to the largest Hindu, Sikh, Jain and Zoroastrian populations of the world and the second-largest Muslim population of the world.

Culture[edit]

Art, architecture and literature[edit]

Performing arts and media[edit]

Society[edit]

Clothing[edit]

Cuisine[edit]

Sports and recreation[edit]