"Orthodoxy, Autocracy, Matriarchy"
|Languages||Court Sillenic, Sillenic vernaculars (Central Sillenic, Berabo-Sillenic), Lakhunian (prestige variety), Qaryaati, Drakan,|
|Religion||Anystesseanism (Orthodox), Ulm (Orthodox Ulm, Oriental Ulm), others|
|Government||Absolute monarchy (2625–2870)|
Semi-constitutional monarchy (2870–2919)
|•||2625–26XX||Natán Iudileno (founder)|
|•||2896–2919||Natanina Iudilena (last monarch)|
|Historical era||Early to late modern|
|•||Wars of Lakhunian unification||26XX-2625|
|•||Dynasty established||November 2625|
|•||Conquest of Sillas||26XX|
|•||Conquest of Adzeia||26XX-27XX|
|•||White Veil Rebellion||2796-2801|
|•||Purple Veil Rebellion||2917-2923|
|•||Abdication of Empress Natanina||1 August 2919|
|•||2900||4,092,200 km2 (1,580,000 sq mi)|
|Density||34/km2 (89/sq mi)|
|Warning: Value not specified for "continent"|
The Iudilene dynasty was the last in Sillenic history, starting in 2625, and ending in 29XX. It was preceded by the Derrian dynasty, and succeeded by the First Sillenic Republic. The family name iudilena came from the words meaning "the Yellow Ones" (io dilaóuz), which referred to some of the Lakhunian's blonde hair. The Iudilenes themselves hail from the Nathuni tribe, were the first tribe to unify the Lakhunian people. The Iudilenes practiced absolute primogeniture, which contrasted with the male-exclusionary female-only primogeniture of the prior dynasties. In addition to conquering Sillas, they unified the Adzeian subcontinent - thus expanding Sillenic civilization to its greatest extent since the Philippina dynasty. The multiethnic Iudilene Empire was known for its initial prosperity, though tumultuous relations between the Sillenes, Lakhunians, and other various non-Sillenic minorities, and frustration with reforms, would lead to its fall with the Sillenic Revolution of 2919–2921. It is one of the biggest empires in world history, spanning an excess of X.X million square miles.
The Lakhunians are the native inhabitants of Lakhunia, which fell under Sillenic influence during the TBD dynasty. While the Lakhunians adopted Anystesseanism, they resisted further attempts to acculturate them. During the fall of the TBD dynasty, the Nathuni under Nathon unified the Twelve Tribes and conquered Sillas - obliterating the Sillenic army in the Battle of the Jade Gate. Nathon took great strides to appeal to his subjects - most of whom were ethnic Sillenes. The Iudilenes patronized the Orthodox Church (with the Ecumenical Matriarch herself appointing Nathon the title of "Emperor Regnant of the Sillenes" in 26XX - thereby legitimizing his dynasty) and undertook massive government projects and programs such as the repair of the Sillenic Wall, and the enlargement of the Great Canal. His successors, Karolina I, Vitalio, and Karolina II greatly expanded the empire's borders, with the last of these launching campaigns deep into Letsia during the Eastern Crusades, which pitted the predominantly-Ulmian West and the predominantly-Anystessean East against each other. By the mid-28th century, Sillas was the wealthiest and most powerful civilization in the world - with its capital drawing awe from foreigners who visit it. Nevertheless, there was a backlash against the progressive sillenization of Lakhunian culture - with the Twelve Tribes being split between "accommodationist" and "traditionalist" factions. The late-28th century was a pivotal era in Sillenic history. The Blue Veil Rebellion (2796) humiliated the Iudilenes, who reluctantly forced the recognition of Kaloman Church and Lakhunian Church as autonomous churches in communion with the Orthodox Church. Anger stemming from perceived disrespect of the Church, combined with the concurrent famine, precipitated the disastrous White Veil Rebellion (2801).
Sillas proper's population surged from 25 million in 2700, to 90 million in 2850. The conflicts of the late 28th century failed to curtail this rapid population growth. Overpopulation led to a growing dependence on foreign grain imports and a decline in living standards, inflaming increasingly-tenacious relations between the empire's ethnicities. The reformist Empress Pekorina instituted a policy of "separate but equal", and guaranteed her subjects numerous religious and cultural freedoms. Following her assassination, the Lakhunian bureaucrats used this to further oppress the Sillenic majority. An increasingly powerless string of Iudilean monarchs, though sympathetic to the plight of their subjects, were unable to oppose this - thus they alienated both their majority-Sillene subjects and their Lakhunian kinsmen. The Romantic era saw a renaissance in Sillenic literature, though it also saw the emergence of nationalism among the realm's constituent peoples. In 289X, the Sillenic Liberation League incited the First Red Veil Rebellion. The Red Veil Society succeeded in capturing large swathes of the country and even mounted an attack on the capital - reducing it to rubble and killing thousands (including Emperor Gillán). The rebellion backfired when Kasadoro, then the leader of the Red Veil Society, subsequently defected to the anti-Iudilean Lakhunian Bumir Clique upon finding out of his Lakhunian ancestry, subsequently killing millions in the Sillenic Genocide. The Iudilenes and Sillenic Liberation League worked together to put down the rebellion, thus resulting in a brief peace. The Sillenic Civil War would result in the controversial deposition and massacre of the Iudilene family, and the establishment of the First Sillenic Republic.
Both praised and vilified during its long existence, its legacy lives on in the folk cultures of its constituent peoples (among whom include the Sillenes, the Lakhunians, the Qaryaatis, the Mohejarians, the Berabans, the Jauvuk, the Drakans), regional politics, and in popular media. East-West cultural exchanges both drove interest in the Near East (sparking the Orientalist genre of the arts) and also stimulated the progressive "Westernization" of the region's culture. Its importance is also highlighted in the fact that the establishment of the Iudilean dynasty demarcates the beginning of the early modern period in Adzeian history.
Names[edit | edit source]
History[edit | edit source]
Background[edit | edit source]
Protectorate of the Interior (11XX–14XX)[edit | edit source]
Grain-Horse Trade[edit | edit source]
- Main article: Grain Horse Road
While the extension of the Sillenic Wall southwards to the border with Lakhunia in 1XXX created a barrier separating the pacifistic Sillenes from the warlike Lakhunians, they frequently engaged in trade. The Grain Horse Road was one of the most active trade links in the entire Golden Artery. The Sillenes traded grain (mainly millet and maize, both held in low esteem compared to rice), sugar, and silk in-exchange for the Lakhunian horse (taller and stronger than Sillenic horses), meat, and leather.
Despite having an extensive equestrian culture, horses were in fact, not native to Sillas, and were believed to be introduced from the East (possibly by the Lakhunians themselves). Sillas' lack of pasture meant that most horses were fed with fodder, which together with their smaller frame and lower strength, made them inferior to the horses used by the nomads. It was for this reason that Sillas historically employed lightly-armored horse-archers (most of whom women) as the backbone of its military, only using foreign breeds as mounts for more heavily-armored lancers. In 1XXX, realizing that Sillas has not been producing enough militarily-capable steeds opened the Lakhunian Trading Office (based in the city of TBD), thus formally beginning a trading relationship between the two peoples. In addition to buying Sillenic goods, the Lakhunians were also acted as intermediaries between the Sillenes and other nations; though they were considered less reliable than Qaryaatis as the Lakhunians convoys could be raided by members of rival clans, or they would default on their deal and take the goods for themselves.
Lakhunians and Sillenes also enthusiastically partook in the trade as Lakhunia lacked arable land (meaning they subsisted on largely meat and dairy products) while the Sillenes - due to religious prohibitions on the consumption of mammalian meat and slaughter of mammals (extending to birds in some regions) - derived most of their protein from beans, fish, and shrimp. Thus, the Grain Horse Trade transformed both the traditional diets of Lakhunians and Sillenes: meat dumplings, porridges, and salty tea with malted millet became staples for the former, while the latter, free from the guilt of slaughtering a mammal, was able to eat mammalian (goat and mutton) meat.
Early Iudilean era[edit | edit source]
Conquest of Sillas[edit | edit source]
The House of Iudilena (朝的那个黄色人; Classical Sillenic: bē na Iudilena; Modern Sillenic; bé na Giudilena, Nathuni Lakhunian: habus ab-Iyyudilina) was founded by Nathun ab-Karin, who also went by his Sillenic name, "Natán", which was phonologically similar - but etymologically different - from his birth name. Natán. The family name "Giudilena" came from the phrase giu-Dilouena, which meant "the Yellow Ones". This was believed to be a reference to the blonde hair of his kinsmen, as the Nathoni tribe that he was a part of had the highest incidence of naturally-blonde hair in the region. Natán himself, however, was a brunette. The color also held importance in Sillenic culture, as it - similarly to red and orange - was associated with joviality and vitality.
Unlike his kinsmen, Natán was more of a scholar and a diplomat than a warrior; during his visits to Sillas as a teen, he lived in the household of the local magistrate, Zimova Pekinense. She taught him the Sillenic language and allowed him to read books in her private library. He also developed an interest in Sillenic music - mastering the erhu (the two-stringed fiddle) at the age of 12. When he was 21, his older brother Giyyunathun married a Karina woman. By Lakhunian custom, in the case of intertribal marriages, the groom would live with the bride and her family (normally they practice duolocal residence). As a result, it was Natán, the second-eldest, who became the Chief of the Nathuni tribe following his father's passing. Initially, Natán pledged allegiance to the ailing TBD dynasty - accepting the Empresses' gifts of silk, sugar, and spices. However, Natán - from hearsay during his stay in TBD during his youth - anticipated the dynasty's collapse. While Lakhunia at the start of the 27th-century was divided into 12 warring tribes (and further into subtribes and clans), if under a single banner as in the 15th and 23rd centuries, they pose a security threat to Sillas. While normally, Sillas was able to contain this threat by stationing troops at the border and intervening in Lakhunian affairs (encouraging intertribal feuds), internal rebellions forced it to withdraw its forces from the region. Natán exploited this void by launching a campaign to unify the Lakhunian tribes, which ended in 26XX. After unifying the region, he created the Council of Twelve, which consisted of three representatives from each of the twelve tribes. The Nathuni tribe was to be the "first among equals", with each tribe being given a voice (to avoid any attempt to break off from Nathunian leadership) but the Nathuni delegate will have the final say in decisions.
In 26XX, Natán's forces reached the Bikolita Pass, which was defended by General Leonor Dosanka. The June 4 of that year, Empress TBD died under mysterious circumstances. The Empress' will bequeathed the throne to her third-born daughter, Kostantina Derriana. The will was later found to be fradulent - triggering a succession crisis between the tentative Empress, and her older sisters, Caprina and Saturnina. Leonor, whose forces numbereda mere 10,000, asked for reinforcements from the capital. After the request was unheard, Leonor sent an emissary to Natán offering her and her two legion's defection in-exchange for an open surrender and her ennoblement. Natán agreed, despite the deal defying Lakhunian custom, in which peace is not an option, and conflict must end with the killing of most of the losing army, and ritual humiliation of the loser's leaders. Natán sent his response a week later, hence in August 1 of 26XX, the Bikolita Pass of the Sillenic Wall was opened to the Lakhunians. Many peasants on the other side were terrified to see "barbarians" enter their city, especially as Natán's order to not sack the city was largely ignored. Hearing of the breach in the Sillenic Wall, Kostantina Derriana dispatched her lover Grand Commandant Rokeforto-Basilio with 100,000 soldiers (many of whom were highly-esteem "Empress' Daughters") to Fort Bikolita, where the two allied armies of Natán and Leonor soundly-defeated them in battle in September 9, 26XX. The result was a shock to many, as Rokeforto-Basilio was an army veteran and was known for his martiality. The defeat ultimately led to loss of popular confidence in Kostantina Derriana and the Derrian dynasty, and in the following week, there was an attempted storming of the Imperial Palace thousands of peasants demanding her abdication. The following night, the Empress committed suicide out of shame, with the leaves of the mulberry tree that she had hung herself on being written with the inscription IONDIOS KHALIAI (meaning, "God is angry"). While the latter was believed to have been done by either Kaprina or Saturnina to "tarnish" Kostantina Derriana's bloodline (as the State Council could simply decide to appoint the throne to her infant daughter in the event of an inestate death), it unintendedly sent the population into religious and moral panic - with Ulmians and other religious minorities (especially Kalomans) being lynched due to the belief that the dynasty's recent misfortunes had been due to the withdrawal of God's support. In November 3, to legitimize his rule over his conquered regions, Natán styled himself "King of Chrystalia" (later modified to "King Regnant of Chrystalia", as the locals objected to the idea of male-preference succession). In 26XX-26XX, Natán and Leonor achieved further successes in Alabán, the Three Cities, and Cypretzija.
In 26XX, Leonor had gained Natán's trust enough to allow her to lead the Iudilenes' expansion into southern Sillas - capturing the cities of TBD, TBD, TBD. The campaign was immensely successful, aided by the deaths of both the Grand Commandant and the Empress (the head of the military and government hierarchies), and the ongoing succession crisis between the late Kaprina's elder sisters. As the Iudilenes advanced northward, however, the Lakhunian Bannermen became increasingly unfamiliar with the terrain. Natán thus ensigned the task of conquering the rest of Sillas to his Sillenic subordinates through his policy of "let Sillenes conquer Sillas". Despite Natán being just "King of Chrystalia" at this point, many Derrian generals anticipated a dynastic change and had defected to the Iudilenes - including Leonor's half-sister, Kheraldina (both of whom's martial talents proved instrumental in the final 26XX Siege of Sillas). The clergy also grew disillusioned with the Derrian dynasty, and on April 23 26XX, Mama TBD herself discreetly met Natán in Alabán. Natán took upon her proposition to coronate him as "Emperor Regnant of the Sillenes", in-exchange for following imperial protocol in regards to the patronage of the Orthodox Church. Natán's first coronation occurred on June 12 of the same year, it was also this date when Natán formally founded the Iudilene dynasty.
Princess Saturnina emerged as the Iudilenes' most competent adversary, as she was raised to succeed her father as the next Grand Commandant. Saturnina, however, was only 21 years old in 26XX, and therefore aristocrats rallied around Kaprina (aged 30), the senior of the two sisters. Nevertheless, Kaprina herself recognized Saturnina's martial talent and on February 20 of 26XX, decreed that Kaprina and Saturnina would tentatively rule as co-Empresses until the "Lakhunian Menace" had been dealt with. To curtail Saturnina's ambition to be on the throne, Kaprina also gave the position of Grand Commandant to Saturnina, despite vocal opposition from the military. Saturnina, with an army of only 20,000 men and women - including 600 cannoneers, routed the Iudilene army led by the half-sisters in the Battle of South Forbaz. Saturnina subsequently captured Sanouán and the Three Cities in an attempt to sever the territories held by nascent Iudilene dynasty into two. Giyyunathun was furious upon hearing of the Iudilenes' defeats, and relayed to Natán his concerns on the half-sisters' loyalty. Natán correctly attributed the defeats to the technological disparity, as the Derrians made use of gunpowder technology. Hence, Natán created a corps of artillerymen known as the Kanun-bákhi (in Sillenic: 炮兵, Kánonkor), which consisted of Sillenic engineers (though some coerced into joining) who were paid for their services. Nevertheless, Saturnina's string of victories in the grand scheme of things, did little to stall Iudilene expansion. Aggrieved by Saturnina's abrupt and controversial appointment as the Grand Commandant (which was based solely on blood relation; nepotism was frowned upon in the Sillenic military, despite being an "open secret"), General Kamemberta abandoned her post in Turanshikun Pass and went to Sillas in protest. Now largely undefended, tribesmen led by Natán's maternal grandfather, Rubirti, surged into eastern Central Sillas - besieging the cities of Discertopolis and Dasmarineas. Upon hearing of this, Saturnina attempted to deal with Natán: in-exchange for Natán's support for Saturnina's place at the throne, he will become a Minister and his people will be given settlement rights. Nevertheless, Saturnina and her entourage were mobbed before they had the chance to speak with Natán. Kheraldina and Leonor were shocked by Saturnina's attempted defection, and lobbied for Saturnina to be posthumously given military honors and buried military-style. Modern historians believed that had Saturnina reached Natán, the latter would have probably accepted the deal, as he was well aware of the Sillenic populace's opposition to a male monarch and the ethnic tensions that could arise between the Lakhunians and Sillenes - who were from near-diametrically different cultures.
The death of Saturnina, and the subsequent disillusionment and defection of more Generals, had rid the Derrians of a military-able leader. In 26XX, Kaprina and her niece Bría-Kostantina, fled from Sillas to Makuku in cowardice. The capital fell into chaos as the military deserted from their posts: some of Sillas' residents fled into the surrounding countryside; some engaged in lootings - storming even churches such as the Saint Katrina Cathedral and taking gold and precious gems off holy artifacts; some, having heard of the Lakhunian reputation's for sexual violence, preemptively committed suicide - crowding the streets with bodies. The Mama Katrina V tried to calm the public by having Natán coronated a second time in the Great Basilica of Iesikapolis, after taking the city in 26XX. His legitimacy was still doubted for his perceived tolerance of Lakhunian atrocities such as the Sillenic Massacre of 26XX (the latter event causing Katrina V to infamously rebuke him upon his attempt to enter the Great Basilica), and based on his sex, as the Great Derrian Code and its precedent legal codes had limited the imperial succession to female heirs in descending relatedness to the incumbent or recently-deceased Empress. In 26XX, Natán established his own Six Ministries and the Great Iudilene Code which amended succession law to absolute primogeniture and allowed ethnic groups to abide by different legal traditions - thus preserving Lakhunian customary law for Lakhunians. Natán also laid the basis of the ethnic policy followed by the Iudilenes for the next century and a half: a policy of "integration but not assimilation". He also encouraged intermarriages between Sillenic and Lakhunian nobility, and invited both to banquets that hosted in an attempt to breed co-amity between them.
In 26XX, Natán and his court permanently moved to Sillas, which became the capital of the Iudilene dynasty for the next three centuries. Natán never acclimatized to life in Sillas, and whenever he could, would go on hunting trips to Lakhunia or Chrystalia. While maintained Sillas' tradition of civil service, Natán made some modifications to the Two Departments and Six Ministries system. He expanded the responsibilities of the Bureau of Palatial Affairs, which eventually became independent from the Ministry of Rites. Over time, those in the Bureau of Palatial Affairs, while initially tasked with managing the affairs of the family and the internal court, gained tremendous informal influence (overshadowing the Secretariat) by influencing members of the Imperial Family. He also established the Bureau of Lakhunian Affairs, which oversaw relations with the Twelve Chiefs and helped administer Lakhunia - which was a "special province" of the Empire. These two institutions were unique to the Iudilene dynasty. Among his other reforms was the standardization of the Lakhunian language, which became written with the Sillenic alphabet. He based the standard form of Lakhunian after the Nathunian dialect, which was the most divergent and least intelligible variety of Lakhunian. Some Lakhunians refused to speak Standard Lakhunian, and instead continued to use Giyyunathuni Lakhunian, which was historically lingua franca of the Lakhunian region and the language's prestige variety. Unlike previous dynasties, the Iudilene dynasty did not use Classical Sillenic as its administrative language. Natán thought its use was unreasonable as it was not a natural language (meaning it is lacking in first-language speakers), and thus, official texts are only understood by the literati. Instead, in 26XX, he commissioned the creation of "Court Sillenic" - which was based on Central Sillenic. However, Court Sillenic also had influences from the southern dialects (which were experiencing the South-Central Vowel Shift) and Nathunian-Lakhunian itself. While Court Sillenic (initially) did not have native speakers, it was more similar to vernaculars, hence enabling people from different provinces to talk to one another with ease.
Natán enthusiastically promoted Sillenic arts, music, and philosophy. He commissioned the construction of dozens of churches and monasteries throughout both Sillas and Lakhunia, such as the famous Saint Giffano Monastery in 26XX, which was located on top of the Perfect-Sandwich-Hill. Another place he commissioned the construction for was the Everlasting Phoenix Theatre, which was the favorite theatre of the Iudilene monarchs and the place where some of Sillas' classics were first performed (such as the seminal 28XX ballet, "The Prince" and the drama "Into the Depths" - which has since been adapted numerous times).
Natán expanded government mints in an attempt to stabilize the economy, which was suffering from hyperinflation as a result of the collapse of Western trade (from which Sillas derived its silver from). He also standardized the weight of each tael to one ounce and pegged each tael value to 10,000 cash (worth 1/3rd of a cavan). Despite this, Natán still had trouble procuring revenue, and thus for the years 26XX–26XX even lowered the land tax to a mere 3% (from 10%) and for the period, suspended the poll tax and replaced it with corvée.
High Iudilene era[edit | edit source]
Reign of Vitalio[edit | edit source]
Reign of Karolina[edit | edit source]
Karolina is the first of the sillenized Iudilenes, being three-quarters Sillenic and only one-fourth Lakhunian in ancestry. In addition, she is the only one to have been born with only a Sillenic name; her predecessors with the exception of Natán were all born with two names. Following her father's untimely death, Karolina moved rapidly, with her reforms credited with further consoldiating Iudilene rule. Like her father, her heavy-handedness and political repression led her to be rememberred as a tyrant. In contrast to her father, however, she did little to maintain the cultural distinctiveness of Lakhunians and even coerced them to assimilate into Sillenic society. For example, she stripped ethnic Lakhunians of their rank should they refuse to adopt Sillenic dress, or profess Anystessean Orthodoxy. Furthermore, she funded the construction of numerous schools in Lakhunia so Lakhunian children - especially girls - can receive a Sillenic-style education. She also rescinded preferential treatment of her Lakhunian subjects. She viewed the Ten Banners as unfit for bureaucratic work and thus totally denied them any role in administration; militarily, they were made secondary to the Empress’ Daughters, thus restoring the latter to the preeminence they enjoyed in prior dynasties. Scholars believe that her insistence on full sillenization is a result of a desire to legitimize the Iudilenes as a legitimate Sillenic dynasty, rather than a conquest dynasty. Another dimension of this is fulfilling the traditional Sillenic monarch’s role as a patron of the Church. She convened the Council of 1715, which affirmed the unity of the Anystessean Orthodox Church, and consented to religious inquisitors in the Sayalei and Kaloman Churches due to reported heresy. Under her, the government also began collecting a poll tax targeted against religious minorities, which was used for communal projects solely benefiting the Orthodox.
Karolina instituted numerous economic reforms. She abolished government mints entirely, with silver ingots (taels) replacing the role of gold coins. She also replaced the land tax with an income tax, as was commonplace in preceding dynasties. Finally, she abolished corvée entirely, with most government projects done by paid wage laborers or penal slaves. In the 28th century, Sillas underwent a period of proto-industrialization, becoming a world leader in textiles manufacturing and productive agriculture. Sillenic manufactures such as cotton textiles, silks, and porcelain were coveted around the world; refined sugar, abaca, spices, and peppers were also exported. Fueled by demand, foreign trade boomed by 4% throughout the 28th century. Sillas-bound trade was limited to Kalomapolis and Port-of-Sillas; hefty anchorage fees and customs duties discouraged foreign merchants from docking at other port cities. This is partly so the government can easily monitor foreigners. Foreign accounts of Sillas portrayed it as a wealthy and luxurious civilization, with the explorer and diplomat Landrew Ioxemandropoulous in his A Journey to Sillas and the East Indies: (2733) saying "there is no place as abound with fruit and plenty as this exubant empire". In spite of this wealth, by the mid-28th century, Sillas began facing problems caused by mounting overpopulation. In 2700, about 25 million people lived in Sillas proper; this grew to 44 million in 2750, 66 million in 2800, and peaked at 90 million in 2850. The economy could not keep with this population growth: as a result, lots became increasingly smaller and smaller, and with no accompanying increase in agricultural productivity, people found it harder and harder to pay their taxes or participate in the economy. Even worse, this trend was accompanied by deforestation and resultant desertification: large swathes of the South and Northwest, which had been derived savannah, turned into semi-arid or Mediterranean scrubland. By the the turn of the 29th century, per-capita income had dropped precipitously, while stagnant tax revenue coupled with increasing government corruption and expenses created the conditions for future fiscal crises.
Reign of Chambertina[edit | edit source]
The Iudilene Empire reached its height of power during the reign of Chambertina, who ruled for 71 years from 2720 to 2811. She is credited with the transformation of the empire into a trans-continental power. Her reign is most associated with militarism and territorial conquest. Chambertina’s reign is considered to be the third (and last) of the “fraternal monarchies”, periods in Sillenic history where the Empress and her brother share power, with the latter serving as the Minister of War or Grand Commandant.
Chambertina was rumored to be the issue of Empress Karolina and one of her senior advisors, General Viskonsin. This is rather unlikely, given Chambertina and the Emperor Consort were close during her youth, and it is said that Chambertina had a strong resemblance to her presumptive father. During her youth, she was an excellent student, though she found her studies boring and preferred to hunt, play polo, and race. A mutual interest in these activities as well as her status as the sole daughter (and thus preferred heir) made Chambertina the favorite among her siblings. Due to her intelligence, she was able to expedite the acquisition of the highly-coveted Tertiary Degree to nine years, thus acquiring it at just age 23. Her alma mater was the University of Sillas. Her insistence on joining a large institution is in contrast to the traditional practice of sending members of the imperial family to more private institutions (due to security concerns). At the same time of graduating, she also married Adriano Derriano, who was the eldest son of the incumbent Marchioness of Extended Peace. The marriage was strategically important, as the Iudilenes were unusual in initially not observing the practice of marrying off the heir of the founder to a member of the preceding royal house. Her marriage, however, earned initial scrutiny as some viewed it as a political marriage rather than a genuine one (as the Church and Anystessean ethics discourage arranged marriages).
With Iudilene rule over Sillas secure, Chambertina worked to expand the empire's armies. She trusted the Secretariat (which oversaw everyday administration) to act autonomously, giving substantial powers to Paulina Tiflidina, the Minister of Personnel. Tiflidina eventually became sole regent during the duration of the Letsian Campaign (2751–2755) - the only instance in Sillenic history of a regent not being a blood relative. Her reluctance to personally engage in bureaucratic affairs is evident in her choice of advisors: her privy council consisted mainly of military officials and was the smallest of the Iudilene monarchs. While she preserved the bulk of the traditional military establishment, she still implemented numerous reforms. To instill loyalty to the state and to motivate good performance in battle, she doubled the salary of the Empress' Daughters and provided compensation to the families of conscripts. Meanwhile, she oversaw the expansion of the Natanine Arsenal. By 2750, it could produce upwards of 100,000 arms annually. These arsenals consisted of blast-furnaces (which produced iron and steel) and workshops that produced small arms and artillery pieces. Sillenic guns at the time were roughly on par with Western guns, and while Sillenic cannons were of lower quality (having a lower caliber), the sheer numbers by which they are produced compensate for this deficiency. The military hierarchy’s insistence on limiting arms to the Empress’ Daughters, who on average numbered 200,000-strong (one-fifth of the Iudilene’s total military forces), however, nullified Sillas’ industrial advantage. This was also contrary to military doctrine, which demanded at least one-third of deployed troops being armed with guns.
From 2450 at the young age of 25, until 2755, Chambertina waged about twelve military expeditions collectively known as the Anystessean Crusades. She led all with them, and she was accompanied by her brother, Vánden, in all about two of them. The reasons for the campaigns are nuanced. It is suggested that the Anystessean Crusades is simply a repeat of the religious wars waged by Sillas in the 24th and 25th centuries, especially given the religious casus belli. However, historians also have argued that the wars were due to Chambertina’s personal need to validate herself, or to further legitimize the Iudilene Empire’s Sillenic identity by uniting the Anystessean World under one government. The first four expeditions were known as the Drakan Campaign. The Sillenic capture of the Drakan region was enabled by its political instability in the preceding century, which resulted in its fracturing into numerous states. The fifth expedition had the goal of “punishing” the schismatic Drakans, and the heretical Tigayans; while Chambertina failed in subduing the latter, she was able to extract large amounts of booty from the region. The sixth expedition resulted in the conquest of Sayalen. The remaining expeditions involved incursions into northeast Letsia, and fighting with non-Anystesseans including Ulmians, Maquqa, Enulmians; as well as the Old Orthodox/Sedevacantists, who refused to acknowledge the Reconciliation of the Orthodox Church. These final six expeditions resulted in a pyrrhic victory, though it was a victory nonetheless. By the end of the Anystessean Crusades, the Iudilene Empire had reached an area of X.X million sq miles (or X.X million km2). This is the largest Sillas had been since the Luzonerian dynasty, and in fact, exceeds its area by XXX,XXX sq miles. The region of northeast Letsia served as a buffer between the Anystessean World and the rest of Letsia, though these gains were quickly lost after Chambertina’s death due to logistical constraints, which manifested itself during the final years of her reign. Only the Draka and Sayalen represented long-term, strategic gains. Iria was granted independence but would remain a bastion ofOorthodoxy - resisting pressure from the Reformed Churches and the Drako-Orthodox Church during the religious strife of the Mild Century.
The Anystessean Crusades marked a turning point in world history, as the war forever changed their relationship between the Nelrimic religions and motivated western colonization. It also was the last instance in which Sillas would win a war with a Western power; decades later, in the TBD War, Sillas was soundly defeated. The Anystessean Crusades also revealed ethnoreligious frictions, such as that between the Empress’ Daughters and the Ten Banners. Vanden was disliked by many bannermen because of his bias towards the Sillenic troops, famously deriding the Ten Banners as “a legion of mounted idiots”. His attitude towards Lakhunian bannermen potentially stems from their failures on the battlefield; compared to the Empress’ Daughters, the Lakhunian troops were ill-motivated, less experienced, and less well-armed. They also detested having to fight under Sillenic military doctrine, as the Sillenes’ reliance on ranged weapons and frequent use of psychological warfare (especially the execution of deceptive tactics) was seen as cowardly and antithetical to Lakhunian honor.
Sillas went through a period of religious upheaval in the 28th century. While the Anystessen Crusades saw the stamping out of the Old Orthodox communities, there was a widening right between the laity and the clergy. The popular expression of Orthodoxy became more mystical and spiritual, in contrast to the growing rationalism and materialism of the Church (which itself is in response to advances in scientific knowledge from the 25th century onwards). The most popular of the emerging movements was the Absolute Purity movement, which denounced clerical marriage, seeking to ban the practice of ordinating married women to the clergy, as well as the practice of “spiritual marriages” (sexless, platonic marriages sometimes involving foster children) between clerics. It was led by ex-nun Rotunda Bogomila, who additionally preached of the imminent Second Coming and the necessity of society to model itself after the Kingdom of Heaven through measures such as banning alcohol and instituting sexual segregation. Rotunda Bogomila would be later be prosecuted by the Church under the charges of heresy, with clerical courts banishing her despite public outcry; many other persons like her would receive the same fate. There were a wide variety of religious movements asides from the Absolute Purity movement, such as the Sun Dance movement, which promoted a greater role of dancing and hallucinogenic drugs in worship. The movement is believed to be due to neopagan influences, with the focus on solar worship potentially being imported from Letsia by returning soldiers. The Church viewed these movements as subversive and dangerous to the religious-moral establishment.
Given her religious fervor, Chambertina sided with the Church in punishing the "heretical" movements of the 2700s, helping drive them to extinction. Unlike her predecessors, however, she had an accommodationist approach when dealing with schismatic movements within the Orthodox Church. For example, in 2775, she legalized the conversion of Orthodox Anystesseans to minority confessional movements, thus liberating thousands of crypto-Ulmians, crypto-Kalomanites, and the like from the threat of persecution. This also aligned civil laws with religious laws, as the Anystessean Code did not punish apostasy as it held baptism and its effects (of conferring God’s grace) to be permanent. Under her, the church also permitted the nativization of secular clergy, particularly in Lakhunia. This in particular secured her support among the Lakhunians, though the policy may have inadvertently enabled the Lakhunian Church’s secession from the Orthodox Church following her death.
Chambertina had a loving relationship with Adriano. Chambertina bore her first child at age 36 - which was exceptionally late even for Sillenic monarchs, who married in the mid-to-late 20s and have their first child shortly after. Some court physicians have attributed this to her subfertility, which would be somewhat dubious given the fact she had four more children after her first child. Some modern historians have suggested that the physical pressures of campaigning, which included riding on horseback for extended periods of time and a meager diet, rendered her infertile; indeed, in her personal journals, she noted that she had an irregular menstrual cycle (or sometimes, the absence of one) during the years she campaigned.
Blue and White Veil Rebellions[edit | edit source]
The Blue Veil Rebellion (2812) and the White Veil Rebellion (2815) marked tipping points in Sillenic history, which thereafter became dominated by concerns over ethnoreligious strife.
The Blue Veil Rebellion pitted Lakhunians against each other, with the Nathuni leading one side, and the Giyyunathani and the Kharini leading the other. The dissident Lakhunians were successful in garnering support from other ethnoreligious minorities - particularly Kalomans, Oriental Ulmians, and the Reformed churches. Not wanting to alienate his Lakhunian kinsmen, newly-installed Emperor Sovignon coerced the Ecumenical Matriarch to grant more autonomy to the sui iris churches. The ability of the rebels to negotiate with the Emperor himself was a humiliating blow to the image of the monarchy, and in the winter of the same year, the Sillenes - many of whom were close to starvation following a recent famine, and galvanized with the blatant maltreatment and disrespect of the Church - revolted in the far more devastating White Veil Rebellion. The rebellion was not put out until 2801, and though it brought temporary peace to the land (which was to be upset less than a century later), it permanently harmed the relationship between the Iudilenes and their subjects. A Sillenic nationalist organization, the Sillenic Liberation Alliance (SLA) was founded shortly after, and waged a low-level civil conflict in the provinces of South Olmac and Chrystalia. However, an aversion to war (due to underlying pacifistic cultural attitudes) and cultural fatalism ultimately prevented the SLA from amassing enough followers to challenge Iudilene rule.
The Mild Century[edit | edit source]
The Mild Century describes the roughly century-long period between the White Veil Rebellion (2801) and the Crimson Uprising (2901), during which Sillas experienced an uneasy peace. This peace masked a myriad of internal problems, which were only partially resolved.
Reign of Rokeforto[edit | edit source]
Emperor Regnant Rokeforto's main legacy was the implementation of the Rokefortian Laws in 28XX, which affirmed the status of Lakhunia as a special province within the empire, split major cities into ethnic quarters, and mandated ethnic identification cards. While members of the scholar-gentry and clergy were also issued these cards, they were not required to hold them at all times. While the Rokefortian Laws were implemented with the intention of furthering ethnic and cultural pluralism and thus solving the empire's ethnoreligious strife, in practice, it served to further oppress non-Lakhunian commoners by recording their whereabouts and restraining their mobility. Discontent over the Rokefortian Laws adversely fuelled the growth of ethnonationalist separatist groups such as the Sillenic Liberation Alliance (SLA) and the Beraban National Front (BNF), which both claimed >10,000 militiamen and militiawomen by 2850.
The Lakhunians were concerned about their status as a minority, and concocted several policies to "maximize" the Lakhunian population. First, they deemed members of other Caucasoid ethnicities who fit several phenotypic criteria as "Lakhunians". They also created the "one drop" rule, which assigned children of mixed-race unions where either the father or mother is Lakhunian as a Lakhunian. Thirdly, the tasdukhó (blood tax) was created: every year, a certain percentage of children aged 7–14 are inducted into the Servankabesa Corps (literally "Imperial Servants Corps"). The tasdukhó was ostensibly applied to all ethnicities, but since most Lakhunians were a member of a banner (serving as a part-time soldier), in reality, they avoided it. There was also a hefty compensation tax (which was 200 cavan annually, or 6,000,000 cash) that generally only the richest of nobles and aristocrats can afford. As a result, the burden of the thekstukó fell upon the peasants. They were forbidden from marrying and must serve as soldiers loyal to the Iudilenes (to counteract the dubious loyalty of the Sillenic Standard Army, the Empress' Daughters Corps, and of the Lakhunian Banners). In exchange, their immediate relatives would be granted minor nobility: allowing them entry or residence into the Lakhunian Quarters, and freeing them from the requirement of carrying identification cards.
Understandbly, ethnic strife intensified as a result of the Rokefortian Laws. The 2830s, in particular, were a time of civil restiveness. Numerous ethnic revolts occured, though none reached the scale of the disastrous Blue and White Veil Rebellions. The largest of these revolts, however, the 2836 Qaryaati Revolt, culminated in the Bloody Sunday Massacre, which saw 100,000 deaths. Asides from tensions between the Sillenic majority and the Lakhunian ruling class (and to a lesser extent, their allies within the Sillenic gentry), there was also conflict in Beraberia between Sillenes, Beraberians, and Berabans; as well as in Qaryaat between Qaryaatis and Silleno-Qaryaatis. These conflicts could be attributed to wealth disparities, competition over land, and ethnic favoritism within the government, as the overwhelming majority of bureaucrats and magistrates were Sillenes. The government paid little attention to these ethnic rivalries, especially compared to the effort they put into the reconciliation of Sillenes and Lakhunians. Some historians believe that this was part of a deliberate "divide and conquer" strategy, while others believe it can be simply explained by government negligience or a desire to prioritize the appeasement of the Sillenic majority.
Rokeforto's reign was otherwise uneventful. Analysis of Rokeforto is mixed, while he is believed to have genuinely wanted the preservation of the empire's multiculturalism, and the resolution of the empire's various ethnoreligious conflicts, his reforms led to the oppposite. Additionally, Rokeforto is perceived to be a weak, idle leader. He often deferred to his allies when making decisions, and was criticized as spending excessive time playing polo or abruptly cancelling political meetings. In 2837, Rokeforto willingly abdicated due to old age.
Reign of Pekorina[edit | edit source]
Optimism returned under the reign of Pekorina, who had served as Governor–General of the Lakhunia Special Province from 2831–2837. She was in a strategic marriage with Leopoldo (m. 1830), a member of the Giyyunathan tribe. This broke the streak of marriages with Sillenic nobles, thus helping dispel the belief that the Iudilenes were abandoning their Lakhunian heritage.
Pekorina was a competent monarch who recognized the need to maintain order. In 2840, she established the Bureau of Special Affairs, an agency within the Censorate which functioned as the secret police. The agency, also called the Guard, conducted espionage against the Iudilenes' internal and external enemies. They were also tasked with the infiltration of separatist groups - the Sillenic Liberation Alliance in particular. This program, known as Operation Stealth, involved sending young unmarried men and women - who constituted the bulk of SLA recruits, into SLA cells as moles and sleeper agents. The organisation's growth led to the establishment of a more concrete and radical platform, and the relaxation of their clandestine cell system; both of which benefited the Iudilenes by enabling them to easy identify the organisation's members. Nevertheless, the figurehead of the SLA, referred to simply as the "Empress" due to allegedly being a direct descendent of the last Derrian pretender, was only personally known to the organisation's top officials.
The concern over national security also had a foreign dimension. In 2844, the Azourian merchant vessel Hushang fired on a squadron of Sillenic junks, killing about 84 sailors. While the Azourian government promptly apologized, the event - known as the Hushang Affair - was an international embarassment, demonstrating the outdatedness of the Iudilene Navy as a consequence of decades of neglect. The humiliation prompted Pekorina to begin the process of military modernization, though this was not accompanied by corresponding economic or socio-political reforms. The Imperial Army began the replacement of smoothbore muskets with rifled muskets and needle guns, and purchased patents to produce modern artillery. Meanwhile, the Navy bought foreign battleships and developed the capability to produce smaller steamships. The lack of industrial infrastructure, however, made the production of these armaments expensive, which stifled militarization. Another aspect of military reforms was tactics. Since the introduction of gunpowder weapons, their used was generally limited to the Empress' Daughters, who evolved from horse-archers to mounted infantry who used mounts for mobility and reconaissance, but otherwise fought on foot. The introduction of guns to infantry as standard issue was in accordance with the general decline of cavalry during this period. Nevertheless, political and cultural pressures and their continued utility in some contexts ensured the prominence of the Empress' Daughters for years to come.
Modernization[edit | edit source]
In 287X, Prince Gillan, Pekorina's eldest child, ascended to the throne. While this was in accordance to he Iudilene law of succession - which was based on absolute primogeniture - many expected Pekorina to bequeath the throne to Tiberina, her only daughter. To add on to the controversy, Gillan, aged just 18 at the time, was not yet married. He resisted political pressure to marry, instead took a vow of virginity and designated his sister as heir apparent. Gillán proved to be one of the most popular of the Iudilene monarchs, portraying himself as the "Empire's Uncle". While Gillan was an active monarch, behind the scenes, he often asked Tiberina for her insight, leading historians to call her Gillan's émminence grise.
The Gillanine era corresponded to the height of the Mild Century, being associated with intense reform and national optimism. In his first three years as Emperor Regnant, he instituted sweeping reforms. He adopted the motto "Orthodoxy, Autocracy, and Matriarchy" (Sampaninouala, Sanlirer, Sangkulthura, literally "One Belief, One Leader, One Culture"), which outlined the Gillanine government's intention of consolidating the Orthodox Church, state power, and tradition to resist western encroachment. He promulgated the liberal Gillanine Constitution, which reestablished Derrian-era government institutions and expanded civic government at the lower level. The document also reaffirmed the equality of the sexes, ethnicities; guaranteed religious liberties; and stressed the government's obligation to support the people's welfare. Nevertheless, his political reforms were somewhat stifled by a conservative court and the continued prominence of the Censorate, which was seen as critical to national security.
One of Gillan's foremost goals was to revitalize the economy. During his reign, Sillas underwent a period of sustained economic growth, driven by the textiles industry and commercial agriculture. Its main exports consisted of silks (being the world's largest producer), refined sugar, and porcelain; it was also among the top producers of abaca, cotton, spices, tobacco, and coffee - though these were produced for domestic consumption. The factory system replaced the guild system and the putting-out system as the primary mode of production. Accompanying this was the importation of foreign machinery, the use of steam power, and the construction of basic infrastructure such as railway, modern canals, and telegraph lines. Despite foreign pressure to liberalize trade, Gillan insisted on pursuing economic self-sufficiency (autarky). He implemented tariffs and price controls on key goods, particularly on rice; as the majority of the empire's subjects were farmers (60% by 1902), opening the sector to foreign competition could potentially endanger their livelihood. The Iudilene Empire's relative economic independence was possible due to two factors: its large population and access to resources, which freed it from relying on foreign markets and raw material imports, respectively.
Collapse[edit | edit source]
By the 30th century, economic modernization, restoration of Sillas' cultural prestige, and consolidation of state power seemed to assure Sillas' future stability. However, this façade would be soon shattered by successive rebellions that signalled the end of the Iudilene dynasty.
Red Veil Insurrection[edit | edit source]
The Portent Incident, which occured during the 1902 Great Exhibition of Sillas, marked the beginning of Sillas' troubles during the first period of the 30th century. The Portent Incident involved the bombing of strategically important sites within the city of Sillas, including the Grand Plaza - where Emperor Regnant Gillán was delivering a speech, the Lakhunian Quarters, and the Jade Palace complex (which contained the Six Ministries and other important government agencies). As a result of the initial blast, and the resultant fire (which lasted for three days), about 70 percent of the city's buildings were reduced to rubble; the chaos also claimed about 100,000 souls, including the Emperor Regnant himself, important government officials, and the numerous foreign dignitaries who attended the Great Exhibition. The event was condemned by the Sillenic public and the international community alike. Similarly, the death of Katrina V, who was trapped in the burning Grand Basilica of St. Katrina, galvanized the Anystessean World.
The Sillenic Liberation League (SLA) quickly claimed responsibility for the attacks.
- sillenic paramilitaries organized under sillenic liberation alliance (SLA)
Kasadoro Mutiny[edit | edit source]
- kasadoro group & associates break off
- radical sillenic nationalism
- plus anti-clericalism
- government ceasefire with moderate SLA groups
The Disturbances[edit | edit source]
The Disturbances is regarded as the coup de grâce of the Iudilene dynasty.
Decade of Uncertainty[edit | edit source]
Purple Veil Rebellion[edit | edit source]
Establishment of First Sillenic Republic[edit | edit source]
Government[edit | edit source]
Just like prior dynasties, the Iudilean Empire's government was organized into the Six Ministries system. However, there were two Secretaries for each Ministry - one Sillene, and one Lakhunian. Civil officials were also chosen through competitive civil service examinations (which were more or less the same since its inception, until the First Sillenic Republic). However, the Iudileans delegated more power to the Censorate, which came to function both as a supervisory organ of government and as paramilitary secret police and less to the legislative. The Iudileans also allocated ranks based on ethnicity, with a certain percentage of offices going to each ethnic group (with Sillenes - as the majority of the population, thus comprising most bureaucrats). However, in this arrangement, mobility was somewhat stifled - many high office appointees were Lakhunians, many of whom were incompetent and/or disinterested with the affairs of government. Unlike other ethnicities, Lakhunian men can participate in civil service examinations and become bureaucrats. Usually, these men would also concurrently hold a martial office, and participating in civil service (which would mean joining the ranks of the scholar-gentry) would just be seen as a matter of boosting prestige.
Iudilean monarchy[edit | edit source]
Central government agencies[edit | edit source]
The Iudilene Empire was governed by a monarch, either an Empress or an Emperor. Unlike previous dynasties, the Iudilenes' succession laws were based on absolute primogeniture, hence the eldest child (regardless of gender) is heir apparent. Previous dynasties followed uterine primogeniture, which prevented any males from inheriting the throne; if an Empress were to die without issue, it would pass to her sisters, her nieces, or her female cousins.
As in earlier dynasties, the Empress is considered the Empire's head of government and the Commander-in-Chief (though she delegates control over military affairs to the Grand Commandant, who is usually her relative). The government has two overarching departments: the Department of Spiritual Affairs, and the Department of Temporal Affairs. The Department of Spiritual Affairs is responsible for aiding the Orthodox Church in activities such as the collection of tithes, the construction of new churches, and the management of church lands. The Department of Temporal Affairs can be divided into the six ministries, and the two subdepartments. The latter two are the Subdepartment of Lakhunian Affairs, which are responsible for overseeing the empire's Lakhunian subjects, and the Subdepartment of Palatial Affairs, which manages the internal affairs of the imperial family (such as its finances) and the workings of the inner palace. These two agencies are unique to the Iudilene dynasty, with the functions of the Subdepartment of Palatial Affairs being handled by the Bureau of Palatial Affairs, which was under the oversight of the Ministry of Rites. The six ministries are, in order:
- Ministry of Personnel: It was responsible for the personal administration of all civil officials.
- Ministry of Finance: It was responsible for tax collection, minting coins, and the management of the salt and iron monopolies.
- Ministry of Public Works: It was responsible for the maintenance of roads and canals, and handling of government projects.
- Ministry of Rites: It was responsible for overseeing the education system, the administration of the civil service examinations, and foreign affairs.
- Ministry of Defense: It was responsible for managing military affairs and administering the military examinations. It did not have control over the Lakhunian Banners, which were under the direct control of the Lakhunian Tribal Chiefs.
- Ministry of Justice: It handled all legal affairs, including the supervision of local law courts.
Unlike in previous dynasties, each ministry was headed by two secretaries - one Sillene, and one Lakhunian. In practice, however, the Lakhunian secretary deferred full control over their respective ministry's responsibilities to the Sillene secretary.
There were two legislative bodies: the State Council, and the Council of Twelve. The State Council consisted of 360 councilors, which were nominated by the people but appointed by the Empress/Emperor themselves (in the Luzonerine dynasty and prior, they were directly-elected by the citizenry). The councilors were responsible for drafting imperial edicts, which were reviewed by the pertinent secretary and then submitted to the Emperor/Empress for approval. While they themselves cannot participate in deliberation, they (as could any of the secretaries) could lobby in their interest. The Council of Twelve was unique to the Iudilene dynasty, and consisted of twelve representatives from each tribe. It served as a sort of privy council to the monarch, and could review and block edicts submitted by the State Council before it gets submitted to the monarch.
Lastly, there was the Censorate, which is the supervisory organ of government. They were the "eyes and ears" of the monarch, and toured the country to monitor the behavior and administrative performance of local officials. They also investigated complaints against government officials, which was a function of the defunct Court of Audit (which was abolished for being too "scrutinous" of the Iudilene dynasty). By the middle of the dynasty, the Censorate had developed into a secret police of sorts, engaging in covert operations against the political opponents of the monarch and other political dissidents. Likewise, they also became responsible censorship of works that portrayed the government in a negative light.
Administrative divisions[edit | edit source]
Territorial administration[edit | edit source]
Military[edit | edit source]
Lakhunian Banners[edit | edit source]
Empress' Daughters[edit | edit source]
Sillenic corps[edit | edit source]
Military modernization[edit | edit source]
Society[edit | edit source]
Demographic trends[edit | edit source]
Ethnic groups[edit | edit source]
Segregation policy[edit | edit source]
Sillenes[edit | edit source]
- Main article: Sillenes
Lakhunians[edit | edit source]
- Main article: Lakhunians
Social status[edit | edit source]
Lakhunian nobility[edit | edit source]
Sillenic scholar-gentry[edit | edit source]
Gender roles[edit | edit source]
Family and kinship[edit | edit source]
Religion[edit | edit source]
Anystessean Orthodox Church[edit | edit source]
Lakhunian Church[edit | edit source]
Oriental Ulm[edit | edit source]
Western Ulmian missions[edit | edit source]
Economy[edit | edit source]
The Sillenic economy during the Iudilene period was large and prosperous. The gross domestic product (GDP) of Sillas proper was about 10% in 2800, and about 20% when taking into account other parts of the empire. This made it behind several other nation such as TBD and TBD, but onpar with the entire output of Northern Letsia. Sillas accounted for 1/4th of the world's entire manufacturing sector, and is called by economic historians to have been an example of proto-industrialization.
By the 28th century, Iudilene Sillas recovered from the turmoil of the Derrian–Iudilene transition. The population within Sillas proper grew from 25 million in 2700 to 60 million by 2800, and to 86 million by 2850. While the Iudilenes restricted foreign trade, internal commerce boomed. The guild/workshop system continued to be the main mode of industrial production. Many merchant and craftswomen guilds were established in urban centers; the merchant class in, particular, became very prominent in social life, financing the construction of theaters and halls, and patronizing the arts. Meanwhile, the introduction of foreign crops such as manioc and sweet potatoes - which were both better suited to the drier South, and the introduction of Western agricultural technology, allowed an agricultural boom.
Agriculture[edit | edit source]
Sillenic agricultural production increased during the Iudilene period. A wide variety of crops were grown, with the staples being rice, soya beans, plaintains in the north, and millet, manioc, and sweet potatoes in the south. Manioc and sweet potatoes were introduced from overseas, and were grown in regions where wet-rice cultivation was too expensive. Other major food crops were sugar, coconut, mulberry, peppers, and cinnamon; major non-food crops were cotton and indigo.
The Iudilenes restored irrigation systems broken during the Derrian–Iudilene transitionary period, as well as built new ones. These new channels were linked to the Grand Canal. Natán also nationalized the grain industry and established price controls on rice, which kept its price stable throughout the 28th century. While the government initially took a portion of the peasant's agricultural produce (as part of the land tax), Emperor Regnant Vitalio abolished this system and began collecting this tax in coinage. This incentivized the cultivation of high-value cash crops and thus stimulated the commercialization of the economy. Furthermore, the corvée system established by Natán was abolished and instead a poll tax was reintroduced. This allowed peasants to spend time manufacturing handicrafts or engaging in trade during the off-season.
Silver[edit | edit source]
Urbanization and commercialization[edit | edit source]
Trade with the West[edit | edit source]
Science and technology[edit | edit source]
Arts and culture[edit | edit source]
High culture[edit | edit source]
Traditional fine arts[edit | edit source]
Baroque era[edit | edit source]
Romantic era[edit | edit source]
Traditional learning and culture[edit | edit source]
Philosophy[edit | edit source]
- Main: Sillenic philosophy