Kalșériton Repúblika (Kalhan)
Motto: Erile ríd foita (Old Kalhan)
Anthem: Arise, Oh Brave Kalșerians!
Map of Kalșeri in the world
and largest city
|Official languages||Kalhan, English|
|Recognised regional languages||Spanish, French, German, Irish, Italian, Miꞌkmaq, Scottish Gaelic|
|Ethnic groups |
6.6% Hispanic or Latino
1.6% Native American
0.5% Șin Gea
|Government||Federal presidential constitutional republic|
|Jim Babich (D)|
|Maia Filisi (D)|
• President of the Senate
|Lisa Smithson (D)|
|Diego Y. Morelos (L)|
|House of Representatives|
• Coronation of Ausvan I as King of Lág
• Coronation of Rovuan VII as King of Greater Lág
• Establishment of the British Province of Callen
|September 3, 1783|
• Adoption of the Charter
|July 1, 1934|
|96,357 km2 (37,204 sq mi) (108th)|
• 2018 estimate
|299/km2 (774.4/sq mi) (48th)|
|GDP (PPP)||2018 estimate|
|$1.004 trillion (26th)|
• Per capita
|GDP (nominal)||2018 estimate|
|$947 billion (17th)|
• Per capita
|Currency||Kalșerian hem (ħ) (KAH)|
|Time zone||UTC-3 (KST)|
• Summer (DST)
|UTC-3 (not observed)|
yyyy-mm-dd (ISO 8601, bureaucratic)|
|ISO 3166 code||KL|
Kalșeri, (occasionally rendered as Kalseri or Kalsheri; /kəlˈʃɛərɪ, kæl-/, Kalhan: [kɐɫˈʃeɾɪ]), officially the Kalșerian Republic (Kalșériton Repúblika) is an island country in North America, lying on the North Atlantic Ocean. It consists of a major island and several smaller islands, some of which inhabited. With a population of 28,773,400, Kalșeri is the 51st most populated country, between Mozambique and Madagascar.
Kalșeri is a federal presidential republic that consists of fourteen cantons. The President, who is also the head of government, is elected directly by the people every five years, and their powers include signing or vetoing bills passed by the Congress, which meets in the capital city of Evalria. The Congress, composed of the House of Representatives and the Senate, is the organ through which the people request laws to be promulgated or repealed.
Pre-Columbian Kalșeri was inhabited by several ethnic groups, among which the Lág people, who would rule the island until the arrival of the British. Following a period of co-existence with the Spanish and the French, much of modern-day Kalșeri was made into a British province in 1669; British rule would last until 1783, when, following a war of independence, Kalșeri was established as a republic. Since then, Kalșeri has mostly enjoyed internal peace, except for the Royalist riots of 1891 and some ethnic clashes in the latter half of the twentieth century.
Etymology[edit | edit source]
The name Kalșeri, colloquial form of Kalhanseri (literally meaning "House of the Kalhan", anglicized as Callanserry), was adopted on January 1, 1933 by President Ioen Rovuan, replacing Callanserry. The word Kalhanseri was first used by British-Kalșerian poet Tomas Ienuvion (born Thomas White) in his 1768 book Seriflalko ("About the Homeland"), where he pushed for the independence of Kalșeri from Great Britain. The book saw immediate success among Kalhan-speaking people, but was banned by the British authorities until 1783. The term Kalhan itself comes from the Kalhan Stone, a piece of one of the three Evalrian obelisks, built by Rovuan the Conqueror to commemorate his victory over the Așál, Kalúen and Takalim tribes in the 9th century CE, which contained the following text:
(modern Kalhan: Kalhanșe nurkien iehale iegiksa kimsi lemmio) which means "Kalhan shall be spoken everywhere by everyone until the end of time". The stone was discovered in 1574 by Spanish missionary Carlos Rodríguez Sobral, who brought it home and attempted to decipher it; the stone would travel the world and be studied for centuries, before being returned in 1953, at the behest of the Kalșerian government. Today the stone sits in the National Museum of History in Evalria.
Officially, the Government mandates that the name of the country be written with the Ș whenever possible. If, for technical reasons, the letter cannot be rendered properly, the writings Kalşeri, Kalseri, Kalsheri and Kalxeri are also accepted.
History[edit | edit source]
Prehistory[edit | edit source]
Excavations close to Mount Takal found tools and bones that date back to around 10,000 BC, showing that modern-day Kalșeri began to be populated around that date. The first stable settlement is dated at around 4500 BC, in modern-day Hartleyville, New Lothian, and by 1000 BC, several villages were built across Raflá, the main island, the most prominent of which is Lágrél, close to modern-day Evalria. The first stable village in San Rafael is believed to have been built in 850 BC, while Cartier Island was not shown to be inhabited during the period.
The settlers, organized into chiefdoms were relatively isolated from each other and would mostly get in contact when their claims overlapped each other, causing conflicts. The first chiefdoms started to appear around the 4th century BC, the oldest of which is often agreed upon to be Lág, as shown by several contemporary sources, such as the Chronicles of Lág, as well as more recent sources, such as the 17th-century History of Lág up to the Present Day. The other seven main chiefdoms were Șanvel, Așál, Iskio, Takalim, Janval, Șindal and Kalúen.
Middle Ages[edit | edit source]
Rovuan VII of Lág, popularly known as the Conqueror, contributed to the expansion of his chiefdom throughout the early 9th century AD, annexing the other chiefdoms in Raflá and the other main islands. After his death in 847, his son, Rovuan VIII, would establish the groundwork for what would become the Kalșerian nobility by awarding ceremonial titles to military commanders from rival tribes who were deemed to have fought valiantly.
After a two-year skirmish between Terduan of Lág and Serigéa priest Unvan Falseris, resolved with the Main Gate Treaty, the religious organization was stripped of all influence in matters not concerning the religion, and the line of succession to the throne was amended to bar children born out of wedlock from inheriting the throne. Following the treaty, the cultural landscape in Lág began to thrive as production of books and works of art rose in prominence.
Modern history[edit | edit source]
In 1534, before exploring the Gulf of Saint Lawrence, Jacques Cartier spotted an island that he called Île Longue Inconnue ("unknown long island") and later landed there, claiming it in the name of King Francis I. Colonization of the island did not begin until 1605, when Gervaise de La Cornelle was invited by Henry IV to settle there and start a new community, encouraging civilian settling in the island.
Almost concurrently, the Spaniards began a series of Franciscan missions to Christianize the Kingdom of Lág, mostly in the island of Iskio. After initial misunderstanding, King Loșar II decided to let them stay in the island and to allow Catholicism to be freely followed in the Lág Kingdom. Joseph's son, Philip I, made Catholicism the official religion of the Kingdom, adopted the Gregorian calendar and brought the Latin alphabet to Kalhan, ditching the Old Kalhan alphabet for all official purposes. When the Franciscan missions came to an end, Iskio, now called San Rafael, was repurposed as a penal colony; prisoners would be sent there until the eighteenth century.
British colony[edit | edit source]
In 1667, the English Province of Cape Sundervale, at the time occupied by the Șanvel tribe, was established, replacing the northern settlement of Șanvelrél. After initial resistance from King John II of Lág, the Kingdom of Lág was renamed Province of Callen and made a subject of the British Empire, imposing Anglicanism in the former Kingdom and Anglicizing all Kalhan place names. Another condition imposed by the war was that all Kalhan names of cities and villages were to be changed to English names, such as Evalria being renamed New Leeds.
British control began to wane in 1773 after the Tea Revolt, where an organization called Hișon Vionia ("Free Sons") fired a cannon against a ship carrying East Indian tea to Port Walpole, destroying her. Following the incident, the Province of Callen was deprived of its autonomy and passed a series of acts similar to the Intolerable ones in Boston. After a series of battles and the drafting of the Declaration of Independence, Kalșeri achieved independence in 1783, and General Archibald Hayworth of the newly-formed Kalșerian Armed Forces was made President.
Early Independence Period (1783–1932)[edit | edit source]
Throughout the eighteenth century, the political infrastructure of Kalșeri was built. During the Constituent Assembly, it was decided that the country was to be a federal republic, where the subdivisions, called cantons were to enjoy a certain degree of autonomy from the central government in Evalria, and the President was to enjoy much of the control of the executive branch of the government, with some limitations from the Supreme Court and the Congress, composed of the Senate and the House of Representatives; all of this would be reiterated in the Carnafarry Statute of 1784, which would act as the Constitution of Kalșeri.
While the first half of the 19th century was relatively uneventful, the second half was marked by two events: the first was the Long Depression, which went on from 1873 to 1879. President Enrik Gann enacted a series of protectionist laws to foster Kalșerian production. The second event was the 1891 Kalșeri riots, which started after the Supreme Court threw Grigor Lágan and the National Royalist Party's challenge of the result of the referendum; several protests were reported in Lennoxton and Carnafarry after the case was thrown out of court. In the meanwhile, Feldnehmer resigned and was succeeded by Ieremía Skanhal, whose handling of the riots was condemned across all parties for the use of violence against the revolting Royalists. Baldvin Úkegi and Terence Segner were appointed Presidents in an attempt to find stability across the political landscape, but it was Aleksis Harnel, a descendant of a pre-colonial noble family, who brought a peaceful end to the revolts.
Throughout World War I, despite Kalșerian neutrality, some volunteers left the country to fight in the Western Front against the Central Powers. President Emilius Skorfin's refusal to award the Order of the Golden Sun to the volunteers was met with backlash, and he and his cabinet resigned. His successor, Mike Tearney, rewarded the volunteers as promised.
Later Independence Period (1932–present)[edit | edit source]
After the Wall Street Crash of 1929, banks and companies in Kalșeri began to fail, unemployment rose and personal income, prices, profits and tax revenue plummeted. The crisis made citizens look for alternatives to the traditional parties, who came up with plans to combat the crisis that were deemed unsatisfactory; the most prominent of these alternative movements was the Movement for Action (Driréri), also called the Silverjackets due to the uniform the members wore, led by actor Ioen Klarenșus Șandler. When President Egbert Ralgi resigned, a presidential election was held on May 1, 1932, in which Șandler was elected President of Kalșeri.
Șandler's presidency was marked by the creation of the Kalșerian Air Force on January 1, 1933, and the planned invasion of Cape Sundervale, as part of his "One People, One Language, One Nation" doctrine. On June 7, despite opposition from generals, Ioen Rovuan declared war against the United Kingdom. The invasion plan was leaked by political opponent Lerfuan Halas, who contacted British authorities and alerted them of a possible invasion of Cape Sundervale. After the failure of the invasion, Șandler, now referring to himself as Ioen Rovuan, was hastily diagnosed with schizophrenia and incapacitated by the Congress, which then elected Lerfe, an independent, as President pro tempore. Ioen Rovuan was then escorted to Flarón, the smallest of the six inhabitable Esiskio Islands, where he would stay for about a month, before being brought back to mainland Kalșeri due to complications from pneumonia. On January 14, 1934, ten days after Ioen Rovuan's mysterious death, Lerfe, Halas and Governor General of Cape Sundervale Charlie Greene met in Lennoxton and discussed the terms for the peace treaty, which was signed three days later.
On July 1, 1934 the Charter of Kalșeri, written by members of all the major Kalșerian parties at the time, was unanimously passed by Congress; among the new rights, the Charter expanded the voting rights for anyone 20 or older, regardless of sex, religion, political affiliation or past convictions. Following the promulgation of the Charter, about five thousand women celebrated at King Ausvan Square in Evalria.
The first presidential election since Ioen Rovuan's rise to power took place, with the Social Cooperationist candidate Ignașus Holbek being elected to the post. He dealt with the ongoing Great Depression by creating the National Reconstruction Board, which aimed to rescue, restructure and finance banks and private companies that went bankrupt during the Great Depression, the National Works Board, to rapidly create manual-labor jobs for millions of unemployed workers, the National Farm Board, to combat poverty in rural areas of the country and to create jobs for unskilled young men, and the Ministry of Social Insurance, which handled the benefits of retired workers, disabled citizens and veterans; the creation of most of these entities was propelled by the success of Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal. Most of the national boards created by Holbek would be made redundant by 1939.
In 1935, prominent members of the Movement for Action were put on trial by a joint Kalșerian-British court.
Kalșerian neutrality in World War II allowed the country to focus on existing issues in the country; these issues ranged from the serious, such as a series of tax relief and financial restructuring laws passed from 1941 to 1946 to aid economically underdeveloped cantons, to the more trivial, such as a Kalhan language reform in 1941, which was followed by an amendment to the Education Act of 1873, which would expand the compulsory education age from the 5-to-12-years-old range to the 5-to-16-years-old range and restructure the Kalșerian public education system to fit the new range. Holbek's third term was marked by Kalșeri's accession to several world-wide organizations, such as the United Nations, the International Monetary Fund and NATO.
At the end of World War II, Kalșeri experienced a wave of immigration from the devastated European countries; this provoked a series of ethnic clashes between migrants and Kalșerian nationalists which would last until the early 1950s.
In 1957, a constitutional referendum took place to establish direct popular election of the President, abolishing the Inter-cantonal Congress of Electors (ICCE).
On September of 1961, Kalșeri, along with twenty other Western countries, founded the OECD, after the preceding organization, the Organisation for European Economic Co-operation (OEEC), was reformed to allow non-European countries to join.
In 1968, a series of protests took place throughout Kalșeri, mostly denouncing the discrimination, oftentimes based on language, towards Kalșerians who did not speak either Kalhan or English in schools, workplaces and other places where the use of Kalhan and/or English was officially mandated and backed up by punishments for not speaking either language. While President Eduard Hals did act to allow the use of additional languages where requested, it would be his successor, Raimund Tógisi that would ban public schools from adopting punitive measures for Kalhan or English non-speakers. The protests also triggered a series of strikes throughout the country, demanding better working conditions and higher salaries. An additional measure adopted during the protests was the abolition of Religious Education (Seaiokare) as a mandatory subject in primary and secondary schools, introducing freedom of choice on the matter. As a result of the protests, Tógisi would successfully push for the lowering of the voting age for nationwide elections, from 20 to 18, and the minimum age to be elected to public nationwide offices, from 35 to 25.
The political status quo in Kalșeri came to a sudden halt in March of 1977, when it was revealed that Lockheed had bribed President Raimund Tógisi, Ministers Cesar Segner and Ludvik Lull, respectively of Defense and Infrastructure, General of the Air Force Enrik Bartkus and at least 57 Congressmen to foster the sale of aircraft. The press published several allegations targeting those involved, forcing Tógisi to resign on March 27. The political instability would end when John Berschleider was elected in 1979. Under Berschleider, capital punishment was banned, a revised Moreonia was signed into law, and the Kalșerian Health Service, a national health care system, was established.
Throughout the 1970s and the 1980s, the political discourse focused on the Kalhan Liberation Front (Kalhanhiregeri, KHG), a paramilitary organization whose aim was to end British rule in Cape Sundervale, as well as the KHG's connections to the Shoonagerry.
On July 18, 1991, after a series of talks, the Cape Sundervale Agreement was signed by British Prime Minister John Major, Governor General of Cape Sundervale Garry Halford and President Phil Garner; at midnight of September 20, 1991, Cape Sundervale was officially handed over to Kalșeri, ending 322 years of British control over the tiny territory. Phil Garner was also responsible for the privatization of many state companies, such as the Kalșerian Post Service, Kalșerian Telecom, KaGi and Kalșerian Airways, as well as Kalșeri's accession to the North American Free Trade Agreement on January 1, 1994.
On October 19, 1997, Rashid al-Mufti, a 53-year-old Algerian restaurant manager who had been living in Kalșeri for nine years, was fatally shot in Percy by Kalșerian policeman Trevor Fiddling. After the Percy Police Department central building was bombed by Hamza al-Mufti, the victim's brother, on October 27, President Garner signed the Public Security Act, which, among the measures, ordered all "sensitive buildings", such as police department headquarters and ministries, to be guarded non-stop and more stringent security checks to be applied in airports.
On March 6, 2001, President Alejandra Ríos Soriano approved plans to expand EVL to accommodate the increasing traffic, at the cost of a portion of a low-income neighborhood; this project was polarizing, as supporters of the expansion and dissenters clashed in Evalria and surrounding areas, creating a climate of unrest in the city. During the unrest, the 350-Eri ("350 Group", referencing the 350 people who lost their house in the airport expansion) murdered Minister of Transportation Stan Morgenbau and kidnapped other people connected to Ríos Soriano. In other towns, protests were held.
The 2010s have been described as a decade of liberalization, as marijuana was legalized in Evalria, Tigupoke and Urgel, LGBT people have been allowed to serve in the Armed Forces since 2017, and all restrictions on non-heterosexual marriages were removed in 2019. In 2020, major restrictions in transit and activities were put into place due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Maksimilianus Ureska was criticized for his initial amendment to the Church Tax Act in 2016, and later eased the requirements for tax exemptions for religious institutions.
Geography[edit | edit source]
The land area of Kalșeri is approximately 96,357 square kilometers (37,204 sq mi), with Raflá, the biggest island of the country, being almost 71,749 square kilometers (approximately 27.702 sq mi). New Lothian is the largest canton at 13,645.75 square kilometers (5,268.63 sq mi), while Chalmersville is the smallest canton, at just 57.98 square kilometers (22.39 sq mi). Kalșeri ranks 108th in the world, below South Korea and above Hungary.
Kalșeri is dominated by the Jemeri, a mountain range which spans through the northern half of the country east–west, with the 1295-meter (4249-foot) Mount Takal being the peak of the chain and the tallest mountain in Kalșeri. The southern half of the country and much of the coastal area are mostly level. The fertile Flanúr Flatland stretches almost concurrently with the Jemeri range; three of the rivers which flow through the plain, Falșak, Saiú, the longest river in the country at almost 399 kilometers (248 miles), and Lág, are among the most commercially important bodies of water in Kalșeri.
Being a relatively small group of islands surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, the climate in Kalșeri tends to be similar throughout the country. The oceanic climate (Köppen classification Cfb) is prevalent. Summers tend to be mild, with temperatures rarely going beyond 25 °C (77 °F), whereas winters are cool.
Government and politics[edit | edit source]
Kalșeri is a representative democracy and a federation with a republican form of government. The head of state is the democratically-elected President, who also operates as the head of government under the limits set by the Charter, the country's supreme document. The current President is Liberal Democrat Jim Babich, appointed by Congress on October 9, 2021, following the resignation of Maksimilianus Ureska (S) four days prior.
In the Kalșerian federalist system, citizens are subject to three levels of government: federal, cantonal and municipal. Provincial government, subject to cantons, is mostly relegated to local judicial functions, and sub-municipal divisions exist for statistic purposes and hold very little to no power.
The federal government is divided into three branches:
- Legislative: The bicameral Congress (Kongressus), composed of the House of Representatives and the Senate, creates federal laws, declares war or compels the drafting of peace treaties and incapacitates members of the executive government, including the President. The House of Representatives is composed of 200 members, with each canton having a number of electoral districts proportional to the population on the year of election, whereas the Senate is composed of three Senators per canton. (High Summoner, Ralton Nugi, for the Representatives, and the President of the Senate) who oversee the daily procedures of each chamber and regulate debate.
- Executive: the President (Alseugi or Président), elected every five years by the people, is the commander-in-chief of the Kalșerian Armed Forces and yields a considerable amount of powers, such as signing bills into law or vetoing them, nominating or dismissing Ministers and asking for their opinions, issuing declarations of war or peace treaties upon consent of the Congress, appointing federal judges, upon consent of the Congress, granting pardons and the largely ceremonial task of representing Kalșeri abroad. If, for any reason, the President cannot fulfill their duties, the Presidential tasks are handled by the Vice President (Sim-Alseugi), a primus inter pares annually chosen among the members of the President's cabinet.
- Judicial: The Supreme Court (Ralton Kort) and other federal courts, whose judges are appointed by the President upon consent of the Senate, interpret and develop laws, and overturn those deemed contrary to the Charter ("uncharterly").
Current administration[edit | edit source]
All office holders are members of the Liberal Democratic Party, unless otherwise stated.
Law[edit | edit source]
Like its neighboring countries, Kalșeri is a common law country; therefore, judges have the power to develop laws by interpreting them and applying precedents and other legal statutes, or common sense when the former two are unavailable, rather than just issuing verdicts as prescribed by a central source written by legislators. The Kalșerian penal code (Moreonia) is a collection of all the cases, federal, cantonal or local, that have set a precedent. Kalșerian law distinguishes between misdemeanor and felony, and murder is classified by degrees, much like in the United States.
There are seven sources of law in the country: the Charter, the Penal Code, cantonal and municipal laws, federal regulations, international treaties and agreements that have been ratified by the Congress, executive orders and intercantonal protocols. Of these seven, the Charter is the supreme document that overrides all other national laws.
Foreign relations[edit | edit source]
Military[edit | edit source]
Law enforcement and crime[edit | edit source]
Law enforcement is primarily carried out by the Kalșerian Police Force (Stirdoeri), through several local and federal branches that vary in scope. The Kalșerian Defense Agency (KDA) has specialized duties, such as protecting civil rights and national defense, as well as enforcing federal laws, sometimes backing up the Police. The Police Force responds to the Ministry of Internal Affairs, whereas the KDA is handled by the Ministry of Defense.
Kalșeri is a "may-issue" jurisdiction, which means that a potential buyer of a firearm must prove that there is a "good cause" for them to own the firearm; their mental health and capabilities, as well as their surroundings, are also taken into account before a permit is issued. An additional nationwide charge (the "gun tax"), whose value varies by canton, is also applied at the moment of the purchase. In Tigupoke, only farmers and law enforcement agents are generally allowed to own guns.
A 2018 report by the Kalșerian Ministry of Justice states that there were 512 cases of intentional homicide throughout the year; the intentional homicide rate is 1.77 for every 100,000 inhabitants, a similar rate to those of Kuwait and Canada.
A 2019 KalStat survey reports that about 85,000 people were incarcerated at the time of compiling; the incarceration rate for the year was 295 prisoners for every 100,000 inhabitants, putting Kalșeri at 36th place, on par with Namibia and Uruguay.
Since 1980, capital punishment is no longer carried out for federal crimes and in eleven of the fourteen cantons. It is still legal and regularly carried out in New Lothian and Janval, whereas the Quincollian cantonal constitution has yet to be ratified.
Șunageri[edit | edit source]
The Șunageri (Kalhan for "protection organization"), also rendered as Shoonagerry, is a group of transnational criminal organizations based in Kalșeri, most active in rural areas, suburbs and other zones with a low quality of life, often in lieu of law enforcement agencies. Its main purpose is to offer protection and loans to disadvantaged Kalșerians at a high price.
The modern Șunageri was established after the British gained control over the former Kingdom of Lág, with the aim of protecting native Kalhan speakers who were suddenly discriminated against. Initial acts included spreading Anglophobic material, kidnapping British officials and offering protection to former Lág subjects at an exorbitant fee. After Kalșeri achieved independence in 1783, the Șunageri stopped distributing Anglophobic literature and shifted to more conventional activities, such as drug trafficking, gambling in areas and contexts where it is illegal, arms trafficking, insurance fraud, creating and distributing fake identity documents and money and, more recently, security hacking, copyright infringement and crimes involving cryptocurrency. Funds obtained from these operations are regularly used for investments in legitimate businesses.
The organization, which enjoys connections with other criminal groups, chiefly the Yakuza, the Sicilian Mafia and Colombian drug cartels, has a federal structure, meaning that there is no one central organization or leader; however, it is not uncommon for branches to co-operate whenever necessary.
According to police descriptions, members of the Șunageri (Șunagia, "protectors") are most often white males who speak Kalhan fluently and wear business suits. All Șunagia are expected to obey the code of conduct (boskogea, "doctrine of dignity"), which puts restrictions on when and how to carry out murder and arson, and outright forbids "ungentlemanly" acts like abusing newcomers in any way, animal abuse, sexual assault and human trafficking; under the boskogea, members of the organization must appear kind and caring when approaching someone for the first time. Failure to obey the code of conduct may result in seizure of possessions, expulsion, being reported to the police, maiming or even death.
Administrative divisions[edit | edit source]
Kalșeri is a federation of fourteen cantons (flalia, singular flal), which have a large amount of leeway in local matters. Cantons are divided into 36 judicial provinces (provinsia), in turn divided into 592 municipalities (șámenia), which hold a certain degree of power over local matters, and a Special Territory (Speșalton Flal) surrounding Mount Takal. Municipalities are subdivided into smaller statistical divisions, whose name changes among the cantons.
|Flag||Canton||Capital city||Languages||Area||Density||HoR seats||Demonym|
|CS||–||English (preferred language)
|1991||211.45 km2 (81.64 sq mi)||159,105||752.45/km2 (1948.84/sq mi)||1||Sundervellian|
|Henriville||French (preferred language)
|1783||7,773.06 km2 (3,001.18 sq mi)||533,376||68.62/km2 (177.72/sq mi)||4||Cartierois(e) (French)|
|1954||163.47 km2 (63.12 sq mi)||680,847||4164.97/km2 (10,787.26/sq mi)||5||Chalmersvillian|
|1783||329.05 km2 (127.05 sq mi)||1,510,686||4591.05/km2 (11,890.83/sq mi)||10||Evalrian|
|1783||10,282.80 km2 (3,970.19 sq mi)||2,500,177||243.14/km2 (629.74/sq mi)||17||Janvalian|
|1783||13,177.51 km2 (5,087.84 sq mi)||4,611,713||349.97/km2 (906.42/sq mi)||31||Kaluonic|
|1783||7,642.04 km2 (2,950.61 sq mi)||3,998,603||523.24/km2 (1,355.19/sq mi)||27||Lágan|
(Irish: Ciarraí Nua)
(Irish: Cathair na Farraige)
|1783||9,036.17 km2 (3,488.88 sq mi)||3,214,218||355.71/km2 (921.28/sq mi)||21||New Kerrian|
(Scottish Gaelic: Lodainn Nuadh)
(Scottish Gaelic: Baile Hartley)
|1783||8,011.34 km2 (3,093.18 sq mi)||2,150,354||268.41/km2 (695.19/sq mi)||14||New Lothianer|
|2020||5,634.41 km2 (2,175.5 sq mi)||438,921||77.9/km2 (201.76/sq mi)||3||Quincollian|
(Spanish: San Rafael
|1783||11,168.66 km2 (4,312.22 sq mi)||1,885,307||168.80/km2 (437.20/sq mi)||13||Rafaelite|
|1783||12,321.80 km2 (4,757.45 sq mi)||3,939,023||319.68/km2 (827.97/sq mi)||26||Takalese|
|1891||4,420.64 km2 (1,706.81 sq mi)||839,933||190/km2 (492.11/sq mi)||6||Tigupokian|
|6,195.09 km2 (2,391.93 sq mi)||2,387,702||385.42/km2 (998.23/sq mi)||16||Urgelian|
Elections[edit | edit source]
In Kalșeri, the President is elected on September 20 of every year ending with 4 or 9, whereas the House of Representatives is elected on the third Sunday of March of a year ending with 7 or 2. Elected Senators are chosen with a two-year buffer from each other. All national elections employ contingent vote, a variant of instant-runoff voting where voters are asked to choose their "first preference" and a "backup preference", usually a major party.
The President is elected directly by the people. The Inter-cantonal Congress of Electors, a body of electors akin to the United States Electoral College, was used in Kalșeri until the 1959 election, after a constitutional referendum was passed that would ban intermediate bodies from "interfering with the will of the people". There is no limit on how many times a citizen may run for President; the longest-serving President is Ignașus Holbek, who served for fifteen years, from 1934 to 1949. To run for President, the candidate must meet the following requirements:
- be born in Kalșeri or elsewhere to Kalșerian parents;
- be 25 or older at the time of the election;
- not have been accused of any felony for the last 15 years;
- enjoy good physical and mental health. This requirement was added in 1934, as to avoid another case of a psychotic president, as Ioen Rovuan was. In 1987, the Supreme Court case Hendriksen v. Kalșeri ruled that individuals with mental conditions that do not intrinsically hinder one's awareness of their own actions cannot be barred from running for President.
Women were not allowed to vote or run for President until 1934.
While successful candidates are usually connected to a party, candidates are not required to be members of any party to run for any elected office. Some parties, such as the ones in Congress, may choose to run on a national level or locally.
Each canton has its own number of Representative constituencies depending on the population reported in the last Census, divided by 150,000, whereas every canton has three senators, of which two elected. The Sixteenth Amendment to the Charter bans Members of Congress from running for more than two terms.
|Canton||Inhabitants (2019 est.)||Number of House of Representatives Districts|
|Representatives for Kalșerians abroad||6|
Economy[edit | edit source]
According to a 2018 estimate by the International Monetary Fund, the Kalșerian GDP is about $1 trillion, giving the country a $34,893 GDP per capita. Kalșeri's main trading partners are the United States, Canada, Japan, the United Kingdom, China and Germany. The national inflation rate is attested at 2.2% in 2019.
A 2013 estimate reported that the public sector constituted 16.8% of the Kalșerian workforce. A report by the Ministry of Labor stated that unemployment in the country is attested at 5.3% of the workforce.
Infrastructure[edit | edit source]
The Kalșerian Highway Network is the national network of freeways. Though decreasing in recent years, Kalșerian vehicle ownership per capita has been historically high, with 484 vehicles per 1,000 people in 2017.
Public transport in the nation has been dominated by trains; KalRail, which was state-owned until 1997, handles the majority of the railway network, although other companies exist, especially on a local level. Big cities such as Evalria and Lennoxton have their own rapid transit and/or light rail systems, and also run a system of bike freeways called Bikarnia. Most settlements in the country are also served by several intercity bus common carriers, the most prominent of which is Goldenhawk Bus.
Ignașus Holbek Evalria International Airport (EVL) is the busiest airport in the country, and serves as the hub for Kalșerian Airways, the national flag carrier. Other important airports include Lennoxton International, Percy–Andy Garnier, Hartleyville–Ben Webber and Chalmersville–Hank Colavino.
Demographics[edit | edit source]
Population[edit | edit source]
Kalșeri has a population of 28,773,400, with 18.9% of people living in the ten most populated cities. Since the arrival of the British in 1669, Kalșeri has shifted from a largely rural population to an urban one.
Evalria, the capital city of Kalșeri, is the most populated city in the country, with one and a half million residents; it forms the Lev Corridor, home to about 3.5 million people, with nearby Lennoxton, the second-most populated city in the nation, as well as the suburbs of both cities.
|Rank||Image||City||Inhabitants (2019 est.)|
|8||Las Encinas, SR||213,199|
|10||St. Adrian, UR||195,134|
Ethnic composition[edit | edit source]
|Ethnic group||Percent of population||Members|
Kalșeri has been a mostly white country throughout its history, with Kalșerians of Lág descent and those of British descent being the most common among the white ethnic groups. African Kalșerians and Native Americans, mostly Miꞌkmaq, have been the traditional minorities throughout the country's colonial and post-colonial history; their relations with White Kalșerians, while mostly peaceful, have been marked by moments of conflict, such as the protests in the 1960s.
The majority of the White Kalșerian supergroup is of mixed European ancestry, and mostly consists of Irish Kalșerians, German Kalșerians and Italian Kalșerians. Ancestral Kalșerians, i.e. those whose ancestors had settled in pre-colonial Lág, constitute the fourth-largest group of White Kalșerians; they do not include descendants of the Șingia, which are European Kalșerians who Kalhanhized their names throughout the 1800s.
Starting from the mid-1970s, several other ethnic groups, such as Latin Americans, Southeast Asians and Arabs, would become more represented in Kalșeri, partly due to a simplified immigration process. During and after the collapse of the Soviet Union people from the former Soviet republics began settling in Kalșeri.
Language[edit | edit source]
|Language||Percent of population||Number of speakers|
Kalșeri has two official languages, Kalhan and English, and recognizes all regional languages. Kalhan uses the Latin alphabet with the additional character (ș) and is one of the five official languages of the OAS. Recent legislation has allowed the teaching of the Old Kalhan alphabet.
As per Article 3 of the Charter, official affairs within Kalșeri are conducted in Kalhan and English. However, the article also states that public services may be offered in the native language of a citizen, if said citizen does not know either language. It is estimated that about 9,350,000 people speak Kalhan as their native language, and that about 12.5 million people speak Kalhan as their second language.
Kalhan and English are the sole official languages in five of the fourteen cantons. Cantons have the right to set additional official languages, and some of them have done so:
- Spanish and Miꞌkmaq are co-official languages in San Rafael;
- Miꞌkmaq is co-official in Tigupoke;
- Irish is co-official in New Kerry;
- Scottish Gaelic is a "designated heritage language" in New Lothian;
- French is the preferred language in Cartier Island;
- Portuguese is a recognized minority language in Kalúen;
- Italian is co-official in Lág and Takalim.
English overtook Kalhan as the most spoken language in the cities during the British rule; however, Kalhan was still the predominant language in the countryside, and efforts to mandate communication in English everywhere in the Province of Callen were met with resistance. In 1821, the Institute of the Kalhan Laguage was established by former President Robert Silorsi, Karl Rovuansi and Governor Lotarius Gann, all three native Kalhan speakers, with the intent of "restoring Kalhan to its pre-colonial glory"; among the Raladure's achievements was making the usage of their language widespread in the administration and the integration of the language within all aspects of public life.
Religion[edit | edit source]
|Affiliation||% of population|
Kalșeri has been a traditionally Christian country, starting with the Spanish missions in San Rafael in the 1500s, and has since largely displaced Sargism, the Kalșerian traditional religion. Catholicism was the only Christian denomination of the country until the arrival of the British in the 1600s, who brought with them several denominations, such as Anglicanism and Methodism. Lutheranism and Judaism became prominent following the immigration from Central Europe during the two World Wars. The Church of Kalșeri has established itself as the second-largest Christian denomination in the country, after Catholicism.
While Christianity still plays a relevant role in rural communities, its influence in urban life has waned throughout the decades, starting in the 1960s, by way of questioning of clerical authority and the choice of not baptizing children.
In 1995, Father Lerfuan founded the religious movement Șin Gea, which promotes the revival of Sargism. In the 1990s and 2000s, with a wave of migrants from North Africa and the Middle East, Islam has become a significant minority religion in the country.
Education[edit | edit source]
Public education is provided by the state and its subdivisions and is regulated by the Ministry of Education. Education in Kalșeri is compulsory between the ages of 5 and 16 and is funded by the state. The modern formal learning system, introduced in 1942, is divided into four educational stages, with a total of 16 grades (iarnia, lit. "years"), of which 12 are compulsory:
- Grades V1 and V2 are preschool levels (vegiohal, ages 3 to 5, optional);
- Grades 1 through 6 form primary education (oilor iokare, ages 5 to 10, compulsory);
- Grades 7 and 8 are assigned to intermediate education (kihaton iokare, ages 11 to 12, compulsory);
- Grades 9 through 14 form secondary education (simlor iokare, ages 13 to 18, grades 9 through 12 are compulsory).
Primary and intermediate schools share the same subjects and topics for every student in every school, while secondary and post-secondary schools are divided into several branches, such as the scientific, classical, engineering and artistic institutions. Post-secondary education is divided into several branches, such as universities and professional formation schools (dririohalia).
Several private institutions exist, and alternative education methods, such as homeschooling, e-schooling and unschooling, have been on the rise since the 1990s, thanks to vague wording in Article XXXI of the Charter, which states that education is compulsory, while not declaring how or where education should take place. Another alternative method, popular in Evalria and Lág, is the so-called Grai school, invented by former Education Minister Darius Grai, where students are grouped based on ability, rather than age.
Culture[edit | edit source]
Symbols[edit | edit source]
Literature[edit | edit source]
The birth of Kalșerian literature is conventionally set in the late 11th century, which is when the literary current of Incognitism (Kalhan: Fokașienséa) began to emerge. The main theme of Incognitist texts was the exploration of the unknown lands that may surround home and the thrill related to it; an important example of this literary school of thought was Lavus Kérahan, who is said to have written the Cycles of Halmer (Halmer'si Kimia) around 1092.
Literary production was stunted by the British authorities, who imposed strict limits on the usage of Kalhan. A major writer in the late Colonial and early Independence period was future President Tomas Ienuvion, who wrote several poems about the need for Kalșerian independence, predominantly in Kalhan.
Starting from the late 19th century and throughout the first half of the 20th century, the Kalșerian literary scene was roughly divided into two schools: the New Poietic School, which sought to redefine the canons of literature, founded by Róderik Éfongi, Richard Sauchin and Frankiskus Vongi, and the Neloists, led by Joe Ehrlich, whose mission was to find an answer to the question "what is life?" (Ne loa? in Kalhan, hence the name of the current). Writers of foreign origin, such as Sergei Saviolkin and Tom Jannucci, have also contributed to the national literature.
Visual arts[edit | edit source]
Music[edit | edit source]
Kalșerian folk music typically consists of fast tunes and usually features wind instruments as the lead; folk music used to be universal in the country until the 17th century, when it was replaced with classical music and relegated to being labelled as the music of "uncultured masses". Folk music has seen a resurgence in the late 1970s thanks to performers such as Loalerfa and Ionas Sterbotten.
Hard rock and heavy metal have been continuously growing since the 1980s in Kalșeri. Bands such as Stryknyna, Kauna!, ȘHR and ȘinSin have enjoyed popularity since their establishment in the Kalșerian music scene, and some of them have also achieved worldwide fame.
Cuisine[edit | edit source]
Due to Kalșeri being a country of islands, the national cuisine is based on seafood, usually cod, haddock, herring and shrimps, soups, cereal and, especially in winter, stews. Beef and pork are typically eaten in the hinterland. Herbs and spices are not generally used in traditional recipes. Cheese is most often produced in hilly areas, chiefly in Janval and Quincollia.
Traditional desserts are simple, and often feature strawberries, blueberries, raspberries or other berries. Starting from the 1900s, a dessert called pastíș, consisting of egg yolks, sugar, digestive biscuits and half a shot glass of Marsala wine, has become a staple among lower-income families and Italian Kalșerian communities.
Porridge and toast are commonly eaten for breakfast, accompanied by coffee. Lunch, typically consumed between 11:30 and 13:00, usually consists of a small and quick meal, such as a sandwich. Fish and chips is a popular dish for dinner, which is the main meal of the day and takes place between 18:30 and 20:00, although some Kalșerians choose to forgo lunch and have dinner at around 17:00. Afternoon snacks are common.
Beer is the alcoholic beverage of choice, especially pale lagers and stouts. The most popular local beer brand is Taxa Vonhal, a German-style Pilsner; many local brands and microbreweries also exist. Kalșeri has among the highest per-capita consumption of beer in the world.
Cinema[edit | edit source]
Mass media[edit | edit source]
Newspapers[edit | edit source]
Well-known newspapers in Kalșeri include the Times of Kalșeri (TK), the Kalșerian Telegraph (Telly), the Golden Sun, The Kalșerian Independent (Indy), Rialonia (Reel), The Blackmon Street Times and the free Daily Tittle. With several local exceptions, most Kalșerian newspapers are privately-owned, and most of the owners are established media companies such as McMartin Corporation, IndyPress, the Yarmolenko Group and Echo Publishing, which is owned by Movement for Action Secretary Matthew Chandler. To cater to Kalhan-speakers, almost all newspapers either publish a section or an entire newspaper in Kalhan.
As the cost of publishing has increased over the years, most newspapers have launched online subscription services, and some of them have either ceased physical publication or are planning to do so.
Radio and television[edit | edit source]
KalCom is the national public broadcaster of Kalșeri, as it is partially owned by the State. KalCom was founded in 1926 as the National Radio Authority (Rialton Arkanuregeri, RANG) and was reorganized into the National Communications Corporation (Rialnursakoní, RNK); the company adopted the current name in 2006. Until 1992, funding for the national network was provided through the "Rennick tax"; this was changed to government funding with additional investments through advertising under Phil Garner's presidency. KalCom has six general-interest channels, three for the radio (KalRadio 1, KalRadio 2 and KalRadio 3) and television (KalCom 1, KalCom 2, KalCom 3). Most of the content in channels 1 and 2 of each is in English, whereas channel 3 is almost exclusively in Kalhan. The network also has several channels dedicated to a certain type of content or a specific area.
Major private broadcasters include the Kalșerian Broadcasting Company (KBC), JC Eldridge (consisting of JCTN and Eldridge Broadcasting), be5 and linqtv. Major regional television channels are affiliated to the Union of Regional Broadcasters (URB-FANG).
Local broadcasting stations are identified by a four-letter call sign, whose structure is SXYY (S is the international identifier for Kalșerian broadcasting stations, X is a letter representing a canton and YY is a random two-letter combination) and usually has a suffix denoting the type of broadcast; for instance, Channel 4 in Evalria has the call sign SEVL-TV.
Internet[edit | edit source]
Sport[edit | edit source]
Organized sports in Kalșeri originated in the early 1800s. Kalșeri's official national sport is sailing; several other sports are enjoyed by the Kalșerian youth, too, including ice hockey, by far the most popular sport in the country, association football, baseball, basketball, tennis, volleyball, rugby and swimming; skiing and snowboarding are also popular in more mountainous areas. Kalșerian sports institutions adhere to the custom of segregating male and female players, and female-oriented competitions are largely seen as only amateur; however, this custom has been questioned in recent years, and efforts were made to bring women's competitions to the same professional level as men's, with the Tukuregeri eliminating any organizational differences between men's competitions and women's competitions in 2017.
Kalșeri has participated in almost every edition of the modern Olympic Games since 1900; in the competition, the country has dominated water-based categories, such as sailing, canoeing, swimming and water polo. Sportsmanship and teamwork are seen as two key values of Kalșerian culture.
Ice hockey is the most viewed sports in Kalșeri. The sport is regulated by the KIHF, established in 1901, and the Ice Hockey Championship regularly attracts upwards of 15,000 fans. The Reeve Cup Final Series has been the most watched sports event for many years since its inception.
Association football has been the most popular sport in Cape Sundervale since the 1880s and would later catch on in Kalșeri, with several clubs and leagues being established throughout the country during the first half of the 20th century. In 1956, the Premier League was established as the national professional division, followed by the Challenge League, the National League One and the National League Two, while existing local championships were reclassified as amateur.
Other popular sports include baseball, imported from the neighboring United States, whose national league has enjoyed popularity throughout the twentieth century, and basketball, which saw a surge in popularity in the 1990s, with the KBF being formed in 1996.
Another sport popular in rural Kalșeri is lawn mower racing, imported from the United Kingdom in the 1970s. The most followed races are officially sanctioned by the Kalșerian Lawn Mower Racing Association (KALMORA). The competition has been traditionally regarded as an amateur sport, although official endorsements from manufacturers have become common. KALMORA states that all of its competitions are open for both sexes and for residents in Kalșeri, regardless of actual nationality. Lawn mower racing events most often take place in the cantons of New Lothian, Janval and Tigupoke.
Holidays[edit | edit source]
Several holidays are observed in Kalșeri, some of which are declared national holidays, where state buildings are closed and public employees are granted paid time off.
|New Year's Day||January 1||The first day of the year in the Gregorian calendar.||Yes|
|Epiphany||January 6||Holiday marked by two events: Adoration of the Magi and Baptism of the Lord. Celebrated by Catholics.||Only in San Rafael, New Kerry and Cartier Island|
|Life Day||February 9||Marks the anniversary of the abolishment of capital punishment in Kalșeri in 1978.||No|
|Saint Patrick's Day||March 17||Celebration of Irish-Kalșerian heritage and culture.||Only in New Kerry|
|Earth Day||April 22||Celebrates the environment and nature. Access to national parks is free on this day.||No|
|Labor Day||May 1||Celebration of all the contributions and labor of all Kalșerians.||Yes|
|Mother's Day||Second Sunday of May||Day for honoring the mother, motherhood and maternal bonds.||No|
|Father's Day||Third Sunday of June||Day for honoring the father, fatherhood and the influence of fathers in society.||No|
|World Day||June 26||Marks the entrance of Kalșeri in the United Nations.||No|
|Charter Day||July 1||Celebration of the promulgation of the Charter in 1934.||Yes|
|Hayworth Day||July 12||Celebrates the birthday of Archibald Hayworth, first President of Kalșeri.||Yes|
|French Heritage Day||July 14||Celebration of French-Kalșerian heritage and culture. Marks the anniversary of the Storming of the Bastille. Mostly celebrated in Cartier Island.||No|
|Flag Day||August 1||Celebrates the adoption of the national flag in 1894.||Yes|
|Grandparents Day||Second Sunday of September||Celebration held to honor grandparents and their deeds.||No, but grandparents may be offered a congratulatory package from the municipality and discounts|
|Presidential Election Day||September 20||Celebrated on years ending with 4 or 9; on this day, citizens vote for the President.||Yes|
|Teacher's Day||October 5||Celebration held to appreciate teachers and their contributions to society.||No, but teachers may be offered a congratulatory package from the municipality and discounts|
|Children's Day||November 20||Celebrated to promote mutual exchange and understanding among children. On this day, children often receive small gifts and do special activities in school.||No|
|Thanksgiving||Fourth Thursday in November||On this day, people give thanks and blessings to their families and close friends.||Yes (except in Cartier Island)|
|Christmas||December 25||Traditional day chosen for the birth of Jesus of Nazareth. Gifts are frequently exchanged and masses are usually held in Catholic communities.||Yes|