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 This article is a B-class article. It is written to a good standard. This article is part of Altverse II.
Province of Laguna (en)
Laguna (es)
泻湖 (zh)
Đầm Phá (vn)
함수호 (kr)
Laguna (tl)
潟 (ja)
Province of Sierra
Flag of Laguna Provincial seal of Laguna
Flag Seal
Nickname(s): Sunshine Province (official)
Military Province
Motto(s): The Noblest Motive is the Public Good
Provincial song(s): "Sandy Are You Laguna"
Map of Laguna
Official language(s) *Nationally recognized languages
Demonym Laguner(s)
(and largest city)
San Diego
Area Ranked 18th
 • Total 4,526 sq mi
(11,720 km2 km2)
Population Ranked 3rd
 • Total 8,554,231 (2010)
 • Density 1,890/sq mi  (730/km2)
Ranked 2nd
 • Highest point Hot Springs Mountain
6,536 ft (1,992 m)
 • Lowest point sea level
Admission to the Union November 28, 1858 (7th)
Lord Superintendent Nathan Afara
Governor Tyson Morales (DR)
Lieutenant Governor Sebastian Gomez-Inez (SD)
Legislature Laguna Provincial Legislature
 • Upper house Laguna Senate
 • Lower house Laguna General Assembly
K.S. Senators Mark Robles (DR)
Lisa Hudgens (DR)
Amy Strickland (DR)
K.S. House delegation 22 total commoners
11 Democratic-Republicans
6 Royalists
3 Christian Democrats
2 Social Democrats
Time zone Pacific Time Zone
UTC –8/UTC –7
Abbreviations LG, Lag.

Laguna is a province located in the southern coastal region of Sierra. Laguna is the third most populous province in the country and is the the nineteenth largest province by land. According to the 2020 Census, Laguna has a total population of 5,700,287 citizens. Laguna's capital and largest city is San Diego, which is the second most populated city in Sierra, following the nation's capital of Porciúncula. San Diego also serves as the military capital of Sierra, being home to the Pendleton Military Center. Laguna is one of the first provinces to be admitted into the Kingdom.

Laguna was originally inhabited by the Kumeyaay (also called Diegueño), Luiseño, Cupeño, and Cahuilla Indians who lived in the area for more than 10,000 years. These Indian tribes would conduct trade, war, and diplomacy with each other, acting as de facto city states. The first European explorer to arrive and discover the province was Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, a Portuguese explorer commissioned by Spain. After his discovery, the first settlement in Laguna, San Diego Presido was established. During its colonial period, Laguna would become the site of the first Catholic mission, San Diego de Acala, which was established by father Junípero Serra. Laguna was apart of Alta California, which was a subdivision of the Viceroyality of New Spain and later Mexico.

During the Mexican-American War, Laguna join the California Republic, which would win its independence after the signing of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848. In 1858, ten years after Californian independence, Laguna would become one of the first provinces admitted into the newly-reformed Kingdom of Sierra. After an initial period of economic stagnation, the province's population would experience a boost during the later half of the nineteenth century after an aggressive immigration campaign by the provincial government and the construction of multiple railways. During the early twentieth century, Laguna would become the home of the Sierran Crown Armed Forces, with the establishment of the Pendleton Military Center in San Diego in 1924. During the Sierran Cultural Revolution, Laguna would become a stronghold for liberal and progressive thought.

Since the end of both Great Wars and the Cold War, Laguna has enjoyed a steadily growing economy, however the province's population has seen a small decline. Laguna housing costs and taxes are considered one of the highest in both Sierra and the rest of the Kingdom. Despite this, Laguna has the 3rd highest median in overall happiness and spirituality. Since 1980, the economy of Laguna has continued to grow, with its tourism and biotechnology sectors growing, with San Diego being the economic center of province. Being the home of the nation's central defense center, Laguna has one of the largest defense industries in the entire country, with many military contractors and partners headquartered in San Diego and other parts of the province. Geographically, Laguna is considered apart of the Southwest Corridor. Laguna is also the southwesternmost province in Sierra. Residents of Laguna are referred to as "Laguners".


Laguna symbols
Flag of Laguna.svg
Seal of Laguna.svg
Living insignia
Amphibian Arboreal salamander
Bird Laguna thrasher
Butterfly Blue swallowtell
Crustacean Tuna crab
Dog breed Border Collie
Fish Shortfin corvina
Reptile Green sea turtle
Inanimate insignia
Colors Gold, white, maroon
Motto The Noblest Motive is the Common Good
Ship HRH Laguna
Slogan Adventures begin here
Song Sandy Are You Laguna
Provincial route marker
Laguna route marker
Part of a series on the provinces, states, areas, and territories of Sierra
"Laguna" is the Spanish word for lagoon and was first used to describe the area by Spaniards in the 16th century who marveled at the province's various natural lagoons and bays. However, during its colonial period, Laguna would be referred to as San Diego by settlers and explorers, due to San Diego being the largest settlement in the region and acted like its capital. Laguna would continue to be referred to as San Diego even after the independence of the California Republic. After the reorganization of the California Republic into the Kingdom of Sierra, the name Laguna would be chosen by the soon-to-be province's delegates, who wanted to differentiate between the city of San Diego and give better representation to the residents who resided else were in the province. This move was strongly opposed by residents of San Diego, who pushed for the renaming of province. However, this opposition to the province's name would eventually disappear nearing the start of the twentieth century, with a brief resurgence during the 1990s.


The official nickname of the province is the "Sunshine Province", which is featured on provincial registration plates and government owned property. The name allures to the province's abundance of sunshine and the rarity of clouds or cloudy weather. The name also refers to the many beaches in the province, which are considered a hot spot for tourists, both domestic and foreign, and one of the primary sources of income for the province's government. The nickname "Sunshine Province" was first coined in 1960 by Laguner sports and radio broadcaster Jack Stevens, who would use the name in his iconic opening: "Good morning to all my friends in thee beau-tah-ful Sunshine Province". The nickname would become popular with Laguners, who found the lighthearted name warming as the country was in the middle of Great War II. After Steven's death in 1993, the Laguna Provincial Legislature unanimously passed the Beautiful Sunshine Province Act in honor of Stevens, which a part of his iconic catchphrase was made the province's official nickname.

Along with its official nickname, Laguna has also gained many unofficial nicknames as well, including the "Military Province" and the "Veteran's Province". Both nicknames refer to the large presence of military personal, both active and retired, along with being the home to Pendleton Military Center, which is the official headquarters of the Sierran Crown Armed Forces. Laguna, especially San Diego and surrounding areas, is also home to a large number of military veterans, with hundred of veteran homes and well being centers being located around the region.


The El Cajon in the Cuyumaca Mountains in southern Laguna.

Laguna is situated along the Pacific Coast and features 70 miles (110 km) of coastline. The topography of the province is varied with the San Diego metropolitan area lying atop low-leveled, coastal plains while to the east, the northwest-southeast moving Laguna Mountains consisting of mesas, canyons, and hills, separate the coast from the Sonoran Deseret. The majority of Laguna's residents live to the west of these mountains. Along the mountains, the Cleveland National Forest spreads across central Laguna, bordering the chaparral plains to the far east.

In northern Laguna, the land along the coasts consist of low-rolling hills while those further inland become increasingly pronounced and higher. The majority of natural lagoons in Laguna by which the province owes its name to are found in this region. River and creeks atop the mountains flow westward and deposit in the area's four major lagoons along the Pacific. In the northernmost parts of Laguna, the Santa Margarita Mountains and Palomar Mountain Range dominates the area with canyons and valleys in between them.

Along the coastal Laguna-Pacífico Norte border, the Cuyumaca and Laguna Mountains continue southward into the Tijuana area where the hills become more jagged and rougher.


A image by R3A showing most of Laguna and centered on San Diego Bay. The San Diego metropolitan area's location next to the ocean allows it to enjoy mild temperatures year-round.

San Diego has two main climate zones: a Mediterranean climate in the north (Köppen climate classification: CSa) and a semi-arid climate (BSh) in the south and east. Laguna's climate is characterized as having warm, dry summers and mild winters with precipitation usually occurring the most between November and March. Much of the province is generally dry and on average, has 201 days above 70 °F (21 °C). Annually, on average, Laguna receives 9-13 inches (22–33 cm) of rain although it may snow atop the peaks of Laguna's mountains. Precipitation is infrequent but when rain does arrives, it often releases large quantities of rainfall, sometimes causing flash floods. Along the coast, during the summer, the weather is relatively mild with average highs of 70–78 °F (21–26 °C) and lows of 55–66 °F (13–19 °C). Temperatures exceeding 90 °F (32 °C) typically occur only four days of the year. Further inland, east of the Laguna mountains however, the desert summers are hotter and temperatures have even reached up to 122 °F (50 °C).



Much of Laguna falls within the Sierra coastal sage and chaparral ecoregion with indigenous flora adapted to the province's generally dry climate. Many being drought-resistant, local floral species include the Encelia farinosa (brittlebush), the Lonicera subspicata (southern honeysuckle), Rhus integrifolia (lemonade berry), and the Epilobium canum (Sierra fuchsia).


Laguna's chaparral environment supports a variety of animals that are adapted to the semiarid climate and landscape. It is home to nearly 30 species of native snakes, 25 of which are native, including the Pituophis catenifer annectens (San Diego gopher snake), the Masticophis flagellum (coachwhip), the Diadophis punctatus similis (San Diego ring-necked snake), and the venomous Crotalus mitchellii pyrrhus (Southwest speckled rattlesnake). Laguna is also home to various species of lizards, turtles, frogs, and toads, among these being the Uta stansburiana elegans (Western side-botched lizard), Phrynosoma blainvillii (horned lizard), Actinemys pallida (Southern Western pond turtle), and the Anaxyrus serra (Arroyo toad). The majority of Laguna's terrestrial mammals are rodents and other small vertebrae including rabbits and squirrels. The Canis latrans (coyote) and Procyon lotor (raccoon) are common Sierra mammals that also live in Laguna. Aquatic mammals living along or off the coast of Laguna are the Phoca vitulina (harbor seal), Zalophus serra (Sierran sea lion), and the Megaptera novaeangliae (humpback whale).


Pre-Colonial Period

Before European discovery and eventual colonization, the lands of the province of Laguna were originally inhabited by Amerindian tribes, who lived in hunter-gatherer societies. These Native Americans include the Chumanshu, Kumeyaay, and Cahuilla tribes. Along with these tribes, prehistoric the La Jolla and San Dieguito tribes also lived in Laguna, however not much is known about these tribes, their lifestyles, or when and how they disappeared. The Chumanshu were the largest and most successful tribe during the pre-colonial era, with the tribe controlling a majority of the coastal area of Laguna in the years leading up to European discovery. The aforementioned tribes would each act as nomadic city-states, conducting trade, war, and diplomacy with each other.

Many of these tribes would be located along the coastal region of the province. The reasoning for this varied, however tribes generally settled on the coast due to the abundance of fish and other easily capturable marine life. Since most of the Laguner tribes were nomadic hunters, no permanent settlement was ever created. However, most tribes settled in or around what is today considered a part of modern-day San Diego City.

Spanish and Mexican periods

The first European to explore the province was Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, a Portuguese man commissioned by the Spanish kingdom of Castile to explore the Pacific North American coastlines. Aboard the San Salvador, Cabrillo landed in San Diego Bay in 1542 and named it the "San Miguel". After a brief excursion on land, Cabrillo continued up the Sierran coast. Cabrillo never completed his expedition, as he died on the way home on the Channel Island of Santa Catalina from an infectious wound. Despite this, word of newly-discovered land would reach the newly-established Kingdom of Spain, who continued to send more explorers into the region. The next European to explore Laguna was by Spanish explorer Sebastián Vizcaíno in 1602 who was ordered to map the Sierran coast. On his ship, the San Diego, he surveyed Mission Bay and Point Loma before naming the area, "San Diego", in honor of the Catholic saint Didacus of Alcalá. On November 12, 1602, Vizcaíno's crew held the first recorded Christian service in the entire Alta California region. The first permanent settlement established in Laguna was the Presidio of San Diego, a fort under the command of Gaspar de Portolà who led the Portolà expedition in May 1769. The next month, Junípero Serra, a Franciscan monk, established the first of 21 missions in Alta California, Mission San Diego de Alcalá. San Diego de Alcala would prove very effective in converting the native population, with around 1,000 natives converted in total. In 1774, a substantial group of Spaniard civilians arrived with the purpose of permanently settling there. The next year, the Chumanshu, angered by Spanish oppression and force conversions, launched a revolt against the Spanish colonists, burning down San Diego de Alcala. After the revolt was crushed, the mission would be built using fire-proof adobe clay, which would lead to other missions being built with similar materials. Politically, Laguna would be governed as a part of the colony of Alta California, which was under the direct control of the Viceroyalty of New Spain.

Along with the Spanish, French settlers would also settle in Laguna. In 1765, a few years after the conclusion of the Seven Years War, French colonists would establish the settlement of Côté de Océan north of San Diego. The two cities would eventually form a strong rivalry between each other, which continues to this day. French settlers would also try to establish a settlement in modern day La Jolla, but this plan would later be abandoned.

In 1821, after a war for independence, New Spain would be granted independence as Mexico. While under Mexico, San Diego de Alcala and other church-owned property would be secularized and sold to wealthy landowners known as Rancheros. Because of their wealth and influence, rancheros would dominate local politics and would be the deciding factor in multiple issues. During the late 1830s and early 1840s, hundreds of settlers from the United States would arrive in Alta California to settle the largely unpopulated land. To the displeasure of the native Spanish and French, American settlers began settling in all around Laguna, primarily in San Diego and Côté de Océan. Reasons for American migration varied, but primarily revolved around the idea of economic renewal, and because of San Diego and Côté de Océan’s successes as Pacific trading ports, Laguna was a prime target for American migrants.

After the start of the Mexican-American War, Laguner Americans revolted against the increasingly authoritarian and discriminatory Mexican government, siding with the Californian independence movement. In response, the Californios and Côtérres sided with the Mexican government, hoping to prevent an American takeover of the region. Throughout the beginning of the war, Laguna would be the site of many minor skirmishes between the pro-Independence Americans and the pro-Mexican Californios and Côtérres, which would all lead up to the Battle of San Diego, in which pro-Independence forces were able to capture the city. After the fall of San Diego, a majority of pro-Mexican forces in Laguna would surrender, with a handful of radicals retreating to Baja California. During the spring of 1847, Laguna was used as a staging ground by Californian forces to prepare for an invasion of Baja California and Sonora, which would successfully take place during the summer of the same year.

Early Sierran period

The war would end in 1848 after the signing of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, forcing Mexico to recognize the independence of California and Texas as sovereign states. During its time as a Californian territory, Laguna would suffer economic hardship as San Diego, which was considered the economic center of the region at the time, was rebuilt from the war. In 1858, California was reorganized as the Kingdom of Sierra after a controversial constitutional convention. After the passage of the Constitution of Sierra, the Province of Laguna was admitted to the union as the seventh province of the Kingdom, with San Diego selected as its capital, despite protests from Côté de Océan.

During its early years as a Sierran province, Laguna would face a short period of economic stagnation while other provinces continued to grow. However from 1863 to 1871, the province would experience a massive population boom, resulting in great economic growth. The province’s population boom, known as the Great Expansion by provincial historians, is credited to have been caused by the construction of multiple railways into Laguna and the revival of trading in the region. By 1870, the province would be the second-most populated province, following the Gold Coast, a position it would keep until 2020, when it was surpassed by the Inland Empire.

Although siding with the Monarchists during the Sierran Civil War, Laguna saw no action during the war. However, Laguna exported the largest share of Republican fighters from the Monarchist provinces, with many Californios traveling to San Joaquin to join Isiah Landon and his army. After the war’s conclusion, many of these Californios would return to Laguna, radicalized by the teachings and views of Landon, known as Landonism. These Landonist Californios would begin to aggressively advocate for radical republicanism, sometimes violently Unlike The Disturbances in the Styxie, most of the radical republican and Landonist elements in Laguna would die out by the start of the twentieth century. In 1889, the San Diego-Maricopa Railway was established, connecting Laguna to the eastern provinces of the Kingdom.

Twentieth Century

In 1905, the Sierran Cultural Revolution reached Laguna, with the province beginning a period of increased liberalization and progressive changes. Like other provinces in the Kingdom, Laguna first resisted the changes and cracked down on protesters and rioters. However, after increased pressure from the Purpleshirts and the fear of the Little Civil War spreading to Laguna, Governor Justin Bordeaux began pushing for progressive legislation in the provincial legislature. Although met with stiff opposition by nativists from both Royalist and Democratic-Republican parties, progressive legislation would be passed, resulting in the expansion of civil rights and liberties for ethnic minorities and also the expansion of worker rights, particularly for laborers.

In 1924, the Pendleton Military Center was constructed in northern Laguna, which would become the headquarters of the Sierran Crown Armed Forces, making Laguna the home of the Sierran military. Along with that, Laguna became the home of many new recruits and veterans, resulting in the province being unofficially nicknamed the “Military Province” or sometimes the “Veteran’s Province”.

After the start of Great War I, Laguna, more specifically the Pendleton Military Center, would become the strategic center of the Entente Impériale’s forces in the Pacific, with Laguna serving as host to many foreign military leaders. Since Laguna was the military center of the Sierran, and to the greater extent , the North American war effort, it was a high priority target for the Triple Alliance and Landonist International. However, to the surprise of many, no attack was carried out against any city or military fortification in Laguna. The first Great War would end in a stalemate, with little territorial exchange. During the brief inter-war period, Laguna would experience a small economic boom as more businesses, more specifically military contractors, moved to San Diego to be closer to the Pendleton Military Center. Once Great War II started in 1961, Laguna regained its status as the center of Pacific military operations for the newly-created Allied Powers. Like the previous war, Laguna was never attacked by the Axis Powers.

Contemporary Era

Following the end of the second Great War and the eventual Cold War that followed, Laguna would continue to experience economic growth, with tourism and military contracting becoming a major factor of the Laguner economy. Despite this, the Laguner population has been in decline, with many Laguners moving to other provinces due to rising taxes and housing prices. In 1990, the Laguner legislature passed one of the highest tax hikes in modern Sierran history, with tax rates rising from 3.4% to 7.5%.

In 1992, Governor Wendy Perncal was successfully recalled by the Laguner electorate, becoming one of the only governors recalled and defeated in recall election. Despite the tax hikes being a major cause for the recall, they have continued to rise. In 1992, Laguna would be one of the last provinces to adopt an official nickname, with the “Sunshine Province”, first coined by radio and sports broadcaster Jack Stevens, being adopted. In 2020, Laguna would lose its place as the second most populated province to the Inland Empire. Laguna would also be one of the first provinces affected by the COVID-19 pandemic.


The Royal Bureau of Census officially recorded a population of TBD. In the 2010 census, 8,554,231 people were counted as citizens of Laguna, indicating a population TBD to TBD, or TBD%. This includes an increase of TBD% and a decrease of TBD%. According to the 2020 Bureau of Census, immigration from Latin America and the El Norte territories is the largest contributor to population increase, with around TBD entering Laguna each year. TBD% of immigrants settling in Laguna are permanent residents. According to the 2020 Bureau of Census, more residents have moved out of the province rather than moved in, with TBD, or TBD%, of Laguners leaving the province annually. According to the Bureau, the rising taxes and costs of living were major reasons for why former Laguners left. Of the native Laguners, TBD% of them have native born parents, with a small majority of Laguners originating from different provinces. The population center of Laguna is San Diego, which has a population over TBD and is the second-largest city in Sierra, following Porciúncula.

As of 2020, the largest increase of residents in Laguna has been attributed to mass immigration. According to the Royal Bureau of Census, approximately TBD% percent of Laguna's population are immigrants, with an estimate TBD% being undocumented. A majority of immigrants in Laguna have arrived from Bajaría and Mexico, with a small minority hailing from Central America. Laguna has one of the largest shares of Hispanic immigrants in the country, which is partially due to the province's southern border with the El Norte territories and its historically Hispanic culture. According to the 2020 Census, more residents have moved out of the province than moved in, with around TBD Laguners leaving to neighboring provinces each year. Many of these former Laguner once lived in the suburban and rural parts of the province. According to surveys taken by former Laguners, many have left the province due to the rising costs of living, including rising sales, property, and gas taxes. Since 2018, Laguna has one of the most highest tax rates in all of Sierra.

Racial and ancestral makeup

  • 52.3% White (4,473,862)
  • 33.1% Non-Hispanic White (2,831,450)
  • 19.2% Hispanic (1,642,412)
  • 15.9% Asian/Pacific Islander (1,360,122)
  • 9.7% Black (829,760)
  • 1.9% Native Sierran (162,530)
  • 20.2% Mixed/Other (1,727,954)


With most of Laguna's population living more than 100 miles away from Porciúncula, the epicenter of southern Sierran life, Laguna has been able to develop a more distinct culture of its own compared to its neighbors, Orange, and the Inland Empire which are closer to the Gold Coast. More heavily influenced by Latin American culture than East Asian, the province's location by Bajaría and long history of Spanish-Mexican presence has impacted Laguna. The presence of Sierra's military in San Diego have long been a source of province pride and Laguna's affinity with the ocean has spawned a unique beach culture different from the more famous Orange variant. Laguna has long been hailed as the birthplace of Sierran fusion cuisine and experimental cooking, and also internationally known for its craft brewing. The province also has a thriving local arts and theater community.


Religious affiliation in Laguna
Affiliation % of Sierra population
Christian 70 70
Protestant/Evangelical 37 37
Catholic 31 31
Eastern Orthodox 1 1
Other Christian 1 1
Other Faith 12 12
Unaffiliated 16 16
Don't know/refused answer 2 2
Total 100 100

Roughly 70% of Laguna residents identify themselves as Christian with 37% of citizens identifying themselves as a Protestant, 31% Catholic, 1% Eastern Orthodox, and 1% nondenominational or a member of another Christian sect. The largest religious denomination in Laguna is the Roman Catholic Church, which accounts for 31% of Laguna and is strongly in due to the large community of Hispanics and Latinos who are traditionally Catholic. The next largest churches in Laguna include the Baptists, Lutherans, Evangelicals, and Adventists.

The next largest group are the irreligious (including atheists, agnostics, and others) who comprise 16% of Laguna. The largest non-Christian religions in Laguna are Mahayana Buddhism at 5% and Canaanism at 3%. The remaining 4% include Muslims, Hindus, Sikhs, Jains, and Unitarians.


The official languages of the province include the seven of the eight languages recognized nationally (English, Spanish, Chinese, Vietnamese, Korean, Tondolese, and Japanese, thus requiring all official government documents in the province to be published with all of the aforementioned languages. English and Spanish are by far the most spoken languages in Laguna.


The skyline of San Diego at night.

Historically dependent trade and agriculture, Laguna's economy has now relied primarily on the defense and biotech industries with trade and agriculture, alongside tourism as significant contributors to the provincial economy. It is home to several dozen major companies in Sierra including Calcom, Edison Pacific, Overstars, and Torp International. The province has aggressively advertised its suitable environment for businesses, and is home to one of the fastest growing places for new start-up businesses with an attractive real estate market.


A performance at SeaWorld San Diego.

Tourism is an important contributor to the economy of Laguna, with San Diego as the epicenter of tourist activity. Boasting 70 miles of coastline, Laguna offers swimming, boating, surfing, fishing, and snorkeling within its beaches. Three major amusement parks: SeaWorld San Diego and Belmont Park (both based in San Diego) alongside Legoland Sierra Resort (based in Carlsbad), attract millions of visitors each year. The San Diego Zoo (in San Diego's Balboa Park) and its Safari Park (in Escondido) extension are one of the world's most famous and 10th largest zoo in the world, featuring over 650 species of animals. The Balboa Park, a 1,200-acre urban park contains the zoo, several theaters and museums, gardens, stadiums, and restaurants, offering visitors a variety of places to experience. The province features several prominent shopping centers and outlets, including the Fashion Valley Mall, the province's largest with over 1.7 million square feet of area available for leasing and 200 individual stores.



The San Diego Gas & Electric is the primary energy provider in Laguna, and receives most of its energy from traditional power grids and the San Onofre Nuclear Plant. The move towards alternative fuels such as solar and wind has been on the rise, as Laguna has one of the highest demands in electricity in the Kingdom. Like much of Sierra, Laguna depends the majority of its oil from foreign sources and imports.


Major highways


Sierrail and the San Diego Metropolitan Transit System provide Laguna a public rail and transit system which includes buses and streetcars. The commuter rail system is managed primarily by Coaster although the Metrolink and Pacific Surfliner lines also run through and stop at stations in Laguna.


The San Diego International Airport (KSAN) is the province's primary commerical airport in the Greater San Diego area. Located just 4 miles northwest of Downtown San Diego, the airport is the busiest single-runway commercial airport in Sierra and the world's second busiest with a total of 18,756,997 in 2014.

A domestic flights-only airport (McClellan–Palomar Airport, KCRQ) is located in the north of the province near Carlsbad. There are a number of general aviation airports in the province as well, among these being the Brown Field Municipal Airport (KSDM) in Otay Mesa, the Gillespie Field (KSEE) in El Cajon, the Montgomery Field Airport (KMYF) in San Diego, and the Ramona Airport (KRMN) in Ramona. There are eight other general aviation airports in Laguna, all of which lack a tower and where on-site use is minimal.


The Tenth Avenue Marine Terminal in the Port of San Diego.

The province is served by the Port of San Diego, a public-benefit corporation managed by Laguna and based in the San Diego Bay. Receiving an annual cargo tonnage exceeding 4 million, the Port of San Diego is the third-busiest port in Sierra after the Port of Porciúncula and the Grands Ballons. The Port of San Diego is the busiest cruise ship port in the country, and the second largest along the Pacific Coast with a traffic of 800,000 passengers annually after Port Metro Vancouver in Canada. There are three main terminals in the Port: the Tenth Avenue Marine Terminal, the National City Marine Terminal, and the B-Street Cruise Terminal. Several facilities owned by the Royal Navy and Army are also situated within the bay and cooperates with the Port of San Diego.


The Colorado River and its irrigation systems account for 70% of Laguna's water use and dependence. 95% of Laguna relies on the service of the Metropolitan District of Southern Sierra, which services Laguna, Imperial, the Inland Empire, Orange, and the Gold Coast, for its water. Provincial-wide, water management and service is administered by the provinces' five water districts, the largest of these being the San Diego County Water District (SDCWD) based in San Diego County. Due to drought and water shortages affecting Laguna and much of the rest of Sierra, the province has worked towards conserving water and relying more on local sources, instead of outside sources. By 2020, local water supplies from desalination, groundwater, and recycled water is projected to account for more than 37% of Laguna's total water use.

Government and politics

The foundation, structure, functions, and operations of Laguna's government is defined by the Laguna Provincial Constitution which outlines basic law and guarantees certain rights and freedoms to its citizens. Laguna's government is divided into three branches: the executive, the legislative, and the judicial.

The executive branch is headed by the Governor who is in charge of signing or vetoing legislation, appointing officials and judges, granting pardons or reprieves, managing and preparing the provincial budget, and commanding the Laguna National Guard. The current governor is Tyson Morales (DR) from Encinitas. The executive branch also includes the Lieutenant Governor, the Prosecutor General, the Solicitor General, the Provincial Comptroller, the Provincial Treasurer, the Provincial Superintendent, and the Insurance Commissioner. Like all other Sierran provinces, Laguna is a constituent part of the Crown's realm, and shares the Monarch co-equally with the rest of the Kingdom. The Monarch is represented in the province through their appointed viceregal official, the Lord Superintendent, who carries out the ceremonial functions and role of the Monarch whenever the latter is not present in Laguna, or otherwise unable to execute their duties. The current Lord Superintendent is Nathan Afara.

The Laguna Provincial Legislature is bicameral and comprises up of the 30-member Senate and the 100-member General Assembly. All are elected to two-year, renewable terms. The province is divided into 30 senatorial districts, each with its own senator, and 100 assembly districts, each represented by an assembly member. The province is also divided into parliamentary districts with these boundaries set by the Parliament of Sierra, which have no bearing on Laguna's immediate legislature but organizes Laguna's constituencies and their representation in the House of Commons.

The Supreme Court is the highest court in Laguna and has appellate jurisdiction over nearly all cases originating in Laguna and has original jurisdiction over cases concerning issues found within the provincial constitution. Below the Supreme Court sit 4 Courts of Appeal, followed by the 12 Circuit Courts, and the 19 Superior Courts at the county-level. In 1994, the Supreme Court attracted national attention when 2 of its justices and a high-profile attorney were involved in bribery and charged with corruption. All three were convicted and sentenced to 25+ years in prison.

Laguna has traditionally leaned conservative, much similar to its neighbors, Orange and the Inland Empire. In all but the 2012 election, Laguna voted for Royalist candidates. In 2012, Laguna narrowly voted for Democratic-Republican candidate and prime ministerial incumbent Steven Hong by 1.21%. The city of San Diego, Laguna's largest and its capital, is much more liberal than the province's average overall, and has been a Democratic-Republican stronghold since the 1960s. Its continued growth (and consequently, the Democratic-Republican party base) have been cited as the reason Democratic-Republican Governor Tyson Morales was elected in 2014 and the choice of Steven Hong for prime minister in 2012 was achieved.


Public primary and secondary schools are under the direct jurisdiction of the Laguna Provincial Department of Education with school districts organized and established within the 18 counties of Laguna. Each district is headed by an elected Board of Education and the Department is directed and administered by the Provincial Superintendent.

Public universities

Private secular universities

Private religious universities

Community colleges


The two major league sports teams in the province are the National Football League's San Diego Chargers (based in Qualcomm Stadium) and Major League Baseball's San Diego Padres at the Petco Park. The NFL Super Bowl championships have been held at the Qualcomm Stadium three times in 1988, 1998, and 2003 respectively and the stadium also hosted the World Series in 1984 and 1998.

Prominent collegiate sports teams are also based in Laguna, among these include San Diego Province Aztecs, the San Diego Toreros, and the ULSD Tritons. Two college bowl games: the Holiday Bowl and the Poinsettia Bowl are played annually at the Qualcomm Stadium.

Other significant sports events held annually include the San Diego Surf of the American Basketball Association and the Farmers Insurance Open golf tournament. Laguna has also hosted the 2008 NA Open Golf Championship and the America's Cup yacht race three times from 1988 to 1995.

Laguna has never claimed victory in any contemporary North American major league championship and have not won a significant championship game for any sport since 1963 with the AFL Championship. This phenomenon has been known as the "San Diego curse".

See also

Preceded by List of K.S. PSAs by date of admission to the Union
Ratified the K.S. Constitution on November 27, 1858 (7th)
Succeeded by
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