List of constitutional officers in Bijhan and Laharn

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Constitutional officers in Bijhan and Laharn are individuals who, by virtue of their elected or appointed office, have the duty and authority to exercise such powers and functions of government as their constitutions prescribe.

Bijhan and Laharn is a sovereign state with a federal government and two constituent state governments. Each of the three governments has its own constitution, executives, legislatures, and judiciaries.

United Republic of Bijhan and Laharn[edit | edit source]

The United Republic is constituted as a directorial-style republic. in which a college of several people jointly exercise the powers of head of state and head of government.

President and Vice President of the Presidential Council[edit | edit source]

The President and Vice President of the Presidential Council are elected from among its members to a five-year term. They must hail from different constituent states, and the offices of President and Vice President alternate between them every fifteen months during their term. The President represents the Presidential Council as head of state, and performs many of the ceremonial and diplomatic duties normally performed by a president or monarch in other countries. The Vice President assists the President in his duties and serves as acting President during the President's absence from the state or due to ill health.

Presidential Council Term of office Name Home state Political party Term as President Term as Vice President
1st 1 July 1993 1 July 1998 Antono Starivo
1936–2017
(Lived: 81 years)
Bijhan   Independence Party of Bijhan 1 July 1993 – 1 October 1994
1 January 1996 – 1 April 1997
1 October 1994 – 1 January 1996
1 April 1997 – 1 July 1998
Aleĉjo Sorihalo
born 1944
(Age: 75 years)
Laharn   New Democratic Party 1 October 1994 – 1 January 1996
1 April 1997 – 1 July 1998
1 July 1993 – 1 October 1994
1 January 1996 – 1 April 1997
2nd 1 July 1998 1 July 2003   1 July 1998 – 1 October 1999
1 January 2001 – 1 April 2002
1 October 1999 – 1 January 2001
1 April 2002 – 1 July 2003
  1 October 1999 – 1 January 2001
1 April 2002 – 1 July 2003
1 July 1998 – 1 October 1999
1 January 2001 – 1 April 2002

Presidential Council[edit | edit source]

The Presidential Council of the United Republic the collective head of state and head of government, and is elected by the Federal Parliament every five years, just after each federal election. It consists of six voting members, divided proportionally between the states by population, and a variable number of non-voting members. Ministerial portfolios are assigned among the members either by the Council itself, or failing that, by the political parties in order by their representation in the Senate.

The members are elected on a single list by a majority vote in both chambers, provided at least 24 senators from each constituent state voted in favor. Vacancies in the Presidential Council are filled in the same manner. Although members of the Presidential Council are permitted to resign, there exists no mechanism in the constitution by which a member can be removed from office prior to the expiry of his term. Unlike in parliamentary systems, there is no relationship of confidence between the federal parliament and the Presidential Council.

Council Election Term of office Member State Political party Voting member?
1st 1993 1 July 1993 1 July 1998 Mateo Desomet Bijhan   Bijhanian Democratic Party Voting
Georgo Ivalo Bijhan   Independence Party of Bijhan Voting
Lisandro Kiomas Laharn   Socialist Party Voting
Tomaso Nomuo Laharn   New Democratic Party Non-Voting
Tondro Ofon Bijhan   Independence Party of Bijhan Voting
Aleĉjo Sorihalo Laharn   New Democratic Party Voting
Antono Starivo Bijhan   Independence Party of Bijhan Voting
Tonomo Trema Bijhan   Independence Party of Bijhan Non-Voting
Danielo Vol Bijhan   Independence Party of Bijhan Non-Voting
2nd 1998 1 July 1998 1 July 2003  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

State of Bijhan[edit | edit source]

Bijhan is constituted as a presidential-style republic, in which a President and Vice President are popularly elected on the same ticket to serve an eight-year term, with no term limits. The President nominates the heads of the executive offices who, upon confirmation by the State Council, serve at the President's pleasure. The Vice President is ex officio the Chairperson of the State Council, but may exercise a casting vote only in the case of a tie. The Vice President also succeeds to the presidency in the event of a vacancy in the latter office,as Joru Kivik did in 1996 upon the death of Menit Hanadani.

President[edit | edit source]

Name Political Party Term of office Election Vice President
1 Menit Hanadani
1914–1996
(Lived: 82 years)
  Independence Party of Bijhan 1 January 1988 1 January 1996 1987 Joru Kivik
1 January 1996 16 August 1996 1995 Joru Kivik
2 Joru Kivik
1931-2010
(Lived: 79 years)
  Independence Party of Bijhan 16 August 1996 1 January 2004 [1] vacant (16 August 1996 – 1 October 1996)
Joru Dremna (1 October 1996 – 1 January 2004)
1 January 2004 28 May 2010 2003 Joru Dremna
3 Joru Dremna
1941-2014
(Lived: 73 years)
  Independence Party of Bijhan 28 May 2010 1 January 2012 [2] vacant (28 May 2010 – 1 July 2010)
Rafaelo Naviako (1 July 2010 – 1 January 2012)
1 January 2012 26 July 2014 2011 Rafaelo Naviako
4 Rafaelo Naviako
born 1948
(Age: 71 years)
  Independence Party of Bijhan 26 July 2014 Present [3] vacant (26 July 2014 – 1 September 2014)
Mateo Hajardu (1 September 2014 – 5 October 2017)
Rikardo Geterko (5 October 2017 — Present)

^ Joru Kivik was elected vice president at the 1995 election, and succeeded to the presidency on the death of Menit Hanadani.

^ Joru Dremna was elected vice president at the 2003 election, and succeeded to the presidency on the death of Joru Kivik.

^ Rafaelo Naviako was elected vice president at the 2011 election, and succeeded to the presidency on the death of Joru Dremna.

Vice President[edit | edit source]

Name Political Party Term of office Election President
1 Joru Kivik
1931-2010
(Lived: 79 years)
  Independence Party of Bijhan 1 January 1988 1 January 1996 1987 Menit Hanadani
1 January 1996 16 August 1996 1995 Menit Hanadani
office vacant 16 August 1996 1 October 1996 [4] Joru Kivik
2 Joru Dremna
1941-2014
(Lived: 73 years)
  Independence Party of Bijhan 1 October 1996 1 January 2004 [5] Joru Kivik
1 January 2004 28 May 2010 2003 Joru Kivik
office vacant 28 May 2010 1 July 2010 [6] Joru Dremna
3 Rafaelo Naviako
born 1948
(Age: 71 years)
  Independence Party of Bijhan 1 July 2010 1 January 2012 [7] Joru Dremna
1 January 2012 26 July 2014 2011 Joru Dremna
office vacant 26 July 2014 1 September 2014 [8] Rafaelo Naviako
4 Mateo Hajardu
born 1957
(Age: 62 years)
  Independence Party of Bijhan 1 September 2014 5 October 2017 [9] Rafaelo Naviako
office vacant 5 October 2017 1 November 2017 [10] Rafaelo Naviako
5 Rikardo Geterko
born 1960
(Age: 59 years)
  Independence Party of Bijhan 1 November 2017 Present [11] Rafaelo Naviako

^ Joru Kivik succeeded to the presidency on the death of Menit Hanadani. The office of Vice President was vacant until Joru Dremna assumed office on 1 October 1996.

^ Joru Dremna was appointed Vice President by the State Forum on 4 September 1996.

^ Joru Dremna succeeded to the presidency on the death of Joru Kivik. The office of Vice President was vacant until Rafaelo Naviako assumed office on 1 July 2010.

^ Rafaelo Naviako was appointed Vice President by the State Forum on 17 June 2010.

^ Rafaelo Naviako succeeded to the presidency on the death of Joru Dremna. The office of Vice PResident was vacant until Mateo Hajardu assumed office on 1 September 2014.

^ Mateo Hajardu was appointed Vice President by the State Forum on 18 August 2014.

^ Mateo Hajardu resigned as Vice President on 5 October 2017.

^ Rikardo Geterko was appointed Vice President by the State Forum on 23 October 2017.

State of Laharn[edit | edit source]

Laharn is constituted as a parliamentary-style republic, in which the Governor is the ceremonial head of state and the Chief Minister is the head of government.

Governor[edit | edit source]

The Governor of Laharn is appointed by the Chief Minister after being nominated by a two-thirds vote in the Parliament. The Governor serves a nonrenewable term of five years, however the Chief Minister can extend this term by up to two years if the Parliament votes by simple majority to approve the extension. The Chief Minister can also dismiss the Governor, however this must be ratified by a two-thirds vote in Parliament within 30 days. If Parliament fails to ratify the dismissal, the Parliament is dissolved and a fresh election must take place.

When the office of Governor is vacant, the most senior justice of the Supreme Court serves in the acting role of Administrator of the Government.

Name Term of office Duration Chief Minister
[1] Manuelo Vajardo
1922–1996
(Lived: 74 years)
1 January 1988 1 May 1998 1,947 days Office vacant
(until 18 April 1988)
Karlo Bevincimo
(from 18 April 1988)
1 1 May 1988 1 May 1993
2 Aleĉjo Ludoviko
1932–2010
(Lived: 78 years)
1 May 1993 Karlo Bevincimo
  1. ^ Manuelo Vajardo served in the acting role of Administrator of the Government from 1 January to 1 May 1988, at which point he was formally appointed Governor by Chief Minister Karlo Bevincimo.

Chief Minister[edit | edit source]

The Chief Minister is the head of the state government. The Chief Minister is nominated by the Governor and, once confirmed by the Parliament, serves until the next parliamentary election, his resignation, or the loss of confidence in his government. Although the Governor can, in theory, nominate any person he chooses as Chief Minister, the requirement that the Parliament confirm his nomination means that the Governor generally nominates the leader of the largest party or coalition of parties in the Parliament.

The Governor does not have the power to dismiss the Chief Minister. However, if the Chief Minister loses the confidence of the Parliament and requests an early election, the Governor can refuse this request, effectively forcing the Chief Minister to resign.

Name Party Term of office Duration Election Government
1 Karlo Bevincimo
born 1943
(Age: 76 years)
  New Democratic Party 18 April 1988 1988 1st Bevincimo
1991 2nd Bevincimo
1994 3rd Bevincimo
1998 4th Bevincimo