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Liu Zhou

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 This article is part of Altverse II. This article is a C-class article. It is written satisfactorily but needs improvement.

Liú Zhōu
ㄌㄧㄡ ㄓㄡ
Li Zhou.png
Liu in a state visit to China
Seal of the Premier of Manchuria.png
President of Manchuria
Assumed office
April 24, 2014
Preceded by Jin Pai Nai
Prime Minister Yu Qiang
Chairwoman of the Supreme National Assembly
In office
8th May 2004 – 19th August 2008
Preceded by Xu Yu-cheng
Succeeded by Hu Zhengming
Secretary of Defence
In office
8th May 2002 – 3rd May 2004
President Jin Pai Nai
Preceded by Chang Tingfang
Succeeded by Xi Zezung
Prime Minister of Manchuria
In office
January 13, 2008 – January 24, 2014
President Jin Pai Nai
Preceded by Chen Xuezhi
Succeeded by Yu Qiang
Mayor of Harbin
In office
April 23, 2000 – January 13, 2008
Preceded by Fu Yuejun
Succeeded by Luo Liucheng
Personal details
Born (1957-04-18) April 18, 1957 (age 66)
Communist Manchuria flag.png Mukden, Manchuria
Nationality Manchurian
Political party MRNC logo (1934-2011).png Manzuxiehui (1999–Present)
Other political
CPM logo .png Communist Party of Manchuria (1978–1999)
Spouse(s) Zhang Guanzheng
Children Qiaoqiao, Dingyi, Wangdong
Alma mater Xu Xiaobao Military Academy
Moscow State University
Profession Politician, businesswomen
Religion Chinese Orthodox Church
Military service
Allegiance Communist Manchuria flag.png Manchuria
Branch/service People's Naval Service of Manchuria
Years of service 1980 - 1989
Rank Lieutenant commander
This is a Chinese name; the family name is Liu

Liu Zhou (Zhuyin: ㄌㄧㄡ ㄓㄡ; pinyin: Liú Zhōu) is a Manchurian politician and businesswomen who has served as the incumbent President of Manchuria since 2014. Liu was also previously the leader of the Manzuxiehui, the largest party in the Supreme National Assembly and was previously the Chairwoman of the Supreme National Assembly from 2004 to 2009. She was previously the mayor of Harbin from 1995 to 2002, Defence Secretary from 2002 to 2004 and Vice-Premier under Jin Pai Nai from 2009 to 2014. Liu also the current Chairwomen the Heping Group, a leading business and technology conglomerate in Manchuria. She is both the first women and the first Christian to serve as Premier of Manchuria.

Liu was born in the city of Mukden in the Shenyang province in 1957 whilst Manchuria was under the Marxist-Leninist government of Qian Yiu-tong, with her parents both being high ranking members of the ruling Communist Party of Manchuria. Through her parents connections she was able to attain a place in the Xu Xiaobao Military Academy and subsequently ascend through the ranks of the People's Naval Service where she served on the first and only Manchurian nuclear submarine. Following the overthrow of the communist government Liu left the navy for the Heping Group which was created and run by her family. After the start of the Orchid Revolution, Liu joined the Manzuxiehui where she became the mayoress for the capital city of Harbin in 2000, helping oversee the implementation of new policies of decommunization in the city following the end of the people's republic. As mayor of Harbin she also oversaw several infrastructure and water sanitation projects and remained mayor until 2004 when she was appointed to serve as Secretary of Defence under Jin Pai Nai. As Defence Secretary Liu oversaw the modernisation and expansion of the Manchu National Defence Force as well as spearheading Manchuria's involvement in the War on Terror, notably deploying troops in Syria to support the International Security Assistance Force. Liu would run in the 2010 Manchurian legislative elections and was elected to the assembly and was later elected leader of the Manzuxiehui in 2013. Liu as part of the Shehuizu branch of the party advocated for economic statism and Manchurian nationalism, but worked closely with the more right wing President Jin Pai Nai, cracking down on party factionalism. The 2010 legislative elections saw Liu lead the Manzuxiehui to an increased majority where they oversaw cuts to social welfare and austerity measures which were taken ostensibly to simulate the economy following the 2008 Great Recession. In 2010, she was appointed Prime Minister by Jin Pai Nai.

Folliwing the annexation of Rehe Province by China in 2014, Jin resigned from his posiiton as president with an early presidential election schedueled for April 2014. Liu announced her candidacy for the Manzuxiehui's presidential nomination not long after Jin's resignation and faced competition from Justice Secretary Xian Yuyu and mayor of Mukden Ma Yunjiang. After a prolonged campaign Liu beat both candidates to the nomination getting 53% of the Manzuxiehui's vote, where she went on to fight the premeirial election against Raoguo Jixu and Chang Shengzuo. Basing her policy platform on the so-called Five Fundamentals (economic growth, low unemployment, economic modernisation, a strong welfare state and protection of Asian values) Liu went on to win the election with a plurality of the vote (37.9%).

As President, she's overseen an ongoing conflict with China and has increased Manchuria's ties to the Western World. in 2015, she would convince the Conference of American States to deploy a battlegroup in the form of CAS Forces – Manchuria to protect the nation from future Chinese aggression and signed numerous trade agreements and deals with other western nations. She's also overseen economic growth in Manchuria and has also sought to decrease economic dependancy on China. Following the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, Manchuria would be affected in January 2020 leading to a nationwide lockdown. Liu would enact strict measures to control the virus being met with both praise and sharp criticism, but has been accused of using the pandemic to increase antagonism towards China blaming the Chinese government for "criminal incompetance" for starting the pandemic.

Sine 2013 following the death of her father Liu has been the Chairperson of the Heping Group, with a net worth of 元20 billion (roughly a little over $2.5 billion) making her one of the richest individuals in Manchuria. In 2015 she was ranked the 11th most powerful women by Forbes and the most powerful in East Asia and one of the most powerful women in the world as well in both business and politics. As President, Liu has become a controversial figure being praised by many for her defense of Manchuria from China, but others have criticized her restrictions on the press, censorship of the media, and blacklisting of individuals calling for peace with China. In 2019, her party lost its legislative majority and has worked with them in parliament on many issues, but has been accused of using executive power to bypass the assembly.

Early life

Liu in 1974, aged 18.
Liu Zhou was born on the 18th April 1957 in the city of Mukden, located in the Shenyang Province in the Manchu People's Republic. Her father, Gao Yuzhang, was a member of the Communist Party of Manchuria and formally affiliated with the Manzuxiehui, which had led the short lived Second Manchu Republic. Gao had been a prominent revolutionary during the Manchu Revolution actively resisting the Japanese, and thus was made Party Secretary for Mukden which was then the largest city in Manchuria. Yuzhang's position in the CPM allowed his wife Zihua and Zhou to live in an comfortable apartment in Shenyang. Liu had an elder brother named Bingwen and a younger sister named Zhijun. As a daughter to a member of the "red bourgeoisie" she enjoyed more material privileges and a higher standard of living to most Manchu citizens. Li is of mixed Manchu-Han Chinese descent.

In 1962 Liu was enrolled in a local state run primary school. Three years later she joined the Young Communist League, the youth wing of the CPM. In 1968 Yuzhang was promoted to Secretary of Technology and Research, and subsequently moved the family from Mukden to the capital of Harbin. As a young girl, Liu was interested in music and classical Chinese literature - her contemporaries saw her as hard working but largely uninterested in politics. Liu was also notably interested in western fashion and western which as the daughter of a high ranking official she had a degree of access to. At the age of 18 Liu was able to travel to the Soviet Union where she studied at the Moscow State University for two years, studying Political Science. Rather then perform the usual mandatory two year military service Liu instead enrolled into the naval division of the Xu Xiaobao Military Academy, the foremost military training school in Manchuria. She graduated from the school in 1982 with the rank of Sub-lieutenant. During that time she also joined the CPM on the behest of her father who had been promoted to the CPM's politburo. At the age of 19 she became romantically engaged with fellow military student Zhang Guanzheng, whom she married in 1978. She had her first child, Qiaoqiao, in 1980.

Pre-political careers

Military career

Liu Zhou in 1988
Upon graduating from military school Liu was assigned to the newly created Azure-class Submarine, the first nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarine created in Manchuria which was built in a joint Soviet-Manchu project. Liu was assigned only a minor role on the submarine, as the Soviet navalmen took on the main roles of handling the missiles and the reactor. In 1985 Liu was promoted to lieutenant, but was still assigned to the Azure. As a member of the CPM and due to her fathers high ranking position she was fast tracked through the ranks of the navy. In 1988 she was again promoted, this time to lieutenant commander, where she served as second-in-command in the Manchu contingent on the Azure, although this role was in practice ceremonial as the Soviets continued to exert control over the Azure. In March 1989 the Azure project was fully transferred to the Manchu authorities. Following the fall of communism in Manchuria a few months later Liu was discharged from the military.

Heping Group

In early 1990 Liu's father Yuzhang left the Communist Party buying up shares in several former state owned bushinesses as they were sold off by the new military junta. Her father concentrated on several media outlets including a branch of the old state broadcasting network and several newspapers. Headquartered in the Heping District in Shenyang this umbrella of media outlets became informally known as the Heping Group. Liu was appointed onto the board of directors to the newly formed television station Manchuria Today as well as become the editor of several papers most prominently the Mukden Ribao, all of which took a conservative stand that supported the Popular Front government.

The Mukden Ribao soon became the fastest selling paper in Manchuria. A daily newspaper it became famous for its strongly anti-communist stance and its cheap price, undercutting many of its competitors on the market. Under Liu the Mukden Ribao circulated around 2 million per day. The influence of the Heping Group went beyond the Mukden Ribao with the Group also owning Financial Daily (a paper primarily focussed on business and economics). In 1992 the Group brought the broadsheet Dongbei Jintian which soon outplaced Mukden Ribao as the biggest selling paper in Manchuria. Liu was appointed to the editor of Dongbei Jintian upon its acquisition by the Heping Group, and was said to be responsible for its mass production and distribution.

Early political career

Mayor of Harbin

Liu joined the Manzuxiehui in 1995 announcing she would be pursuing a political career, running for the position of Mayor of the city of Harbin in the mayoral election that year, beating the incumbent Socialist Fu Yuejun.

Harbin mayoral election, 1993
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Manzuxiehui MRNC logo (1934-2011).png Liu Zhou 2,586,331 51.3
Socialist Socialist Party of Manchuria.png Fu Yuejun 2,379,627 47.2
Turnout 5,041,582 65.2%

In contrast to her predecessor Liu used an extensive team of advisers and technocrats to help her run Harbin. As mayor of Harbin Liu was primarily responsible for helping organise the 1996 Asian Winter Games which were considered to be one of her primary successes. Liu invested in infrastructure and water sanitation, helping modernise the city whilst also supporting Harbin's industrial centres. This policy was heavily criticised as air pollution worsened under Li who did very little to implement environmental laws. Liu also increased policing giving them the right to far-ranging powers within Harbin, some of which were criticised as being undemocratic.

Liu also oversaw the construction of several highways and viaducts to deal with traffic jams; however this process was slow and traffic congestion remained a chronic problem in Harbin. She also supported the financial de-regulation of Harbin's banks believing it would court foreign investment. In 1995 she travelled to Asahikawa in Japan following the partnership of Asahikawa and Harbin. Liu played a major part in the Manxiehui's campaign for the attempted election of premierial Jin Pai Nai where she contributed significantly to the airing of several negative campaign attacks on Jin's opponents Tao Shiyou and incumbent Du Changhao, with Jin surprisingly coming second despite being seen as a dark horse candidate. She subsequently played a major part in his eventual election in 2002 where he beat both the Minzhudang and Socialist candidates.

Minister of Defence

In 2002 she retired from the mayoralty of Harbin after being appointed by the newly inaugurated President Jin Pai Nai to serve in the Executive Council to serve as Minister of Defence. Liu's pick as Defence Secretary was controversial due to her support of nuclear weapons and her criticisms against her predecessor Chang Tingfang who had spearheaded the dismantlement of Manchuria's nuclear weapons. Liu remains the only Defence Secretary in the Third Republic who participated in non-conscription military service. She ran for a seat in the Supreme National Assembly being elected on the PR list in the 2000 legislative election where she sat on the Subcommittee for Labour and Industrial Affairs.

Liu Zhou as Defence Secretary, 2003.
As Defence Secretary Liu campaigned for the military budget to be increased substantially as well as have Manchuria take a greater role in world affairs. Earlier in her term she had the Manchu government sign numerous deals with Israel and China for military equipment and hardware. During her time as Defence Secretary Liu was singled out for being "hawkish" and a leading neoconservative in government. This was brought to the forefront following the start of the War on Terror heavily advocating for Manchu military intervention in Iraq. The deployment of the Manchu National Defence Force in Iraq in 2004 was considered to be a notable development in American-Manchurian Relations, with Liu arguing that Islamic terrorism threatened both east and west.

Chairwoman of the Supreme National Assembly

In May 2004 Liu resigned from the post of Defence after becoming Chairwomen of the Manzuxiehui, which as the largest party within the Supreme National Assembly also enabled her to take the Chairmanship of the Assembly. As the Chairman of the Manzuxiehui Liu implemented tough party discipline, making the Manzuxiehui a transmission belt for the government whilst coordinating policy with the government to prevent party splits. Jin was the leader of the Heihepai faction of party whilst Liu emerged as the leader of the Shehuizu faction, but was able to compromise with the more right wing government to prevent a party rebellion in the Assembly. Liu's dominant position within the Manzuxiehui led to the party factions to collate into two - the pro-Jin faction and the pro-Liu faction. However Liu constantly asserted her loyalty to the Premier, sating there would no "palace coup" under her Chairwomanship. In the 2005 legislative elections the Manzuxiehui led by Liu achieved their best results since 1990, having 410 seats. In 2007 Liu announced she would reign as Chairwomen of the Manzuxiehui at that year's party presidium to serve as Jin Pai Nai's running mate in the 2008 Premierial election. As Jin's running mate in the election the pair won with 51.9% of the vote. Liu's appointment as Vice-Premier was broadly welcomed by the press, who called her a serious candidate to eventually replace Jin in 2014. In August 2008 at the Manzuxiehui's party presidium Liu stepped down as Chairwomen, with Hu Zhengming being elected as her replacement.

Prime Minister

As Jin Pai Nai's vice-premier Liu's influence within the Assembly declined allowing the government to push through more rightist policies without compromise. In her role as Vice-Premier Liu was mainly used as a power broker who was able to balance out the Manzuxiehui's numerous factions on behalf of Jin. Liu was described as being a "mediator" who was able to come to consensus's in contrast to Jin's more confrontational style. Li controversially gave full support to Premier Jin in his support of North Korea during his time in office, and generally speaking did not oppose Jin's policies in office in order to maintain party unity.

2014 presidential election

As the end of Jin's term approached in mid 2013 Liu was tipped as one of the favourites to succeed him alongside the Mayor of Mukden Ma Yunjiang and then Foreign Secretary Xian Yuyu. Xian and Ma represented the rightist factions of the party whilst Liu was on the left - however Jin refused to endorse any candidate which hampered Xian's chance of gaining the nomination.
Liu speaking with voters on the campaign trial.
On the 16th June 2013 Liu announced her candidacy for the Manzuxiehui's nomination for the position of premier, doing so after Ma but before Xian. The Manzuxiehui officially elects its premierial candidate through registered supporters voting in a secret alternative votes with the candidate with the most preference votes winning the nomination. From the beginning the race was a three way one - Liu campaigned on continuing Jin's policies for economic growth whilst expanding the social safety net in comparison to Xian who focused on national security and Ma fighting corruption. In the first round of preference votes Liu got 49% of votes, Ma 32% and Xian 20%, thereby eliminating Xian. In the second ballot Liu scored 53% of votes and Ma 47%, thereby paving the way for Liu to become the candidate for the Manzuxiehui. Liu appointed popular rightist and financial secretary Yu Qiang as her candidate for Vice-Premier.

Liu's campaign championed the "Five Fundamentals" which she outlined as economic growth, low unemployment, economic modernisation, a strong welfare state and protection of Asian values, which she claimed would bring about "happiness and peace". Liu's main opposition came from a former premierial aide Raoguo Jixu representing the Progressive Alliance for Manchuria as well as Socialist Party leader Chang Shengzuo, both of whom criticised Liu and the Manzuxiehui for a lack of transparency and for being corrupt. Liu rebuffed these claims calling them baseless, stating that Raogou had been connected to a more corrupt administration then the Jin Pai Nai government. Despite Raoguo having a strong lead in the polls in the early part of the campaign his support was whittled away after he came under increasing fire for his role in the Du Changhao administration. No candidate gained a majority in the polls which had Liu at the low 40's, Raoguo the mid 30's and Chang the mid 20's.

On the election day itself Liu gained a clear plurality with 30,683,008 (37.9%) of votes cast compared to 26,149,370 for Raoguo (32.3%) and 21,129,986 for Chang (26.1%) thereby confirming her victory. When the results were announced Liu made a speech where she thanked her supporters ad promised that her government would commit to fighting corruption, encouraging economic growth and building a strong welfare state.


Domestic policy

Economic policy

Foreign policy

Conflict with China

Political positions

Personal life

Electoral history