Lord Councillor of Eroea
|Lord Councillor of Eroea of Template:Abolished|
Imperial Government of Eroea|
Office of the Lord Councillor
(Formal and international)
House of Councillors|
Lord Chamberlain (De jure)|
House of Councillors (De facto)
|Residence||State Palace, Argost|
|Seat||Palace of Yuntvar|
None (de jure)|
House of Councillors (de facto)
|Term length||At His Imperial Majesty's Pleasure|
|First holder||Ingrid Rey|
|Final holder||Gerald Yalan|
|Abolished||1 February 4145|
Deputy Lord Councillor|
First Minister (Informal)
The Cabinet was under the formal leadership of the Lord Councillor. It, along with the Imperial Council, are the principal advisory bodies to the Sovereign. The de jure head of government was the Lord Chamberlain, who was considered the Monarch's representative in Parliament. By convention, they are simply there for advise and consent, however, the influence of the position depends on a variety of factors such as the respective officeholders of each position and political sphere at the time. The Cabinet was made up of the senior ministers in the government, who lead the respective departments. Each of these departments was responsible for enforcing the legislative policy and executing the responsibilities designated to them by said legislation, this legislation was drafted by the House of Councillors, the lower chamber, and thus Cabinet are accountable to them and the Monarch. The Lord Councillor appoints and dismisses members of the Cabinet at will, through the principle of Emperor-in-council. The founding of the office was steeped in the Imperial Reformation Decree 3776 and was a continuation of the ancient office of the Imperial Chancellor. The creation of the post solidified Eroea's transition from a bureaucratic dictatorship to a quasi-democratic monarchy. The Monarch still holds absolute power but chooses to delegate said powers to various ministers. Before the office, the Imperial Chancellor was not accountable to any publicly elected body and thus the system was bureaucratic. Now, the post as head of government was usually delegated to the leader of a publicly elected body, the House. The post has morphed overtime, with power switching from the office to the Lord Chamberlain and vica versa. However, it has been established that the Lord Councillor was the supreme authority on executing the royal prerogative. The lesser nobility in Eroea, specifically the Lords Paramount, have little to no power on national affairs. They instead are confined to their own regions, in which themselves have their own regional legislatures and executive governments.
The position of Lord Councillor was abolished under the Great Reform Act, which was enacted during the tenure of Gerald Yalan in the aftermath of the Eukatosian Secession. The Act established the new position of State Chancellor, which strengthened the role of head of government. It also expanded the rights of colonies and territories around Eukatosia, while also permitting more widespread use of the Armed Forces in these colonies. The final Lord Councillor was Gerald Yalan, who went on to serve as the first State Chancellor.
The legal instrument that dictates the powers of the Lord Councillor was the Imperial Reformation Decree 3776, often called the 'unofficial constitution of Eroea'. While the Sovereign retains absolute right to rule, the Crown delegates its royal prerogative to the Lord Councillor and his subordinate ministers. All actions of the Lord Councillor are done on behalf of the Sovereign themselves. Unlike in constitutional monarchies where the Sovereign executes their royal prerogative on advise of ministers, the monarchy of Eroea does not. It executes its royal prerogative off its own accord, however, this was often done through a principle of delegation. Whereby, matters that do not relate to the ultimate state of the nation do not require the attention of the Monarch.
Before the Lord Councillor, the Imperial Chancellery existed as the executive and legislative organ of government. This was a broad term to describe the entire government of Eroea, which was under the control of a single person, the Imperial Chancellor. The Imperial Chancellor was delegated all royal prerogatives and they further delegates these powers to their subordinates. There was no popularly elected assembly and thus this form of governance was called 'bureaucratic absolute monarchy', where the Monarch does not take an active role in the daily governance procedures of the nation. This method of government grew increasingly unpopular as the population of Eroea grew and the world around it evolved. Thus, the final Imperial Chancellor, Ingrid Rey, transformed the political sphere of Eroea with the assistance of Gregor IV. Rey was appointed the Steward for Transitional Government and tasked with meeting the demands of the Imperial Reformation Decree, which was drafted by her, as Imperial Chancellor, and approved by Emperor Gregor. Rey would set a number of precedents for the office. In theory, the Lord Councillor was seen as executing the royal prerogative on behalf of the Monarch, who overtime and through various imperial statutes has devolved the power to rule to subordinate offices. By convention, the Monarch should not intervene in governmental affairs but the upholding of this convention depends on the sitting Monarch at the time. Justinian II was a prime example of a Monarch who directly involved themselves in government affairs. His son, Justinian III was rather indifferent to governmental decisions and instead opted for a more nominal role as an adviser than a ruler.
The power to dissolve parliament was afforded to the Monarch only, however, they almost always act on the advise of the Lord Councillor or when a motion of no confidence was successful. Governmental appropriations and funding are decided by the Department for the Treasury and Finance, who then pass them to the defunct office of the Grand Treasurers Council, of which the Monarch was the only active member. This was a ceremonial event that approves budgetary allocations. This has been a criticism of the system in Eroea as the House has no say on the budget for Eroea, such area of policy was exclusively assigned to the Cabinet. The power to exercise the judicial functions of the Monarch are not wholly vested in the office. The Lord Councillor does have the power to investigate and scrutinize, but not convict or try. Such power was delegated to the Imperial Council, and its subordinate body, the Council of the Chief Justiciar. The power to declare war and make peace was another major power of the Lord Councillor, but was not afforded to the position directly. Instead, the Lord Councillor was by ex officio the Deputy Chair of the Imperial Command, the governing body of the Armed Forces, the office of Chair was held by the Monarch who was also the Supreme Marshal of the Forces.
Like many of modern governmental institutions in Eroea, the Imperial Reformation Decree 3776 was the legal instrument that formally established the office of Lord Councillor. The decree officially delegated royal prerogative to the elected office of the Lord Councillor. Initially, there was no electorate specified to nominate the Lord Councillor, thus this led to a legal paradox whereby any body could technically elect the Lord Councillor at their own will. This was swiftly amended and the power was formally vested in the House of Councillors. This was not a serious issue since Gregor IV corrected this issue during the time of the Transitional Government, led by the first Lord Councillor, Ingrid Rey. If this issue had gone unnoticed, it would have been possible for any body within Eroea to nominate the Lord Councillor position.
The Lord Councillor replaced the old role of Imperial Chancellor (which still theoretically exists but was no longer in use). The Lord Councillor was not the formal head of government, such power was vested in the Monarch and the Lord Chamberlain, in practice however the Lord Councillor was seen as the most senior adviser to the Sovereign and this convention has been upheld for millennia. The tradition of appointing the leader of the largest party in the House of Councillors stems from the fact that they often wielded a majority in the House and thus no bi-partisan alliance could oppose them. The House was an elected body and was seen as a connection between the people and the Sovereign, a connection that must be upheld and respected. The belief that the Sovereign was a divine being has largely dissipated in Eroean society. The Sovereign was, however, seen as the most senior representative from Divya, the deity of the Faith of Eroea, the major religion of Eroea and the religion of the Imperial Family.
Upon its formation, the Lord Councillor was subordinate to the Imperial Council, the upper house in the Parliament of Eroea. It was common to see government legislation end in tatters as the conservative-dominated, noble oriented Imperial Council were not inclined to agree with many of the 'common' measures of the Imperial Government. They utilised their royal prerogative as wielders of the Sovereign's power to issue imperial veto's, which would practically bring a stop to a bill progressing through the legislative process and be forcefully thrown out. Thus, during the Rey premiership, the Veto Rationalization Memorandum was issued by Gregor IV himself. It made it impossible for the Imperial Council to express the Sovereign's opinion on legislation and thus removed their right to have absolute authority over all legislation. Thus, for the veto to pass it must be rationalized under a number of imperial legislative violations. This was when the true power of the office was recognized and it allowed for a proper functioning government, without obstruction from lower nobility, many of whom were opposed to quasi-democratic governance.
Abolition and reform
Precedence, privileges and style
Despite being the most senior member of the Imperial Government, the Lord Councillor was not a senior member in the hierarchy of Eroea, instead ranking below 4 other members of the government. In terms of actual executive authority, the Lord Councillor outranks all other offices except the Lord Chamberlain, which has more power but only when authorized to execute these powers on behalf of the Monarch. In an official sense, the Adjudicator of Parliament outranks the Lord Councillor but since the Adjudicator was almost always the Sovereign, they would outrank them regardless. The Imperial Chancellor also outranks the Lord Councillor but was a defunct office in practice and only exists in law. The Imperial Steward of the House, the presiding officer of the House of Councillors, was seen as the more senior figure than the Lord Councillor but since they have little to no executive or legislative authority, the Lord Councillor out ranks them in a de facto sense. There have been attempts to increase the seniority of the Lord Councillor but all have subsequently been blocked by the Imperial Council, who have stated that a position of the commoner deserves no higher place in the Eroean order of precedence; a principle that has garnered much criticism but has been upheld by many Monarchs.
Despite Lord Councillors' names often being prefixed with the title 'Lord', they are not by right a lord within the Peerage of Eroea. The inclusion of the word Lord in the title was to signify that they are a servant of the Crown, however, since the office holds no lands, it was not an actual lordship. In the case of a member of the nobility being appointed to the position, their title was always used in preference of the title Excellency, which was the formal title for all officeholders. There have been attempts for a Consul's Estate to be established for the Lord Councillor to own as a personal fief during their tenure, but all have been struck down due to the often volatile nature of the position; despite the fact that the average term length of an administration was 16.5 years between 4000 and 4100.
Appointment and succession
The appointment of the office was the sole authority of the Sovereign. According to law, there was no conditions on who can be appointed to the office. However, by convention, the Lord Councillor was always a member of the House of Councillors - usually the leader of the party with a majority in the house, however, sometimes a Lord Councillor may be appointed with a minority. The House of Councillors holds a symbolic vote to nominate the Lord Councillor, called the 'forum of councillors on the matter of first among equals'. This was a vote where any member can put their name forward for a the position and a vote was held to determine the winner. If none reach a majority, the candidate with the lowest votes was struck out and the process repeats. In almost all cases, the whip of the largest party organizes the members to vote for the party leader. Once the vote has concluded, the nominee was conferred the title of Senior Counsel of the House. This was essentially a title of popularity and a vote of confidence in a certain leader in the House. The Monarch can then be assured that the councillor has the ability to form a functioning government.
The process was lengthy and rather ceremonial, since it was based on years old tradition.
Succession and resignation
The procedure for succession to the office of Lord Councillor was unclear and differs from government to government. Traditionally, the Lord Councillor appoints a Deputy Lord Councillor or First Minister and these positions become the Lord Councillor upon the incapacitation of the previous officeholder. In the case of a Lord Councillor resigning, the standard procedure was for the Lord Councillor to make a recommendation to the Sovereign on their successor; in almost all cases, this recommendation was adhered to. If a Lord Councillor dies, an imperial decree was issued in the same day by the Lord Chamberlain on behalf of the Sovereign, decreeing either the Deputy Lord Councillor or First Minister to be the new Lord Councillor. A confidence motion must be made in the new officeholder within 2 weeks. If the confidence motion fails, the Cabinet was dismissed, the House dissolved and an election was called. If the confidence motion passes, as it almost always does, the new Lord Councillor was confirmed by the Sovereign directly and their term formally begins.
If there was no Deputy Lord Councillor or First Minister, the office of Lord Councillor was said to be in commission under the control of the Cabinet. By convention, the Minister for the Interior was the leader of this commission, however, this depends on each cabinets structure. The government can continue doing business as usual, however the normal appointment procedure must be followed. This was riskier as it may allow for a new government to prop up without a new election, however, this has happened seldom in recent times.
As the Lord Councillor was seen as a servant of the Crown, they must personally make their intention to resign known to the Monarch, which can theoretically be rejected. Upon acceptance of the resignation, traditionally the Sovereign will ask the Lord Councillor who their successor should be. As stated above, Lord Councillors almost always recommend their next most senior member of government or the current party leader, who will be able to command a majority in the House. The process was not complete, however, as the Lord Councillor was still the Senior Counsel of the House and must resign from that position to make way for the nomination of a new Lord Councillor. This was often when the former Lord Councillor makes their final speech as head of government, up until this moment, they are still regarded as the de facto head of government. The resignation was then approved by the Imperial Steward of the House and the Imperial Council was informed. Normally, this was the last business of the day and parliament reconvenes on the next working day to nominate the new Senior Counsel and Lord Councillor.
List of Lord Councillors
|No.||Lord Councillor||Party||Ministries||Term Start||Term End||Elections||Sovereign||Description of Premiership|
|26||Gerald Yalan||National Eroean Alliance (RDP-CNP)||Amadeus II||Gerald Yalan, Lord Paramount of Farah'n, is often cited as one of the greatest Lord Councillors in history. A longtime member of the Conservative Noble Party, he built a strategic alliance with the Royal Democratic Party to counteract the Eukatosian Secession War. His leadership and eloquence ultimately led to boosting morale across the country. His economic policies brought about prosperity, however, his social policies lacked the enthusiasm of forwardness that had been a staple of previous administrations. His new party survived only as long as his premiership, and he formed the largest government in the history of the state.|
|25||Josiah Mahon||Royal Democratic Party||30 September 4134||13 February 4136||The tenure of Josiah Mahon was one of failure, ultimately due to the Eukatosian Secession War, which his government was unable to avoid. The war, stoked by far-right insurgencies in Eukatosia, caused the biggest internal shift in the Eroean political sphere in generations. Ultimately, he was forced to resign in early 4136 and call a parliamentary election on the issue.|
|24||Howard McCormick||10 February 4119||30 September 4134||4134
|23||Harold Acaster||I||11 September 4117||10 February 4119|
|22||James Vice||Commoners Party||I, II||1 June 4109||11 September 4117||4114
|8 years||Justinian III|
|21||Joseph Xao||Royal Democratic Party||I, II||4 June 4102||1 June 4109||4106|
|20||Arthur Hermang||I, II, III, IV, V, VI||8 April 4083||4 June 4102||4101
|19||Vernon Wester||Conservative Noble Party||4080
|18||Augustus Wester||1 September 4038||5 August 4072||4067
|(16)||Sean Chandler||Royal Democratic Party||17 August 4029||1 September 4038||4033
|17||Jeremy Smith||Commoners Party||3 February 4016||17 August 4029||4024
|Smith, who was now 76 and had been leader of the Commoners Party since 3983, aimed to put the party into power before his retirement which he aimed to have completed by 4020. By 4016, the general populace longed for a change in government and the Chandler premiership, which had been relatively successful over the years, had been in power for 24 years and were slowly losing their voter share as their mandate shrunk.
Chandler called an election in 4016, stepping down from all government positions and retiring from politics simultaneously. The Conservative Noble Party, which was in disarray because of disputes among House Wester about leadership of the party. Smith led a campaign to profit of this turbulence and also campaigned of continuing economic prosperity and progressing civil liberties within the country.
The election led to a hung parliament, the first in 30 years. Smith formed a minority government, going into a confidence and supply agreement with the RDP. This collapsed in 4018 with the Eroean Imperial Budget for 4019, which aimed to modify tax benefits for landowners. The confidence and supply agreement was re-secured after the 4018 election, with the RDP losing seats and the Commoners Party making significant gains but not enough for a majority. The government was dissolved again in 4020 due to the Energy Nationalization Act by a bi-partisan alliance of Conservative Nobles and a number RDP defections. Smith won the subsequent 4020 election with a significant majority and he went on to win the subsequent 4024 election. He died in 4029, which triggered a leadership election within his own party but due to internal conflict, the government collapsed and the RDP were returned to power after 18 years out of power.
|16||Sean Chandler||Royal Democratic Party||17 May 3992||3 February 4016||4011
|There was a gap of 16 years between the 3992 election and the 4008 election due to the Colonial Disturbance which lasted from 3992 until 4008.|
|15||Alexander Hermang||11 December 3986||17 May 39992||3987
|A father to Arthur Hermang, he served as Lord Councillor from 3990 until 3992. He was ousted in 3992 due to poor colonial relations and revolt within his own party. However, his premiership was marked by the most socially liberal policies until the appointment of Joseph Xao in 4102. The introduction of the Civil Partnership Adoption Act and the Special Case Abortion Act redefined Eroean law in terms of adoption of children in civil partnerships and also gave leeway for abortion to be utilized in specific cases as specified by the act.
Hermang was able to form a minority government between his party and the Commoners Party in the 3986 election, but this collapsed a year later with the resignation of all Commoner cabinet members and the loss of their support in Parliament. This action led to the 3987 election to be triggered in January of that year. The election backfired on the Commoners Party and would lead to a temporary collapse in their voter base until 4016; the Royal Democrats then formed a majority government . Hermang served a full term but was ousted towards the 3992 parliamentary election by his own party.
|14||Nelson Varies||Commoners Party||19 May 3931||11 December 3986||3931
|The election of Nelson Varies as Lord Councillor was not a shock to many within Eroea at the time. Varies had been elected after a turbulent 13 year period, over 7 elections had been called in that time and the people of Eroea were now fed up with the amount of government changes which was beginning to have a series affect on the country. Varies was elected in the 3931 election with a super majority of 581 seats, the largest majority government since the foundation of the state at the time until he bet his own record in 3967 with 698 seats.
Varies embarked on a broad social welfare program. He established the Imperial Medical Service, the Eroean Coal Company, the Common Bank and the Office for Welfare, Employment and Pensions. This seriously widened the budget of the state but coupled with increased colonial economic output, the difference was offset and allowed for Varies to maintain a small but steady government surplus throughout his term as Lord Councillor. His ability to encapsulate the general public and his ability to charm members of the aristocracy has been noted as one of his strongest traits, and along with his successful government policy, is often cited as the reasons why his tenure was so lengthy.
|13||Jenna Furlong||Independent||10 January 3926||19 May 3931||Furlong was personally appointed as Lord Councillor to lead the reestablishment of the Eroean democratic government.|
|–||Aishur ministry (imperial rule)||N/A||20 September 3919||10 January 3926||The Aishur ministry was established by the Emergency War Decree on the 18 September 3919, on the 20 September legislation was passed in the House of Councillors proroguing the Parliament and delegating all legislative powers to the Imperial Council. This precipitated due to the outbreak of the Aishur War.|
|12||Leonard Riley||Commoners Party||5 June 3907||19 September 3919||3917
|11||Sean Archibald||Royal Democratic Party||16 August 3906||31 May 3907||None|
|(10)||Gerald Wester III||19 December 3902||16 August 3906||3902|
|11||Robert G. Asquith||Commoners Party||19 March 3894||17 December 3902||3897
|10||Gerald Wester III||Royal Democratic Party||7 November 3880||17 March 3894||3889
|9||Phillip de Bruene||Liberal Party||13 May 3865||4 November 3880||3875
|The Minister for the Treasury and Finance in Bowles-McCormick's ministry took over after her sudden death. Phillip de Bruene was a veteran of the party.
|8||Regina Bowles-McCormick||7 April 3865||13 May 3865||3865||Bowles-McCormick was elected during the 3865. She was the first woman to hold the post of Lord Councillor since its inaugural holder, Ingrid Rey. Bowles-McCormick passed away just a month into her term.|
|7||Josiah Mortimer||Royal Democratic Party||1 October 3864||1 April 3865||None|
|(4)||Eamon Scanlon||19 December 3850||1 October 3864||3862
|6||Ned van Sprang||Liberal Party||17 May 3849||19 December 3850||3846
|(4)||Eamon Scanlon||Royal Democratic Party||11 March 3843||17 May 3849||3844|
|(5)||Maria Thornton||Liberal Party||3 June 3842||11 March 3843|
|(4)||Eamon Scanlon||Royal Democratic Party||18 February 3841||3 June 3842||None|
|5||Maria Thornton||Liberal Party||19 August 3834||18 February 3841||3839
|4||Eamon Scanlon||Royal Democratic Party||5 June 3829||19 August 3834||None|
|(2)||Atticus Smith||21 February 3816||5 June 3829||3829
|(3)||Peregrine Wester||3 October 3811||13 February 3816||3811|
|(2)||Atticus Smith||15 June 3798||11 September 3811||3807
|3||Peregrine Wester||27 February 3797||10 June 3798||3797|
|2||Atticus Smith||21 June 3792||3 February 3797||3892|
|1||Ingrid Rey||Royal Democratic Party||1st February 3777||21 June 3792||3787
|Office established; replaced Leader of the Transitional Government|
Premierships in brief