Republic of Manchuria
Anthem: ㄇㄚㄋㄗㄨ ㄍㄡ ㄍㄡㄍㄝ
Mǎnzhōu guó guógē
and largest city
|Recognised languages||Chinese, Mongolian, Korean, Xibe, Japanese|
|Government||Unitary parliamentry republic|
|Liu Zhou (Manzuxiehui)|
|Yu Qiang (Manzuxiehui)|
Hu Zhengming (Manzuxiehui)|
Feng Huiyin (NPP)
|11th December 1944|
|3rd May 1946|
|30th November 1989|
|788,100 km2 (304,300 sq mi) (37th)|
• 2019 estimate
|139/km2 (360.0/sq mi)|
|GDP (PPP)||2019 estimate|
• Per capita
|GDP (nominal)||2019 estimate|
|$202.5 trillion (16th)|
• Per capita
|Currency||Manchurian yuan (MU￥)|
|Time zone||UTC+8 (China Standard Time)|
Manchuria /mæŋˈtʃuːriə/ (Manju Gurun in Manchurian; Манҗу Гуңхего in Manchu Cyrillic), officially the Republic of Manchuria, is a sovereign state in East Asia. It borders Ussuria to the north, China to the west and southwest, and Korea in the southeast. Its capital, largest and primate city is Mukden. Its population of 409,520,844 as of 2019 is one of the largest on earth.
While Manchuria was dominated by Korean and Chinese dynasties, they were mostly dominated by Tungusic peoples such as the Jurchens. The region was the center of the Jin Dynasty from 1125 to 1234, when it was conquered by the Mongol Empire and its Yuan Dynasty. Southern Manchuria fell under Ming rule, but the northern parts remained outside Chinese control. The Jianzhou Jurchen chieftain Nurhaci later took over the Jurchen tribes in the 1600s, culminating in the Qing Dynasty founded by Hong Taiji in 1636, and later conquering China by 1644. Intrigues by Russia led to the loss of Outer Manchuria by 1860, with Manchuria coming under Russian influence by the late 19th century. During the Xinhai Revolution of 1911, which saw the collapse of the Qing Dynasty and the formation of a republican government, Manchuria became de-facto independent and formed the First Manchu Republic led by the warlord Zhang Zuolin, and declared its full independence from China with the backing of Japan in 1917.
During the Second Sino-Japanese War, Manchuria supported the Japanese war effort in China, and its independence was recognized in 1938 when the Chinese Nationalists were forced to sign an unequal peace treaty with Japan. The republic was short-lived and in 1948, it was succeeded by the Manchu People's Republic after the Communist Party of Manchuria secured a major victory in the 1948 legislative election. The Manchu People's Republic adhered towards traditional communism like the neighboring People's Republic of China and fought with them to capture Korea from Japan during Great War II and established a communist state in the region. While not Landonist, it did have friendly relations with the United Commonwealth and grew closer ties with them and the Landonist International as regional disputes and territorial issues caused Manchuria and China to have a falling out culminating in the 1979 October Crisis.
In the 1980s, the policy of New Communism would be carried out leading to partial yet widespread liberalization of the economy, political systems, and public discourse. The policy would be popular to the point that its end in the 1990s by communist party hardliners would play a role in the Orchid Revolution in 1999 as part of the wider Revolutions of 2000 ending the communist state and establishing a new democratic one. During the 2000s, Manchuria went under major political reforms for the third republic shifting towards a multi-party democratic government with a proportional legislature, though issues of corruption have persisted nonetheless. In 2014, Manchuria would see Rehe Province lost as it was annexed by China starting the Sino-Manchurian conflict. Since 2019, a process of reconciliation began after the upset victory of the Progressive Alliance causing a shift in the government's foreign policy.
Although having the 15th largest economy in the world, Manchuria suffers from economic problems and income inequality, as well as widespread corruption in the government. The government is only successful in privatizing smaller businesses, with the larger businesses remaining state-owned or owned by former government officials. It maintains amicable relations with most of its neighboring countries, and is a member of the League of Nations, the G-25, the World Trade Organization, the Shanghai Co-Operation Organization, the World Bank, the Asian International Investment Bank, and the Asian Development Bank.
The term "Manchuria" is officially recognised as an exonym by the Manchu government, which normally uses the term of "Manchu Republic" (, Mǎnzú Gònghéguó; ᡤᡠᠨᡥᡝᡬᠣ ᠮᠠᠨᠵᡠ, Gungheg'o Manju). In Manchuria, it was originally called the "Three Eastern Provinces" or the "Northeast" until it was discouraged by the Manchukuo government. The word Manju is preferred. "Manchuria" meanwhile comes from the English translation of the Japanese word Manshū, and has originally traditionally been associated with Western and Japanese imperialism of China.
The term "Manchu" comes from the name Manju, which was applied to the Jurchen people (who mainly resided in the northeastern parts of China) by the Qing emperor Hong Taiji who became subsequently known as the Manchu people, although the Manchu people never referred to their homeland as "Manchuria". Rather, originally the Qing named these northern regions as the "three eastern provinces" (三東省; Dōng Sānshěng), but provincial changes in 1907 saw the territory renamed as the "Three Northeast Provinces" (東北三省; Dōngběi Sānshěng), and was often referred to as simply the Northeast (東北; Dōngběi) which remains one of the modern colloquial names for the country. Other names used to describe the region include Guandong (關東; Guāndōng) which translate to "east of the pass" or the previously mentioned Guanwai which translates to "outside of the pass" both of which are used to describe the regions proximity with the Shanhai Pass.
The Japanese puppet state in Manchuria saw the region named as "Manzhouguo" (滿洲國; Mǎnzhōuguó) which meant "Manchu State". In Japanese it was called "Manshū-koku" (満州国). In 1934 Manzhouguo was renamed as the Great Empire of Manzhouguo (Chinese: 大滿洲帝國, Dà Mǎnzhōu Dìguó; Japanese: 大満州帝国, Dai Manshū Teikoku).
Communist Manchuria was officially known as the Manchu People's Republic ( Mǎnzú Rénmín Gònghéguó; ᠨᡳᠶᠠᠯᠮᠠᡳᡵᡤᡝᠨ ᡤᡠᠨᡥᡝᡬᠣ ᠮᠠᠨᠵᡠ, Niyalmairgen Gungheg'o Manju). Although there are proposals to rename Manchuria, these suggestions were never realized with the majority of countries continuing to use Manchuria.
Early historyneolithic period onwards. Notable neolithic cultures found in modern day Manchuria include the Hongshan, Xinle and Xinglongwa cultures.
Manchuria has been ruled by the native ethnic groups of the region such as the Xianbei, Donghu, Khitan Sushen, Mohe, and Wuhuan kingdoms which was mainly ruled by Tungusic peoples (such as the Jurchens, Ulch and Nanai ethnic groups). The region also came under the control of various Chinese dynasties such as the Han, Cao Wei, Tang, and Western Jin. Korean kingdoms such as the Gojoseon, Buyeo, Goguryeo, and Balhae. In the latter two Korean kingdoms Tungusic aristocrats ruled rather then the previous Korean warlords. The kingdom of Balhae saw the region develop into a medieval feudal society with the inhabitants starting to create their own culture unique from those of the southern regions and that of the Korean peninsula. The continued dominance of the Song dynasty saw the Mongolic Khitan people of modern day Inner Mongolia conquer surrounding regions including Manchuria in the creation of the Liao dynasty (officially known as the "Great Liao"). The Liao empire was the first to incorporate the entirety of modern Manchuria within its boarders. Under the Liao empire the Jurchen people (who preceded the modern day Manchu people) were tributaries to the Liao mostly living in the forests in the northeastern parts of the empire.
Around 1115 the Wanyan clan of the Jurchen people enacted the Alliance Conducted at Sea which saw the alliance between the Wanyan and the Song dynasty, who invaded the Liao dynasty with the Wanyan creating the Jin dynasty ("Great Jin"). The Jin soon fought both the Liao and the Song in a series of military campaigns. A migration of Han Chinese occurred in the Great Jin with the former ruling Khitan people either being assimilated or exiled to Central Asia. The Jin became significant for spreading Buddihism from the Song dynasty throughout the region.Hailing Wang, grandson of Jin dynasty founder Wanyan Aguda, overthrew the incumbent emperor taking over the position himself. Hailing had ambitions to rule the entirety of China, and begun the sinicisation of the Jurchen people as well as move the capital from Huining Fu to Yangjing (modern day Beijing). Despite his adoption of Han traditions and encouragement of Han migration, Jurchen aristocracy remained dominant within the empire. Hailing however was brutal to what he perceived as dissident lords, having 155 Jurchen princes executed. This caused division in the Jin's ruling class, with Hailing's invasion of southern Song in 1161 prompting two rebellions in northern Jing, one by Khitan tribes, the other by Jurchen lords. Hailing was forced to call off his invasion of the Song to put down the rebellions, which severely depleted his military forces. Later defeats at Battle of Caishi and Tangdao saw Hailing and his son assassinated by his generals in December 1961. Hailing's successor Shizong spent his first years quelling the Khitran uprising. Realising the Great Jin had no military means to fight the Song dynasty, Shizong had a peace agreement negotiated with the Song, named the Treaty of Lóngxīng.
The onset of the 13th century saw frequent attacks upon the Jin by Mongol forces under the control of Khagan Genghis Khan which further weakened the military and political standing of the Jin. In 1211 following the Mongol invasion of Western Xia Mongol forces started to invade Jin causing the Mongol - Jin wars. The onset of these wars caused Khitan tribesmen led by Yelü Liuge to ally with Genghis Khan, creating an ostensibly autonomous state in the upper Manchuria region despite facing attacks from the Jin that were repelled by Mongol forces. Meanwhile the Jin continued to decline thanks to internal strife such as the rebellion led by Puxian Wannu who established the state of Eastern Xia in 1215 with support from the Mongolians. Puxian however rebelled against the Mongols before being exiled to an island giving the Mongolians a chance to annexe Khwarezm, Liaoxi, and Liaodong. A further rebellion among the Khitans saw Yelü ousted with the Khitan trying to also rebel against the Mongolians before they too were crushed by combined Mongolian and Korean forces from the Goryeo kingdom.
Meanwhile Mongolian forces continued to attack key Jin cities such as Datong on the Badger's Mount Campaign and the Jin's capital of Zhongdu. In 1214 Emperor Xuanzong abandoned the capital, where he was persuaded to attack the weakening Song so he could compensate for territory lost from the Mongols. A defeat at the Yangtze River and the ousting of Xuanzong by his brother Aizong saw a peace treated enacted with the Tangut people who were allied with the Mongols. Following the death of Genghis Khan his son Ögedei proceeded to along with the Song dynasty to mount an attack onto Jin, with Emperor Aizong fleeing to the city of Caizhou following the Siege of Kaifeng. Aizongs suicide during the Siege of Caizhou in 1234 and the Mongols victory saw the end of the Jin dynasty, with their lands divided between the Mongols and the Song. Soon however disagreements between the Mongols and the Song saw the Mongols annexe the Song dynasty as well as northern regions of Manchuria inhabited by Jurchen peoples, with the whole northeast Chinese region falling completely under Mongolian control. The Mongols successfully gained suppressed further rebellions under Ögedei such as that of the Water Tatars in 1237.
Manchuria was put under the control of the Yuan dynasty following its creation in 1271 by Kublai Khan. Continued Mongol rule in Manchuria saw technological innovation made with some of the first cannons ever made being manufactured in Mongolian Manchuria. The subsequent expulsion of Mongolians from China following the collapse of the Mongol kharnates saw the Tungusic aristocrats and lords still ally with the final Yuan emperor Toghon Temür. The Ming Dynasty was able to take many southern regions of Manchuria by 1371 three years after the expulsion of the Mongols from Beijing. However, resistance still remained with the Mongolian Uriankhai tribe which resided in Manchuria invading Liaodong in 1375 prompting a war between Manchuria and the Ming, with the latter eventually defeating the Uriankhai.
The Ming under Yongle Emperor tried to pacify Jurchen resistance as well as finally defeat the remnants of the Yuan primarily by establishing the Nurgan Regional Military Commission which coordinated military action in Manchuria. Most notably the eunuch Yishiha led several vogues down the Songhua and Amur rivers managing to coerce Jurchen chieftains to swear their loyalty with the Ming.
The death of the Yongle emperor and the ascension of the Hongxi Emperor saw Ming policy in Manchuria change with expansionist ideals replaced with those that instead advocated for the strengthening of southern Manchurian territories that were controlled by the Ming. Wary of the prospect of a possible Jurchen-Mongol invasion of the Ming a smaller, simpler version of the Great Wall (known as the " Liaodong Wall") was built on the boarder primarily to defend the Ming from Jianzhou Jurchens. Despite this Chinese culture in both southern and northern regions thrived with Chinese cuisine, traditional stories and symbols, New Year, and Chinese products such as cotton spread among the Jurchen people especially those along the Amur river.
Qing dynastyNurhaci unified and conquered several Jurchen tribes north of the Ming boarder such as the Khorchin, Nara, and Hulun. Nurchaci proclaimed himself as the Khan of the Jing dynasty, as well as outlining a list of Seven Grievances against the Ming dynasty. Nurhaci followed this by waging war against not only the Ming but the Mongols, Koreans, and other Jurchen tribes, greatly expanding his sphere of influence. Soon Jurchen forces started to conduct more direct attacks against the Ming, with Nurhaci committing to the aim of conquering the whole of the Ming. The Jurchen were able to speed this invasion with Han Chinese officials defecting to Jurchen forces for the promise of being given a women from the House of Aisin Gioro, the royal family which Nurhaci was the patriarch. Nuhaci saw the formal adoption of the Manchu language in Mongolian script.
Nuhaci also created the Eight Banners (commonly called the Bannermen) which saw military success in Sarhu and Liaoning. However in 1626 Nuhaci was killed in his first major military defeat at Ningyuan by Ming forces led by Yuan Chonghuan. His successor Hong Taiji however continued Nuhaci's expansion into both the Ming territories and Outer Manchuria. Hong Taiji renamed the Jurchen people the Manchu as a possible indicator of his interest in expanding Manchu interests beyond Manchuria as well as utilise Han Chinese defectors to serve in his bureaucracy, in which the Khan played a highly centralised role. In 1643 Hong died leaving no clear successor, with a compromise being reached that his five year old son would be the nominal Shunzhi Emperor whilst his half brother Dorgon served as regent. Meanwhile the Ming started to enter an endless period of infighting amongst their senior officials as well as failing to deal with peasant rebellions. This enabled the a rebel warlord named Li Zicheng to in April 1644 to take the capital of Beijing where the final Ming ruler the Chongzhen Emperor committed suicide, ending the Ming dynasty, establishing the Shun dynasty in its place. Li marched his rebel forces on the Shanhai Pass, which was controlled by Ming loyalists led by Wu Sangui. Wu decided that he would rather ally with the Manchu's then let the pass fall to the rebel forces, resulting in a joint effort by Wu's forces and the Manchu's to destroy the rebel forces in the Battle of Shanhai Pass. The battle also enabled the Manchu's to take Beijing in June 1644 with the Manchu's established the Qing dynasty, with the emperor being named the Son of Heavan in October. It took a further 17 years however for the Qing to take the whole of Ming territory as they battled rebels and loyalists. During this time many Han Chinese joined the Manchu bannermen, where they enjoyed various political, legal and social privileges, with the Manchu's soon becoming a minority. Despite this Manchu leaders quickly began to test their new conquests loyalty with most notably in 1645 regent Dorgon ordered a decree that forced all men to cut their hair into a queue or face death. The queue was seen as humiliating and a contradiction of traditional Confucian values among the Han, prompting widespread resistance especially in Jiangnan, which in itself prompted ethnic killings to be enacted against Han Chinese. During this time the Qing treated the region of Manchuria in a separate fashion acting akin to a highly autonomous region. The conquest of Ming territories saw the Qing name their state China (中國, Zhōngguó) which translates to "Middle Kingdom", with the Qing stressing the ethnic homogamy between Han, Manchu, Mongolian, Uyghur and Tibetan people.
Regent Dorgon died in December 1650, prompting the Emperor once again to amass the majority of power although at 12 years his mother the Empress Dowager Xiaozhuang mainly directed policy. The Shunzhi Emperor however died in 1661, seeing the ascent of the longest serving Chinese emperor the Kangxi Emperor. At only 8 years of age the Kangxi Emperor was at first guided by four senior officials appointed by the Shunzhi Emperor, Sonin, Ebilun, Suksaha and Oboi, each chosen for their loyalty, lack of assertions for the imperial throne and to halt each other from amassing power in the same way Dorgon had done. However soon Oboi started to dominate the Qing state, having Suksaha killed whilst having Ebilun act as his loyal companion. Eventually at a mere 14 years the emperor had Oboi imprisoned, thus beginning his own personal rule. The Kangxi Emperor's long rule was marked with remarkable stability, thanks partly to the bureaucracy that the Manchu's had adopted that saw the creation of the Kangxi Dictionary. Respect for Confucianism saw it possible for Han Chinese to ascend the political hierarchy. Meanwhile the Manchu ruling elite were able to appeal to their Central Asian roots to gather the support from the conquered Mongols, Uyghurs and Tibetans, meaning that Manchu rule remained unquestioned. Ruling such large territory however saw increased autonomy given to feudal lords such as Wu Sangui, Shang Kexi and Geng Jingzhong. In 1673, Shang petitioned for his retirement and for his son to take control over the land ceded to him by the Emperor. After the Kangxi Emperor refused to let his son succeed him Shang along with Wu and Geng initiated the Revolt of the Three Feudatories in August. The insurrection lasted for 8 years with Wu trying to establish himself as the Emperor of a new dynasty, and was able to gin support mainly from people in territories south from the Yangtze river. Eventually a coalition of Manchu warlords led by the Emperor saw the rebel forces crushed in 1681, although southern China was ruined in the process. Following this victory the Kangxi was able to lead campaigns against the Dzungars to strengthen his grip in Outer Mongolia, known as the Dzungar–Qing War as well as annexe Taiwan in 1683.
The Manchurian boarder with the Russia had always been vague with sporadic fighting taking place between the Qing and the Russians since the Russian conquest of Siberia, with the Sino-Russian border conflicts raging for just under 30 years with Russian brutality being widely feared in Manchuria. Fighting over the town of Albazino saw the Qing sign the Treaty of Nerchinsk, marking the Qing's first contact with a major European power. The close of the century and the end of the Kangxi Emperor's reign in 1722 saw the Qing reach the zenith of its existence with the largest economy in the world as well as being one of the largest empires by that point. During this time the Qing were able to halt mass Han emigration to Manchuria thanks to the construction of the Willow Palisade that separated Manchuria from China proper.
In 1722 the Kangxi emperor died leading to the appointment of the Yongzheng Emperor, who implemented measures that saw greater suppression of anti-Confucian and anti-Manchu ideals as well as banning Christianity and expelling all Christian missionaries. He also created a Grand Council that served as the executive power behind the emperor, as well as enforce land tax from all local lords. This enabled the Yongzheng emperor to build infrastructure around his empire especially in the northern Manchurian regions, although a financial crisis still persisted. The Yongzheng emperor's death in 1735 saw his son become the Qianlong Emperor who subsequently conquered larger swathes of Mongolia and Xinjiang and Tibet, putting down insurgencies and uprisings. Although important cultural advancements (such as the Siku Quanshu) were made under the Qianlong Emperor his rule soon became infamous for establishing the Literary Inquisition which hunted down and persecuted intellectuals and their families if they opposed imperial rule. The empire under the Qianlong Emperor soon began to prosper, with ample food imports coming in from America and a population boom. This however soon became a detriment as overcrowding became common, with only Manchuria having large tacts of uninhabited land. The Qing in an effort to protect their homeland eventually decreed that no Han Chinese could settle in Manchuria on pain of death. The Qing court was also becoming increasingly corrupt, with the Jiaqing Emperor failing to put an end to the corruption despite having the most infamously corrupt man in court, Heshen, commit suicide. In 1796 the White Lotus Society engaged in open rebellion with the Qing. Despite the movement being crushed in 1804 the Qing's authority was starting to become increasingly non-existent.
The weakening of the Qing saw a mass migration of Han Chinese into Manchuria with many of them farming the rich, uncultivated land in Manchuria. The Qing allowed Han to migrate due to famine, floods and drought becoming increasingly common in the southern regions of China. The Daoguang Emperor even had Manchu-only lands sold to Han Chinese to increase agricultural output. However, this policy was soon quickly reversed as a massive backlash from the ethnic Manchu's saw many Han Chinese expelled from Manchuria.India and Indonesia forced the Qing to establish the Canton System which saw all trade filtered through the port of Canton in southern China, thereby restricting European influence. The Britannians performed several unsuccessful attempts to open free trade with the Qing, but they refused almost every offer. Demand for Chinese goods such as silk, ceramics, and tea among others was high among European nations such as Britannia and France, but the Chinese refused all but silver to be imported into China. Frustrated with the drain on silver placed on their economies, Britannia started to import opium into China where its demand quickly sky-rocketed. Concerned with the overflow of silver and the effects of opium the Daoguang Emperor had his aide Lin Zexu confiscate all opium imports into China without compensation and subsequently banned the smoking of it. In 1839 Britain declared war on China initiating the First Opium War. The Chinese soon proved to be ineffective against the British with their wooden junk ships being easily outmatched by British galleons and artillery. The Qing surrendered in 1842 where they were forced to sign the humiliating Treaty of Nanking which saw the Chinese open the ports of Amoy, Foochow, Nigpo and Shanghai as well as allow the British to annexe the port of Hong Kong.
The Taiping Rebellion was launched in opposition of the weakening Qing regime, being led by Hong Xiuquan. Hong was able to establish the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom which outlawed slavery, arranged marriage, opium smoking and foot binding among other things, with Hong stating that he was the brother of Jesus Christ. However internal conflict tore the kingdom apart, as well as French and British military who assisted the Qing's Imperial Army. Zeng Guofan helped secure military victory for the Qing in 1864 but not before over 20 million people died with the revolt being named the bloodiest civil war in history. During this time China was forced to sign several more humiliating treaties such as the Treaty of Nerchinsk which saw large chunk of Manchuria ceded to Russia. In 1868 Russia attempted to expel Chinese citizens from Outer Manchuria, with intense fighting breaking out in Vladivostok after Russian authorities shut down gold mines and forced Chinese people to leave Russia. Low intensity fighting lasted until 1892 when the Chinese were eventually driven out of Russia.
The ascension of the Tongzhi Emperor saw the Tongzhi Restoration, an attempt to preserve the Qing dynasty through the Self-Strengthening Movement. This saw some tepid modernisation with Qing officials such as Li Hongzhang attempting to balance out conservative Confucian values and Western armaments. Armies were reformed with modern organisation and weapons, formed the Zongli Yamen which served as the first proper foreign ministry, and established the Imperial Maritime Customs Service. The Tianjin Massacre which saw the slaughter of French missionaries and nuns, prompted the French to begin Cochinchina Campaign. The Sino-French War saw France conquer the Qing vassal state of Tonkin with the Qing giving up the state in 1885, furthering weakening its geopolitical status. Relations between China and Japan further deteriorated after the Qing intervened in the failed Gapsin Coup in Korea, which in turn led to the 1885 Sino-Japanese War which was a humiliating military defeat for the Qing. The Japanese aimed to take territory in Manchuria, but pressure from Britannia and Russia who had their own territorial ambitions forced Japan to abandon these claims. Nevertheless the prestige of the Qing dynasty in the international scene was rapidly receding as they became unable to govern China. Manchuria was coming under the increasing influence of Russia which helped build the Chinese Eastern Railway.Empress Dowager Cixi was taking on an active role in government acting in steed of the Tongzhi Emperor alongside the Empress Dowager Ci'an. The death of the Tongzhi Emperor saw the Guangxu Emperor ascend the throne, a break from the thousand year tradition of the son being the heir apparent of the throne. The Juye Incident which led to German missionaries being murdered saw Germany lease territory in the Jiaozhou Bay which in turn saw Russia gain territory in Liaodong and Britain in Hong Kong. In response to this the Guangxu Emperor led the Hundred Days' Reform which would modernise the ruling bureaucracy and education system. Conservative opposition saw a de facto coup performed by the Empress Dowager Cixi against the emperor, although some reforms were implemented. Drought, political instability and European imperialism led many in Northern China to support the Boxer Rebellion led by the Righteous and Harmonious Fists (or Boxers), a group opposed to all foreign influence in China who killed several foreigners mostly Christian missionaries. The Empress Dowager supported the rebellion causing several powers (Austria-Hungary, Britain, Japan, Italy, Germany, Russia, France, and the United States) to form the Eight-Nation Alliance that besieged Beijing from the 14th August 1900. Chinese defence was hard fought, but ultimately fruitless as the Empress Dowager escaped to the city of Xi'an as the powers formulated a score of demands for the Qing to adhere to.
The Boxer Rebellion saw Russia invade Manchuria and kill a large amount of Manchus and Han Chinese citizens. In response to this the Chinese launched guerilla warfare against Russia, supporting the Japanese in the Russo-Japanese War which saw the Japanese take control over parts of Manchuria, creating the South Manchuria Railway. In 1908 both the Guangxu Emperor and the Empress Dowager Cixi died, with the Guangxu Emperor's nephew Puyi becoming the Xuantong Emperor. The Qing however were rapidly losing power especially after Puyi's father and regent Zaifeng appointed a cabinet that consisted primarily of members of the royal family.third plague pandemic after it spread following the Panthay Rebellion. Local Manchu authorities sought to contain the disease by segregating the Han and Manchu populations, with the Han facing the brunt of the diseases spread resulting in the deaths of over 100,000 Han Chinese. The worst outbreak of the disease was between 1910-11.
Lack of reform, the decreasing decline of the Qing, poor living standards and liberal ideas from the west saw disgruntled military officers, students, and other revolutionaries demand for the end of Qing rule and the creation of a new modernised state. The Wuchang Uprising in 1911 proved to be the catalyst for the Xinhai Revolution that saw republicans led by Sun Yat-sen declare the creation of the Provisional Government of the Republic of China. Yat-sen was declared president, but gave power to Yuan Shikai who led the New Army who had crushed revolutionaries at the Battle of Yangxia. Yuan was then the prime minister of the Qing, having removed Zaifeng from the regency and appointed the Empress Dowager Longyu in his place. Yuan oversaw the abdication of Puyi which took place in 1912, ending two thousand years of imperial rule in China.
Republic of China
Following the abdication of Puyi China was officially under the rule of Yuan's republican government, with nationwide elections being held in 1912-13, with the Chinese Nationalist Party (more commonly known as the Kuomintang) winning the election. The leader and founder of the Kuomintang, Song Jiaoren was assassinated however in March 1913, possibly under the orders Yuan Shikai, after Song had campaigned for a weaker executive presidency. Yuan subsequently became more dictatorial, marginalising the Kuomintang in the national legislature whilst making executive decisions alone. These decisions included taking loans from United Kingdom whilst giving Outer Mongolia and Manchuria special political rights after facing pressure from Russia and Japan. Sun Yat-Sen urged members of the Kuomintang to launch a revolution against Yuan, but this was crushed resulting in Yuan centralising his power further. In 1914 the parliament was dissolved by Yuan, who restructured the provincial governments so they were ruled by loyal military governors.
In 1915 Yuan started to enforce Confucian ideals in the Chinese government, restoring the Chinese Empire with Yuan as the Hongxian Emperor. This move was widely unpopular as was Yuan's increasing dependence on foreign loans especially to the Japanese. Yuan in the face of international isolation abolished the monarchy in March 1916 - however many provinces had already began a rebellion against Yuan who died in May. Following Yuan's death the central government became increasingly unstable as the region was thrown into a period known as the Warlord Era.
After Yuan Shikai's death in 1916, China fragmented between different regional warlords. Yuan's generals began fighting in north China over who would succeed him, while the southern Chinese provinces that rebelled against Yuan became independent of the north. Zhang Zuolin used this opportunity to take over the administration of the Manchurian lands in 1917, he then set reforms that enabled Manchuria, then known as the Three Eastern Provinces, to be relatively unscathed by the chaos of the warlord era in China. He gained the support of the Japanese, obtaining much needed capital and technical advisors to improve the Manchurian economy. In December 1917 it declared independence from China as the First Manchu Republic, and it was effectively isolated from China and protected by Zhang's Fengtian Army, and its naval and air forces are considered advanced compared to the other Chinese states. He tolerated the Japanese presence in Manchuria but is said to be losing patience at their control of Kwantung and the South Manchurian railroad.
Zhang Zuolin also imported workers from China proper to work for Manchuria's factories and farms, originally returning to North China for winter. Now, Zhang made incentives towards the migrant workers and allowed them to bring their families with them, and were given houses that made permanent after five years of continuous residence. 35 million acres had been opened up for agriculture by 1929 as opposed to 20 million acres in 1924. A central bank has been established. Manchuria compared to the rest of China was booming, though it received limited international recognition, as some countries saw it as an extension of Japanese influence.
At the same time Zhang began to increasingly meddle in the politics of China proper as the situation in the Republic of China continued to become more unstable, with the power struggle among Chinese warlords to control the internationally-recognized government in Beijing coming to a head. In 1924 Zhang launched a counter-attack against the Chinese forces of the Zhili Clique that ruled north China to prevent a Chinese invasion of Manchuria itself. This contributed to the overthrow of the Zhili, and for two years the Japanese- and Manchu-backed Anhui Clique controlled Beijing, led by President Feng Yuxiang, until his heavy handed response to protests in 1926 led to his downfall. Anti-Japanese sentiment and Chinese nationalism spilled over, directing itself against the Feng and the Anhui. Feng and his followers eventually defected and joined their rivals, which at this point included a number of warlord cliques that gathered around the leadership of Chiang Kai-shek, the leader of the Kuomintang. After Feng changed side Zhang Zuolin panicked and sent the Manchu National Army to attack Beijing, which only strengthened Chinese resolve.
By Febraury 1927, the Manchu army failed to take the capital and was being driven back. The Manchu involvement caused a Chinese nationalist backlash and reunified China udner a single leader for the first time since Yuan Shikai. The Japanese Kwantung Army, a garrison force stationed by the Japanese in Manchuria, intervened in the fighting in north China to prevent a Chinese attack on Manchuria. Negotiations between Chiang Kai-shek and the Japanese through the Chinese embassy in Tokyo led to nothing in April 1927, and the more aggressive Tanka Giichi became the Prime Minister of Japan at that time. He sent more troops to China with the initial purpose of capturing Beijing to install a pro-Japanese government, and the number of forces in Manchuria was increased. As a result, the Japanese also came to see Zhang Zuolin as unreliable and reckless, and so he was assassinated with a bomb planted by Kwantung Army officers in May 1927.
The outbreak of the Second Sino-Japanese War gave the Japanese a pretext to strengthen their control over Manchuria. The last emperor of China, Puyi, was installed as the Emperor of the new Empire of Manchukuo in June 1927. The Republic of China immediately denounced this, seeing it as Japanese aggression against China and a violation of Chinese sovereignty. Among the Manchurian citizenry, the arrival of the Japanese was initially greeted with indifference.
Liu made repairing relations with America a top priority in his government.The Liu-led government pursued liberal policies, being part of the Third Way movement. The police state was entirely dismantled, all political prisoners freed and cultural censorship lifted, and the military decoupled from politics. Social liberal policies were encouraged as part of a policy of national reconciliation between the communists and the new government. For the first time Manchuria was marked as being a free nation politically although corruption remained.
The new government renounced communism, privatizing unprofitable state owned industries, reducing subsidies, abolishing price controls and lessening regulations. The new economic policies saw Manchuria's economy grow at a rapid pace, although it also saw a rise in poverty and decline in the general standard of living. Du however remained a committed socialist, although explicitly allowing capitalism, and retaining at a reduced level the social services implemented during the communist era. Liu also pursued a more open foreign policy, reaching out to both Japan, China and Korea which was considered controversial due to Manchuria's strained relations with those countries. Under Liu Manchuria voluntarily reduced its nuclear weapons program although it is still not a signatory to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.
During the Liu years however the coalition ran into several difficulties. A large portion of the population had become dissatisfied with Liu's rather indecisive leadership. The new right-wing Constitutionalists won a decisive victory in the 1995 legislative election - however during the 1995 Liu elections Liu was re-elected for the second time. Manchuria was experiencing a deep recession with unemployment sky-rocketing. This prompted the financial secretary Shen Yang to propose for the government's economic reform policy to continue with plans to deregulate the banks and privatise the railways and energy sector whilst temporarily suspending union rights. Liu agreed to the proposal - however the Zuigaohuiyi blocked the plan. In response, Du created the "Supreme Revolutionary Committee" which temporarily suspended the Zuigaohuiyi for 3 years as a state of emergency was passed, allowing Du to continue with his economic reforms. Severe curtailing of civil liberties was enforced as the reform programme was sped up. In 1999 in preparation for the 2000 legislative elections the Supreme Revolutionary Committee was scrapped, although Du's approval ratings never recovered despite Manchuria entering a period of economic growth. Following a huge dip in his popularity Du stepped down as Premier in 2000, with his successor being the Manzuxiehui candidate Jin Pai Nai.Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, North Korea and Vietnam) also improved as Manchuria sought to widen its trade links.
The 2008 Banking Crisis saw Manchuria's property bubble burst with the country being hit by recession. The Manzuxiehui was slow to react to the crisis, before Jin decided bail out the banks which raised the deficit substantially. Against the advice of his finance minister, to combat the huge deficit, Jin also approved of austerity measures which were supported by the majority of the Manzuxiehui. The austerity measures soured relations between the oligarchs who supported Jin, who undertook a major cabinet reshuffle in 2009.
The new government aimed to reduce both the debt and deficit that was stunting economic growth, continuing austerity policies and cutting welfare spending. The Manzuxiehui also rolled back some of the policies of social liberalisation with the enactment of the 2014 Bill of Anti-Terrorism and Security which severely curtailed civil liberties and gave sweeping powers to the law enforcement forces. Nevertheless the early 2010's saw steady economic growth although this coincided with growing inequality. In 2008 controversy erupted when the government was implicated in mishandling public funds and redirecting them towards several businesses owned by the Premier Jin, who was nearing the end of his term. In 2010 Jin's Vice-Premier Liu Zhou was elected the first female Premier of Manchuria after the anti-government was split between the opposition parties.
Politicsunitary representative parliamentry republic with a unicameral legislature. The Constitution of Manchuria serves as the supreme law of Manchuria, which establishes a clear separation of powers. However for much of its history Manchuria was an autocracy. From 1945 Manchuria was ruled as a Marxist-Leninist single-party state that ended in 1990 following peaceful street protests around Manchuria that became known as the Orchid Revolution. In 1990 Manchuria adopted its current constitution, becoming a democracy. Nevertheless former members of the Communist Party of Manchuria still dominate politics.
Manchurian politics are split between various parties with the the largest being the Manzuxiehui, a nationalist big tent party which has continually governed since 2002. Currently the Manzuxiehui is in government with the current premier and Manzuxiehui leader Liu Zhou is the first female head of state and government of Manchuria. The main opposition parties include the centrist populist New Progressive Party, the centre-left democratic socialist Socialist Party of Manchuria and the far-right neo-fascist Qinglonghui. The legislature of Manchuria is known as the Zuigaohuiyi and consists of 685 seats. The majority of Manchurian politicians have technical backgrounds, making a de facto technocracy.
The executive of branch of Manchuria consists of the Presedent, who serves as the head of state (but with limited powers playing a largely ceremonial role as a diplomat and figurehead) and the Prime Minister as the head of government, who, together with the cabinet, takes care of the executive part of government. There are several government ministries such as the Ministry of Finances, Ministry of the Interior, Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Ministry of Defence. The Prime Minister (with the support of the Zuigaohuiyi) has the power to declare war, ratify treaties, and grant pardons. The Prime Minister can be subject to a vote of no confidence by the Zuigaohuiyi or face impeachment if they deemed to be breaking the constitution. Prime Ministers are elected directly to serve four year terms, of which they can serve a maximum of two. Their deputy is the Speaker of the Zuigaohuiyi. The current composition of the Executive Council is as follows:
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The legislative branch of Manchuria is the Zuigaohuiyi, a 685 member body that is tasked with drafting, amending, passing and repealing laws. The Zuigaohuiyi also is host to various Committees that scrutinise government activities and legislation, with the Committees being made up of members of the Zuigaohuiyi. The Zuigaohuiyi is led by a Chairman who is a partisan figure, setting out the legislative agenda for the majority party in the legislature as well as sponsoring other legislation and overseeing debates. In times of a coalition the role of Chairman is divided between parties within the coalition - currently Hu Zhengming and Feng Huiyin serve as Co-Chairpersons. The Zuigaohuiyi also hosts the Official Opposition of Manchuria which is made up of the second largest party or coalition within the Zuigaohuiyi, and whose role it is to sponsor legislation from the opposition parties as well as hold the majority party/Chairman to account. 490 seats within the Zuigaohuiyi are elected using party-list proportional representation and 195 represent single-member districts who are elected using the alternative vote. The Zuigaohuiyi is elected every four years unless it is dissolved by the Prime Minister with the support of the judiciary in a time of emergency.
ElectionsFirst-past-the-post voting with the candidate with the highest number of votes (whether that be a majority or a plurality) being inaugurated as Premier. If a Premier resigns or dies in office then a premierial election for their replacement must be held within 60 days, who will serve a new five year term.
Elections for the Zuigaohuiyi must be held every four years. The Zuigaohuiyi is elected in a system of parallel voting of the alternative vote and party-list proportional representation. 195 seats within the Zuigaohuiyi represent districts which send a single representative to the Zuigaohuiyi. Candidates within these districts are elected via the alternative vote. The other 490 seats are proportionally elected with citizens voting for parties and individuals on a closed list with seats allocation being calculated using the D'Hondt method. There is a 3% threshold for parties to enter the Zuigaohuiyi, although independent candidates only need to gain a single seat.
Ever five years co-current with legislative elections local provincial and municipal elections are carried out. Such elections use the same process as the legislative elections with provincial and municipal governments being elected on a proportional basis.
Manchuria officially uses multi-party system, but in practice is dominated by the Manzuxiehui, a nationalist party. Generally the Manzuxiehui appeal to catch all support from various strands of the Manchuria right/left wing co-opting policies from both sides of the political spectrum. Currently the Manzuxiehui hold a plurality of seats in the Zuigaohuiyi at 285, with the premier of Manchuria being Manzuxiehui member Liu Zhou. The Manzuxiehui under Liu have so far promoted conservatism, corporatist and nationalist policies showing opposition to socialism liberalism and both socialist and neoliberal economic practices.
The New Progressive Party, currently led by Feng Huiyin, is the second largest party in the Zuigaohuiyi having 212 seats. The NPP officially support the so-called Auspicious Path to Progress, but has been ideologically split in the past between centrists influenced by the third way and social democrats. It was originally formed by former Premier Du Changhao. The NPP are in a coalition within the Progressive Alliance for Manchuria with the Democratic Union for Change and the Green Party - overall the Alliance holds 233 seats, and are in a coalition with the Manzuxiehui. The third largest party in the Zuigaohuiyi is the Socialist Party of Manchuria, which is the successor of the Communist Party. Prior to the 2010 legislative elections they were the second largest party in Manchuria, having ruled Manchuria as a single party socialist state between 1946 to 1990 as the CPM. It currently retains 103 seats, advocating for democratic socialism and social democracy. In recent years however it has shifted slightly to advocate for a form of left-wing nationalism.
The fourth largest party in the Zuigaohuiyi is the Qinglonghui (Azure Dragon Society) which is also the oldest party in Manchuria. The Qinglonghui are a nationalist party which have been accused of supporting neo-fascist policies. It currently has 23 seats.The fifth largest party in the legislature is the Manchu Communist Party. The MCP is a far-left party that is a heavy advocate for Marxism-Leninism-Maoism, having been formed by former CPM hardliners following the creation of the SPM. The MCP have 21 seats. Finally the smallest seated party is the United People's Party with 20 seats and primarily represents the interests of Korean people in Manchuria. It is allied with the New Progressive Party with both supporting liberalism.
Minor national parties in Manchuria include the Libertarian Party, the People's Labour Party, the Workers' Party, Nationalist Party, Future for Manchuria, National Liberal Party, New Development Association, Mongolian Democratic Movement, Citizens for Progress and Democracy, Innovation Party of Manchuria and Republican Justice Party.
Military and intelligence servicesManchurian National Armed Forces, which is split into an army, navy, air force, coast guard and national guards. The MNAF currently has around 1,228,300 troops overall (416,800 active and 871,500 in reserve), making it overall the 12th largest military force in terms of manpower (ahead of the Indonesian National Armed Forces but behind the Cuban Revolutionary Armed Forces). There are some paramilitary forces in Manchuria that cooperate with the MNAF.
The Premier of Manchuria is the commander-in-chief of the MNAF, which answers to the Ministry of Defense. Military affairs are primarily handled by the Joint Command, a council of military commanders who are subordinate to the Ministry. The military in Manchuria occasionally plays a role in politics, as under communist rule the top ranks in the military were occupied by party officials. Since democratization the military have been kept subordinate to the civilian government, but there are concerns that many of the senior military officers are politically minded.
The predecessor to the MNAF, the Manchurian People's Army (MPA), primarily received military equipment from the Soviet Union. The MPA largely uses ex-Soviet weaponry such as Kalashnikov rifles, BMP-1, 2K22 Tunguska, MT-LB, T-80 and PT-76 tanks. Recently Manchuria has started purchasing weaponry and equipment from China, Britain and Israel.
Manchuria has a history of possessing weapons of mass destruction. During the 1960's it was known that Manchuria had produced several nuclear warheads, ostensibly on the grounds that they were a deterrent against Chinese and Korean aggression. It was thought that Manchuria's nuclear weapons program was largely sponsored by the USSR, and at it's height had around 25 warheads. In 1993 Prime Minister Liu Binyan declined, under popular and military pressure, to dismantle Manchuria's nuclear weapons program after facing sanctions from the international community, and refused to sign the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty unless it is amended. Manchuria, also has not signed the Chemical Weapons Convention but voluntarily dismantled all its chemical weapons such as sarin and mustard gas - however this has not been proven as of 2015. Manchuria has admitted that it possess facilities that produce chemical weapons, but asserts that they are destroyed and "civilianized" and cannot be reverted back to chemical weapons production. Manchuria is a signatory to the Biological Weapons Convention and cited the experience of Japanese atrocities during World War II as a reason.
Conscription (known as "Patriotic Civic Service") is currently enforced for all citizens between the ages of 18-21. It was introduced in 1946 for all male citizens, with conscientious objection not being recognized by the government, with only those deemed "unfit for service" being exempted and given alternate equivalent civilian service such as public works and work for the government. The government mandated that women also be included in conscription in 1950. In 1996 the government pursued an unsuccessful venture to abolish conscription, but instead comprised by allowing conscripts to opt to enter another form of civil service and recognizing conscientious objection. Conscription lasts for 18 months in Manchuria, with university students able to postpone conscription until they graduate. "Draft evasion" is punished harshly in Manchuria. Polls show that public support for the conscription program continues.
The Manchurian Intelligence Services are overseen by the Ministry of Interior. The intelligence forces are under one body, the National Security Secretariat (GAS) which handles domestic, foreign and military intelligence. Previously the intelligence services were administrated under the People's Security Secretariat which functioned as a de facto secret police - compared to its predecessor, the GAS possess far less powers. The intelligence services mainly serve to gather intelligence on behalf on the Manchu state, and are notable in that all three bodies closely collaborate with each other. The Manchurian intelligence services have been accused of detaining people for political reasons, exercising torture, and running widespread surveillance programs. An anti-corruption campaign aimed at the intelligence services was launched in July 2015.
Manchurian foreign policy is conducted by the Orgburo of Foreign Affairs, currently headed by He Chaoxing. Manchuria is a member of several organisations such as the League of Nations, G20, WTO, APEC, IMF, WBG, ADB, East Asia Summit, and ACD. It is an aspiring member of IPTO.
Manchuria has a history of intervening in conflicts and international crises.
Since 1990 Manchuria has aimed to create good relations with the Western World. Following Great War I a large number of Manchurian refugees fled the country eventually settling in the Kingdom of Sierra who currently house the fourth largest overseas population of Manchurians. Manchuria also maintains cordial relations with other member states of the Conference of American States and the European Community. Of the European countries, Manchuria has very good relations with the United Kingdom, Germany, and France.
Since the early-2010s, Manchuria has had particularly strong diplomatic ties with the Nordic countries, with many Manchurians reporting being strong admirers of those countries, and with many now reporting being fluent in at least one Nordic Language (about 21%). There is pending legislation in the Zuigaohuiyi which would have Manchuria adopt the Nordic model, as well as active negotiations with the Nordic countries to reestablish the Norwegian town of Hammerfest as a joint condominium territory between Manchuria and all five Nordic countries.
Manchuria's relations with its neighbours have often been contentious. China remains the country with the most amount of Manchurians bar Manchuria with over 5 million and retains extremely close economic, political, cultural, and historic ties.
Manchu-Japanese relations had historically been poor until the late-1990s.
Economynominal GDP at $935.5 billion a year. The Manchurian economy has been one of the strongest in East Asia and along with Singapore, South Korea, Hong Kong and Taiwan, is one of the Five Asian Tigers with the service sector now the largest in the country. The national currency of Manchuria is the Manchurian Dollar. Manchuria exports many goods to China, Korea, South Vietnam, Russia and the European Union.
Manchuria was the first industrialised region in the Qing dynasty, and has since become highly urbanised thanks to its large coal deposits. However Manchuria did not achieve a smooth transition from a socialist planned economy to a free market capitalist one, with neoliberal shock therapy economics being implemented following the fall of the communist regime. Privatisation was undertaken in three stages - the first in 1990, the second in 1991 and the third in 1998. This rapid wave of deregulation resulted in widespread poverty and to occur in Manchuria as well as a rise in corruption. In response to this successive governments sought to reintroduce regulation and protectionist policies into the economy overseeing the transition into a balanced mixed economy, which has resulted in far less poverty and unemployment. Since 1998, Manchuria has had a huge economic boom with the GDP rising from $901.74 billion in 1997 to $17.25 trillion which earned it the nickname of the Liaoshen Dragon.
The 2008 Great Recession saw inflation in Manchuria rise slightly, with neoliberal policies and austerity being enacted in order to curtail the worst effects of this inflation. Although this has seen a marked increase in the growth of the economy with the GDP rising by 2.8% in 2013 wealth inequality has risen with Manchuria having a slightly higher inequality rating then its neighbours Russia and Korea until inequality declined in 2015. The government has since maintained a consistent path to growth adopting less radical economic policies and establishing a largely stable fiscal situation.
Manchuria has a largely service economy with the main industries including financial services, hospitality, retail, health care, human services, information technology and education, as well as a large industrial sector that includes automobiles, aircraft and ship manufacture. Manchuria also has a large mining industry which includes coal, iron ore, rare earths, and gypsum as well as petroleum and natural gas drilling and many oil and natural gas refineries. Manchuria also has an active and highly developed agricultural sector with its main exports being maize, wheat millet and barley. Southern Manchurian lands provide ample conditions to raise pigs and sheep, although farming has declined steadily ever since the mass industrialisation seen in the communist era.
Agriculture still plays a vital role in the Manchurian economy. In the northern cold regions soybeans, maize, wheat and potatoes are grown alongside beet, flax and sunflowers. Further east rice is cultivated especially in the Yanbian region, whereas down south maize, sorghum, soybeans and cotton are produced. The southern regions are also where most Manchu fruit is grown- apples and gold peaches from Dalian and Yingkou, pears from Jinzhou, white pears from Huludao and Suizhong, and apricots and plums from Dandong. Herding is also important being mainly focussed around cattle and horse, with Manchuria having a high amount of milk producing cows. Dairy products remain a large industry within Manchuria. Around Baicheng sheep farming is common.
Agriculture has undergone substantial reform since the fall of communism. Prior to 1990 all agriculture was collectivised in large communes that commonly held up to 50 families within the Socialist Agricultural Co-operatives (SAC's). SAC's had moderate production rates, but needed subsidies mainly for technology. In 1990 SAC's were allowed to continue to function but many of their subsidies were removed, effectively dismantling the SAC's overnight as they struggled to compete with foreign competition. As such the vast majority of agriculture is run in more traditional methods, with only 2% of agriculture under the control of agricultural collectives which no longer court state subsidies.
Transport in Manchuria is provided by means of rail, road, marine shipping and air travel. The country has a good network of highways, composed of express roads and motorways. At the start of 2020, Manchuria had 54,146.5 km (33,645.7 mi) of highways in use. In addition, all local and regional roads are monitored by the National Road Rebuilding Programme, which aims to improve the quality of travel in the countryside and suburban localities.
In 2017, the nation had 118,513 kilometres (73,640.56 mi) of railway track. The Manchurian State Railway Authority (MASRA) is the main railway operator in the country. In December 2006, Manchuria began to implement high–speed rail routes connecting major cities, and started passenger service using New trains built by Hyundai Rotem, operating at 402.336 km/h (250 mi/h). The largest passenger train station in terms of the number of travelers is Mukden Central. All railway lines in Manchuria (except for light metro systems) are right-hand traffic.
In the decades since the end of communist rule, many cities with populations between 100,000 and 900,000 have been building light metro subway systems, and as a result, Manchuria now has more light metro systems than any other country in the world combined.
The air and maritime transport markets in Manchuria are largely well developed. Manchuria has a number of international airports, the largest of which is Mukden Du Changhao International Airport, the primary global hub for Manchu Airways.
Demographicstwo-child policy, modelled off of China's one child policy. The policy has been controversial, mandating that parents only had the right to two children and that overstepping this limit would be sterilised and receive fines. Following the fall of communism there had been calls for the policy to be repealed, which had not taken place until it was finally repealed in 2007.
Ethnic groupsA minority of Manchurians (15%) define themselves as partially ethnic Han Chinese. The Manchu people are the majority ethnic group in Manchuria. During the communist era Sino-Soviet split many Han Chinese deported from Manchuria to be replaced with Manchu's in mainland China and saw a greater promotion of the Manchu people.
The second largest ethnic group in Manchuria is the Manchu people who officially constitute 42% of the population. Many who identify as Manchu are of mixed Manchu-Han descent. The third largest group is Koreans at 6%, followed by Mongolians at 2%, Japanese at 1.6% and Hui at 1%. Other ethnic groups make up 2.4% of the total population, including Sibe people near Korea, Daur people near Inner Mongolia, and Oroqen and Nanai people near the Amur river. Foreign immigrants to Manchuria traditionally come from China, Mongolia, Russia and Central Asia. There is currently a significant Russian population in the city of Harbin which also houses a small Jewish population. Since the fall of communism many other nationalities have settled in Manchuria, the most prominent being Korean and Japanese people - Koreans especially have seen a huge population spike in Manchuria since the 1990's.
Education in Manchuria is divided into primary, secondary and tertiary education. Educational facilities are managed by the Ministry of Education who also set the National Curriculum which guarantees nationwide educational topics. Private schools are exempt from the National Curriculum, but must have their own standards approved by the Orgburo of Education.
Following the Communist takeover the government prioritised education amongst other things, implementing a system of universal primary education with literacy rates rising substantially. All education was controlled by the Orgburo of Education and funded through state assets until 1991 when the government allowed private schools to be established. The same year subsidies for tertiary education were removed. As of 2015 literacy rates amongst those over 8 stand at 100%.Chinese, Manchu, mathematics, science and physical education. Around the third year history, geography and art are introduced, whilst in the fourth year music and civic studies are taught as well. For the first two years pupils are in classes of mixed ability. They are then streamlined in the third year into different sets based on ability, and are subject to being promoted or relegated to a higher or lower set based on academic performance. Students remain in primary education until the age of 11 where they sit National Standardised Primary Examinations. Students must pass in Chinese, Manchu, mathematics and science before entering Middle School.
Middle school lasts from the age of 11 to 14. Drama, information technology, design technology, and religious studies are introduced as subjects. Science is also divided into chemistry, biology, and physics whilst students are required to learn ether English, Japanese, French, Spanish, Hindi, Arabic, Indoneasian, Dutch, German, Korean, Chinese or Italian as second, third and fourth languages. Middle school is structured similarly to primary school, with students being streamlined by the second year and lessons consisting of 45 minute blocks. The end of Middle School sees students take National Standardised Secondary Examinations where students are expected to pass in the 4 core subjects. From the age of 14 to 18 students are enrolled into lower high school where they take the 4 core subjects alongside physical education and information technology as well as two social sciences and either design technology or one of the arts. National Standardised Tertiary Exams are taken at the age of 16 were students must pass the core subjects to enter Upper High school. From there students can either enter vocational schools that specialise in technologies or arts, or standard schools that teach the remaining subjects alongside new ones such as politics, sociology, geology etc. Students are expected to pick four subjects including one core to study over a period of two years before taking National Specialised Examinations in those subjects. From there, students are then given the option to enter higher education or the job market.
The Manchurian education system has been criticised for the pressure it places on students which have been accused of dehumanising them. It has also been criticised for being highly centralised. As such in recent years the government has passed through several reforms to decentralise decisions to schools and to put less focus of rigorous testing and more on practical application then simply theory, although these reforms have been criticised as being too conservative and simply tinkering around the edges.
Manchuria's tertiary education sector was privatised in 1993 with the Educational Enterprise Bill, with the last state-funded university being sold to private investors in 1994. Manchurian student tuition fees are lower then they are in commonwealth countries; however the GDP per capita of Manchu citizens is lower, meaning students from poorer backgrounds still face difficulties in entering higher education. Student loans are given by the Manchu state. In recent years attaining tertiary educational qualifications has been more imperative to Manchu students leading to universities to become more competitive. This has resulted in a rise in cheating as well as suicide due to pressure to academically succeed.
Manchu students enter university not only if they pass entrance exams but also based on recommendations from previous teachers/employers as well as their past academic performance. Around 69.6% of Manchurian citizens under 25 attended university with 63.4% holding a qualification. In recent years the Manchu government has declared its intent to subsidise some universities to promote better education. The most sought out university courses in Manchuria are the engineering and technology courses, which also demand the highest university fees.
|Affiliation||% of Manchurian population|
Manchuria has a universal health care system with all citizens required to sign up to a healthcare insurance plan. Manchurian citizens either sign up to a private insurance plan or to one of the two government subsidised insurance programmes. Hospitals are either run directly by the Orgburo for Health or by private companies that are sometimes subsidised by the government. The average life expectancy in Manchuria in 79.8 years - for men it is 78, women 80.
Between 1946-1990 Manchuria had a centralised health care system that was available to all citizens and completely controlled by the government. In 1950 the life expectancy stood at 50 years; 40 years later it had risen to 77.2 years. In 1990 as part of the first privatisation package saw parts of the health care system (eg. mental health treatments) privatised. In 1991 further parts of the health system were privatised in the second package. In the third wave of privatisation in 1993 it was expected that the healthcare system would no longer be universal and fully privatised - however such a measure was never carried out. In 1994 subsidies for the healthcare system which had been frozen since 1991 were dramatically increased as the current insurance system was implemented.obesity, diabetes, heart disease, Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis have asserted themselves as common chronic health problems. A total lack of sexual education (thanks to conservative government policy) means Manchuria has seen a huge spread in HIV/AIDS. Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B and avian influenza are all prominent health risks in Manchuria. Pollution has also resulted in many suffering from Asthma (around 7%) - as well as this, the smoking rate remains high (around 35%) resulting in many suffering from COPD, lung disease and lung cancer. In recent years, drug and alcohol use in Manchuria has been rising rapidly. As a result, Manchuria now has by far the highest expenditure for alcohol and narcotics rehabilitation in East Asia.
Traditional Medicine is still widely practiced in Manchuria, despite government efforts to eliminate it during the communist period. In 1991 the National Bored for the Regulation of Traditional Medicinal Practices was created that sought to regulate the use of TM. TM can only be praticed by those approved by the National Bored who maintain a rigid examination process that is designed to ensure TM is practiced by professionals. Nevertheless, TM is commonly practiced by those not approved by the National Bored especially in rural areas.
Since 1990 the Manchurian government has taken a limited role in overseeing nutrition which has led to numerous controversies, with the Committee for the Oversight of Public Nutrition (the body that oversees the regulation of food products) has been criticised for not enforcing nutrition standards and for being seriously underfunded. As of 2016 the legal drinking age in Manchuria is 18, struck down from 21 in 1997.
The Manchu health system is structured in a three tier system. Local villages and municipalities normally retain health centres staffed by junior doctors that carry out primary services and provide preventative medicines; above them are township hospitals that carry out more specialised care and provide more extensive services. Finally there are General Hospitals that house up to 500,000 patients, being run by senior doctors and covering a wide range of services. Both township and general hospitals provide care in emergencies. There are approximately 3.068 doctors and physicians per 1,000 people.
LanguageThe official languages of Manchuria is Manchurian. The vast majority of Manchurians speak Manchurian (around 95%) In the ethnic Chinese, Korean, Xibe, Evenk and Mongolian communities the Korean, Chinese, Xibe, Evenki and Mongolian languages are spoken. In Yanbian Korean is a co-official language being identical to the dialect spoken in northern Korea.
When the Communist Party came to power in 1945 there was a drive to expand literacy as the population was overwhelmingly illiterate, and also saw it as an opportunity to further develop the Manchurian language. Handicapping literacy efforts was the complexity of the old orthography witch used a combination Chinese characters and Manchurian alphabet to write Manchurian and the lack of access to education for most of the population. There was considerable debate on whether to adopt Chinese characters or adopt the Latin alphabet. Manchu nationalists proposed using the Manchurian alphabet as the sole official script, pointing to the fact that the Qing emperors had been able to transliterate Chinese into the Manchurian alphabet. Soviet diplomats advised the Manchurian government to adopt a western script to facilitate better communications between them and the Soviet bloc, resulting in the government to also use Latinxua Sin Wenz, with both scripts being formally adopted for Chinese in January 1947 as the sole official scripts for Chinese speakers. In Yanbian a variation of the Korean alphabet script known as Chosŏn'gŭl was adopted that didn't use Chinese characters, and is continued to be used today. When pinyin was introduced in China in 1956 there were plans in Manchuria to also in the new script to write Chinese. Pinyin replaced the use of Sin Wenz in 1958, although the Zhuyin script remained the sole method of writing.
Largest cities or towns in Manchuria
CultureManchu culture, Confucian Chinese Culture and the legacy of socialist rule in Manchuria. A common question posed by Manchurian scholars is whether Manchuria has retained its pure Manchu traditions or has mixed in too far with Chinese culture to create a hybrid of the two. Recently Manchuria has become more culturally Westernised. Traditionally Manchuria has adhered to conservative principles with adherence to hierarchy, authority, and consensus decision making. Manchuria, having been for a long time governed as an isolated socialist dictatorship, retains influence that emphasise collectivism, conformity and traditional ethics.
During socialist rule Manchuria developed a unique identity based upon a strong sense of nationalism and anti-imperialism, class consciousness, class struggle, and socialist realism whilst traditional family values being emphasised. Industrialisation, collectivisation and urbanisation saw the end of certain societal structures such as the feudal system and multi-generational families as people moved from small villages into modern sprawling urban centres and collective farms. Sexism towards women was also curbed as women were praised for their role in the family. Further societal change was fuelled by the two-child policy. Controls on cultural expression were imposed by the government, with varying degrees of liberalisation taking place over the years.
Democratisation saw Manchuria enter a period of major cultural change as cultural controls were removed and the new government encouraged freedom of thought and expression. Manchuria also became more westernised as well as take influence from the growing spiritualist movements, most notably the Falun Gong. However cultural norms such as respect for authority, emphasis on family life, societal harmony and consensus and respect for traditional culture remain.
Manchurians are known for being superstitious - unlike the rest of China Manchuria was never as heavily influenced by Confucianism instead retaining shamanistic beliefs. As such many Manchurians are members of folk religious sects or believe in Manchu, Mongolian and Korean Shamanism as well as Dongbei folk religion. Manchurian culture is also informed by Buddhism and Taoism.
Manchuria has recently begun to distinguish themselves with a growing modern film, music and television industries heavily influenced by Japanese and Korean sources as well as mix with traditional Manchu and Chinese theatre, art, literature and opera. Manchuria also is famed for its proud history of sports such as ice skating, wrestling, falconry, archery and riding. The government is active in promoting both archery and riding which is seen as a key part of Manchu identity. Manchuria also has a unique cuisine based on millet, soybeans, peas and wild meats with strong flavours. Manchuria also celebrates several traditional holidays and celebrations such as Banjin Inenggi (ᠪᠠᠨᠵᡳᠨ ᡳᠨᡝᠩᡤᡳ) and the Spring Festival as well as newer holidays such as "Revolution Day".
Since the 1980's Manchuria has endeavoured to expand its animation industry. Previously animation was a neglected industry in Manchuria, lagging behind the dominant producer in the region Japan. However since the 1980's Manchuria has developed a growing animation industry mainly consisting of traditional 2D cartoons or modern 3D CG animated films, often produced with low costs. Manchurian animation takes inspiration from traditional Manchu and Chinese art, manhua and more recently anime, and uses techniques ranging from watercolour to computer CG. Despite substantial efforts to promote domestic anime in Manchuria, a study in 2013 found over 61% of respondents prefer Japanese anime to native Manchurian animation. Major animation studies in Manchuria include Liaoyuan Animation Studios, Qi Ying Animation and New century Studios who collectively produce around 62% of the Manchu animation market.