Manzuxiehui

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Manzuxiehui
ㄇㄢㄗㄨㄒㄧㄝㄏㄨㄟ
Mǎnzú xiéhuì
Founder Zhao Guangping
President Liu Zhou
Party Chairman Hu Zhengming
Founded September 1917
Split from Fengtian clique
Headquarters Flag of Manchuria.svg Harbin (1917-29; 1944-45; 1989-present)
Flag of the USSR.png Khabarovsk (1929-44)
Flag of Japan.svg Kyōto (1945-89)
Student wing National Students Union
Youth wing Young Manchu Society
Paramilitary wing Manchu National Army (1917-45)
Membership 9,324,102
Ideology Manchurian Nationalism
Conservatism
Statism
Republicanism
Anti-Communism
Political position Centre to Centre-right
International affiliation International Democrat Union
Regional affiliation Asia Pacific Democrat Union
Official colours      Yellow
Seats in the Supreme National Assembly
285 / 685
Local Government seats
390 / 1,110
Party flag
Flag of Manchu Revolutionary National Congress.png

Politics of Manchuria
Political parties in Manchuria
Elections in Manchuria

The Manchu National Association (Zhuyin: ㄇㄢㄗㄨㄒㄧㄝㄏㄨㄟ; pinyin: Mǎnzú xiéhuì) more commonly known as the Manzuxiehui (sometimes romanticised as Manchu-Hsiehhui) is a Manchu political party being the second oldest political party in Manchuria. It currently serves as the largest party in the Supreme National Assembly and the leading party in government, as well as the current Premier, Liu Zhou, being from the party.

The Manzuxiehui was founded in September 1917 by Zhao Guangping, a Manchu warlord who controlled large swarthes of north east China following the start of the Warlord period in China after he declared the independence of the First Manchu Republic. The party functioned in the framework of a single-party state, cementing Manchurian nationalism into Manchu society, being responsible for the ethnic cleansing of Han Chinese in the region whilst promoting traditional Manchu shamanism and culture.

Following the Manchu-Chinese War and the dissolution of the Manchu Republic Zhao and many of his top aides took refuge in the Soviet Union, where the party continued to function as a Manchu nationalist organisation. Following the creation of Manchukuo Zhao appealed to the Japanese for the Congress to be incorporated into the political system of the state - however disagreements with the role of Pan-Asianism and the idea of the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere meant that Zhao severed negotiations with the Japanese.

In 1944 Zhou returned to Manchuria, reforming the Manchu National Army (the armed wing of the party) and leading a full scale insurrection against the Japanese. The Manzuxiehui became a political organ in the self proclaimed Second Manchu Republic which was in reality dominated by the Communist Party of Manchuria. Disagreements with the communists resulted in massive political unrest that meant that the second republic rarely extended outside of the northern regions of Manchuria. Qian Wanyong tried to evict the communists and establish the Manzuxiehui as the sole governing body, but instead was forced to step down as the Japanese made more territorial gains as the communists and nationalists fought amongst themselves. In August 1945 the Soviet Union invaded Manchuria where they ousted the Manzuxiehui led government.

Following the creation of the Manchu People's Republic former Manzuxiehui members led by Qian escaped Manchuria and created a government in exile headquartered in Kyōto, Japan. Following the fall of the communist regime in Manchuria, the exiled government voluntarily disbanded with the Manzuxiehui joining the Popular Front for Democracy and Revolution, appointing Du Changhao as its premierial candidate. Since 1990 the Manzuxiehui has remained the largest party in the Supreme National Assembly and has always formed a government, winning every election since 2000. In 2015 the Manzuxiehui gained a plurality but not an overall majority within the Supreme National Assembly in their worst result in an election ever.

Throughout its history, the Manzuxiehui centred its ideology around Manchurian nationalism. In practice when in power it implemented statist policies, with the first republic being governed as a dominant party autocratic state that was supported heavily by the military and oversaw a largely state capitalist economy. The short lived turbulent second republic saw the Manzuxiehui embrace democratic ideals moreso then before, although it was noticeably anti-communist. When leading its government-in-exile the Manzuxiehui fully embraced multi-party politics and advocated for the end of communism in Manchuria. Since the creation of the third republic the Manzuxiehui has been the major right wing force in Manchurian politics, generally promoting statist, conservative and nationalist policies. It currently runs the Manchurian government and holds 285 seats in the legislature.

History[edit | edit source]

Ideology[edit | edit source]

The Manzuxiehui officially identifies itself as a Manchurian nationalist republican organisation and "rejects the dichotomy of left–right politics". Ideologically the party is flexible, being often associated with statism, nationalism, and pragmatism, with many commentators identifying it with being right of centre, especially in its attitude towards social policies and change in general. The Manzuxiehui is roughly split into three main factions - the Heihepai (Black River Faction), the Social Group (Shehuizu) and the Orchid Society.

Economic policies[edit | edit source]

The Manzuxiehui generally support a mixed-economy with emphasis placed on maintaining a form of state capitalism. As such the Manzuxiehui generally support the regulation of the economy whilst investing in the private sector to simulate economic growth. The Manzuxiehui generally support nationalised "natural monopolies", but support privatising un-profitable ventures. Like all conservative Manchurian parties the Manzuxiehui neither support economic liberalism (associated with the Manchu liberals) or economic planning} (associated with the Manchu left), being largely corporate statist in nature.

Deficit reduction and focus on balancing the overall budget has resulted in the Manzuxiehui to advocate for the cutting of social welfare projects. The Manzuxiehui generally support a single-payer healthcare system and comprehensive primary and secondary education, but are open to private investment in healthcare and education. The majority of the party support a medium rate of taxation, although in recent years the idea of a flat tax has gained momentum in the party. The Manzuxiehui favour government investment in infrastructure as well as advocate for protectionist policies although this has weakened in recent years. Generally the Manzuxiehui have rejected supply-side economics and neoliberalism alongside socialism seeing both as being idealogical extremities. Generally speaking the Shehuizu support economic regulation based on the belief that it would create a strong state, whilst the Orchid Group are more influenced by neoliberalism and support economic deregulation. The Heihepai are split on economic issues, although they often lean towards fiscal conservatism.

Social policies[edit | edit source]

The Manzuxiehui have often been identified as being socially conservative, although they have been more liberal in recent years. Until the collapse of communism in Manchuria the Manzuxiehui were accused of being reactionary advocating for Neo-Confucianism. Under the leadership of Du Changhao the Manzuxiehui pushed forward social liberal policies before reverting to a more conservative position in 2000 following the social unrest of the 1990's. In general the Manzuxiehui seek to uphold Manchurian culture and promote so-called Asian values. The Manzuxiehui advocate for a collectivist consensus-based society, explicitly rejecting individualism as a philosophy believing it as being detrimental to society. Overall the Manzuxiehui uphold social stability as a core tenant, blaming "excessive social and economic liberalism" for the mass social unrest in the 1990's. The Manzuxiehui advocate for a form of cultural nationalism emphasises the cultural differences between the Manchu, Han Chinese and Koreans as being part of a "Manchurian nation". However, the Manzuxiehui do not reject multiculturalism out of hand, but wish to limit its influence.

The Manzuxiehui do not have an official policy on same-sex marriage but have indicated opposition towards it. They wish to promote Manchurian nationalism within the cultural and education sphere. The Manzuxiehui heavily favour the two-child policy seeing it as an effective way to stem population growth whilst promoting responsible parenting. The Manzuxiehui support tough-on-crime laws, seeing rehabilitation as a failed approach to dealing with social problems. The Heihepai are considered to be the most socially conservative of the three branches, whilst the Orchid Society are recognised as the most liberal. The Shehuizu are split on social issues, although they often trend to lean towards the right.

"Greater Manchuria" as advocated by the Manzuxiehui.

Foreign and defence policies[edit | edit source]

A cornerstone of the Manzuxiehui's creation was to create the "Manchurian Nation" which would include both inner and outer Manchuria as part of a "Greater Manchuria". The signing of the Tianjin Agreement in 1953 which ceded Manchurian territory to China is considered a national embarrassment by the Manzuxiehui, who aims to rescind the treaty.

The Manzuxiehui advocate for a neutral foreign policy that emphasises co-operation amongst neighbouring states. The Manzuxiehui notably advocates for strong relations with North Korea and Mongolia who are considered to have had similar struggles against imperialism. The Manzuxiehui also favours close relations with other postcolonial states especially those in Asia and Africa. The Manzuxiehui supports Manchuria's continued involvement in the non-aligned movement. The Manzuxiehui is split on its relations with China and Japan. Traditionally the Shehuizu have favoured links with China whilst the Orchid Society champion positive relations with Japan - however to the Heihepai both countries represent imperialist powers. Recent economic realities have seen the Manzuxiehui lessen their rhetoric on both China and Japan, with the governments of Jin Pai Nai and Li Zhou especially having improved relations with China.

Since the 1950's the Manzuxiehui has generally been in favour with maintaining positive relations with the United States and Western Europe. The dissolution of the Soviet Union has seen the Manzuxiehui become much more friendly towards Russia in recent years. Many within the Manzuxiehui have made approving statements regarding the ruling style of Russian president Vladimir Putin, most notably former Premier Jin Pai Nai. Consequently, criticism of the Iraq War has led to the Manzuxiehui's previously strong support for the west wither in replacement with pro-Russian sentiment. Generally the Manzuxiehui is neoconservative advocating for Manchuria to take an active role in world affairs and maintaining its territorial boundaries alongside building up a strong military. This neoconservatism is contended by some political commentators to be a continuation of the Communist Party's "Black River Protocol" which mandated that Manchuria pursue an assertive and aggressive foreign policy to affirm national sovereignty.

Factions[edit | edit source]

The Manzuxiehui is dominated by three factions commonly known as the Heihepai, the Shehuizu and the Orchid Society. There are several smaller factions and sub-factions, and all the main factions have some instances of overlap.

Heihepai[edit | edit source]

Former Premier Jin Pai Nai and current Vice-Premier Yu Qiang are commonly recognised as pre-eminent members of the Heihepai within the party.

The Heihepai are commonly recognised as being a continuation of the nationalists who founded the party under Zhao Guangping. The Heihepai are known for advocating for social conservatism and Manchurian nationalism calling for a structured society based on collectivist and Neo-Confucian values. The Heihepai also traditionally call for tough on crime laws, supporting Manchurian culture, and advocating for a strong national defence. Notably the Heihepai favour Manchuria to have a "completely independent" foreign policy and to rescind the Tianjin Agreement. Economically the Heihepai are more flexible, with some supporting a form of corporate statism strong state regulation and interventionism whereas others are more influenced by supply-side economics. In recent years the Heihepai have embraced austerity and increased the role of the private sector. Nevertheless the Heihepai favour societal cohesion and stability, and are the most vocal in their anti-communism.

The Heihepai reached their peak under Zhao Guanping from 1917 to 1929 and in the Manchurian Government in Exile. Following the fall of communism the Heihepai rallied around party leader Jin Pai Nai and later Yu Qiang, who were initially jostling for power alongside the Progressives. The Heihepai started to gain more support following 1995 legislative elections, culminating in the premiership of Jin Pai Nai from 2002-14. Since the election of Li Zhou the Heihepai power has somewhat declined but they are still one of the more dominant blocs within the Supreme National Assembly.

Shehuizu[edit | edit source]

Current Premier Liu Zhou and Assembly Chairman Hu Zhengming have been described as being in the "Shehuizu" faction of the Manzuxiehui.

The Shehuizu originally referred to the members of the party who favoured closer ties with the Bolshevik's during the days of the First Manchu Republic. The "Shehuizu" were known for pursuing policies that championed social welfare and left-wing nationalism, but stopped short of actively championing equality and class struggle as espoused by the communists. Currently the Shehuizu advocate for a form of right-wing socialism where the state actively intervenes in economic matters to favour re-distribution of wealth to the poor whilst not changing the basic structures of society. The Shehuizu see that by advancing a socialist agenda that supports the people the Manchurian people the Manchurian nation is strengthened from foreign imperialists and capitalists as well as from internationalist communists. The Shehuizu traditionally favour left wing economic policies and a moderate social policy that emphasises inclusion and collectivism.

The Shehuizu are currently the dominant faction within the Manzuxiehui with the current Premier Liu Zhou and Party Chairman Hu Zhengming both being identified as advocating for the Shehuizu policies. In recent years the Shehuizu have become more accommodating with rightist economic policy embracing moderate austerity measures following the Great Recession. The election of Li Zhou as Premier has led to the Shehuizu to move away from this position somewhat. They have also been more supportive of social conservatism in the name of social cohesion, although critics consider this merely a pragmatic move to reach out to Heihepai within the party.

Orchid Society[edit | edit source]

Former Financial Secretary Bo Yang and Mayor of Mukden Ma Yunjiang are seen as the leaders of the Orchid Society faction of the Manzuxiehui.

The Orchid Society is the newest faction within the Manzuxiehui. Their roots can be traced back to the reformists within the CPM that rejected the social liberalism of the Democratic Party but supported economic liberalism. The Orchid Society emphasised the need for economic reform in Manchuria alongside the upholding of liberal democratic values. Most members of the Orchid Society within the Manzuxiehui believe in a free-market economy driven by the private sector. The Orchid Society see economic statism as weakening the Manchurian nation, and thus by embracing classical liberal principles on the belief that the nation is strengthened as a result. The Orchid Society do not support social liberalism, but do not generally campaign on a hard social conservative platform.

The Orchid Society mainly held power when Du Changhao was Premier between 1990-2002. As Du's term continued the Orchid Society was increasingly sidelined as the more traditional factions of the Heihepai and the Shehuizu regained strength. This prompted many of the Orchid Society to compromise either on their economic or social direction. Following the 2008 Great Recession many members of the Orchid Society left the party to form the New Progressive Party headed by Du Changhao, thus weakening their influence within the Manzuxiehui.

Voter base[edit | edit source]

The Manzuxiehui's primary voter base is more socially conservative then those from other parties. Unlike the Socialist Party (which primarily attracts working class, older voters) or the New Progressive Party (whose main base is young, middle class liberals) the Manzuxiehui have support amongst both older and younger voters. The Manzuxiehui's economic populism has resulted in many working class voters to lend support for the party, whilst its ties to big business and focus on low income tax means it is also popular amongst more affluent voters (albeit less so then the NPP).

The Manzuxiehui's strong support for the military and government bureaucracy has meant that it pulls support both from members of the armed forces and government bureaucrats. Women are also shown to be more supportive of the Manzuxiehui (whilst co-currently being more apathetic towards political change) as are rural voters. The Manzuxiehui poll equally well with both ethnic Manchu's and Han Chinese, although they do not have much support from Koreans or Mongolians. The Manzuxiehui have the most support in the west of the country, especially in the Jilin region as well as in the cities of Harbin and Mukden which are considered the parties primary strongholds.

The Manzuxiehui's opposition towards organised labour has meant that they poll poorly against members of the trade unions. The Manzuxiehui also have difficulties attracting working class voters in the north of the country, and middle class urban voters in the south especially in the region around the city of Dalian which is considered a liberal stronghold. The Manzuxiehui also find it difficult to attract young voters especially after the 2008 financial crisis, and have been accused of exacerbating regionalism by favouring the city of Harbin.

Organisation[edit | edit source]

Organisational structure of the Manzuxiehui
The most prominent organ within the Manzuxiehui is the National Policy Bureau which consists of 22 voting members and 3 non-voting members. The National Policy Bureau sets the policy of the party as well as oversee party affairs and appointments. The Chairman of the National Policy Bureau functions as the head of the party, although this position is largely ceremonial. The National Policy Bureau is elected by the Party Conference which convenes every year which is made up of delegates from local party branches. The Party Conference also votes on most policy decisions and is recognised as the highest decision making body within the party.

The day-to-day running of the party is handled by the Executive Co-ordination Bureau which oversee's the administration and finances of the party. It is led by a First Secretary and contains several rotating members overall. The Executive Co-ordination Bureau is appointed by the National Policy Bureau. Members of the party who sit in the Supreme National Assembly form the Legislative Committee that coordinates party affairs between members of the Assembly. Below the Party Conference and the National Conference stand the party's provincial branches which handle party administration at a lower level, which are above the party's municipal branches.

The Executive Co-ordination Committee oversees several committees that handle party affairs. These are:

  • Treasury Committee
Oversees party finances and accounting.
  • Legislative Committee
Coordinates activities between the sitting Manzuxiehui members of the Supreme National Assembly.
  • Communications and Information Committee
Handles the information released by the party and its various methods of communication to the public. Notably runs the Manzuxiehui's website.
  • Disciplinary Committee
Oversee's party members and responsible for making sure they keep to the Code of Conduct. Handles Expulsions.
  • Research Committee
  • Policy Advisory Committee
Responsible for researching policy and advising the National Policy Bureau
  • Education Committee
Teaches lower level party members on the party.
  • Organisational Committee
Organises the Manzuxiehui and its various smaller more specialised branches. Largest committee.
  • Womens' Committee
Handles the Manzuxiehui's women's wing and focuses on women's issues within the party.
  • Youth Committee
Handles all youth activities.
  • National Students Union
Student branch of the Manzuxiehui, for members aged 16-23.
  • Young Manchu Society
Youth branch of the Manzuxiehui, for members aged 8-16.
  • Oversea's Committee
Handles the Manzuxiehui's dealings abroad, including sending delegates to international conferences (eg. International Democrat Union).
  • Election Co-ordination Committee
Coordinates the MRNC's election campaigns.

Election results[edit | edit source]

Presidential elections[edit | edit source]

Premierial election record of the Manchu Revolutionary National Congress
Election Candidate First round Outcome Map
Votes %
3 February 1996 Jin Pai Nai 1990.jpg
Jin Pai Nai
8,736,589 24.5% Du Changhao elected Manchurian election map 1995.gif
29 January 2002 Jin Pai Nai 1990.jpg
Jin Pai Nai
22,397,740 48.2% Jin Pai Nai elected Manchurian election map 2000.gif
13 January 2008 Jin Pai Nai 1990.jpg
Jin Pai Nai
22,629,240 51.9% Jin Pai Nai elected Manchurian election map 2008.gif
24 January 2014 Li Zhou election.jpg
Liu Zhou
30,683,008 (84% turnout) 37.9% Liu Zhou elected Manchurian election map 2013.png

Legislative elections[edit | edit source]

Legislative election record of the Manchu Revolutionary National Congress
Election Party leader Seats Outcome Constituency map
Constituency seats Proportional seats
27 January 1990 Jin Pai Nai 1990.jpg
Jin Pai Nai
64 - Legislative plurality Manchu election map (contituences) 1991 (1).png
64 / 195
64 seats
22 December 1990 Jin Pai Nai 1990.jpg
Jin Pai Nai
76 174 Legislative plurality Manchu election map (contituences) 1991 (2).png
250 / 685
186 seats
13 December 1995 Ruan Dingzhi.jpg
Xu Yu-cheng
92 232 Legislative plurality Manchu election map (contituences) 1995.png
324 / 685
74 seats
22 December 2000 Ruan Dingzhi.jpg
Xu Yu-cheng
113 260 Legislative majority Manchu election map (contituences) 2000.png
373 / 685
49 seats
22 December 2005 Li Zhou election.jpg
Liu Zhou
130 271 Legislative majority Manchu election map (contituences) 2005.png
401 / 685
28 seats
22 December 2010 Hu Zhengming.png
Hu Zhengming
128 260 Legislative majority Manchu election map (contituences) 2010.png
388 / 685
22
22 December 2015 Hu Zhengming.png
Hu Zhengming
88 197 Legislative plurality Manchu election map (contituences) 2015.png
285 / 685
103

Policy overview[edit | edit source]

Economic
  • Balance out the budget to eliminate the deficit and lower the national debt.
  • Cut the welfare state to a reasonable point of use.
  • Lower the VAT.
  • Further the process of a school voucher system.
  • Nationalise natural monopolies, and support profitable state owned enterprises.
  • Support measures to implement a fair flat tax.
  • Lower university tuition fees from 元140,000 to 元100,000 a year among students studying in sciences and engineering courses.
  • Halve the current inflation rate from 8% to 4%.
  • Change the status of the national railway system to an essential service.
  • Increase the working age benefit "freeze" from 18 months to 3 years.
  • Decrease the power of trade unions.
  • Cut tax rates on big businesses to increase market competition.
Social
  • Support the cultivation and promotion of Manchurian nationalism.
  • Support the teaching of Asian values.
  • Maintain current restrictions of drugs.
  • Introduce a new school curriculum which would highlight the positive role Manchuria has played in world history, and concentrate more on sciences and mathematics.
  • Support the two-child policy.
  • Clamp down on corruption and fraud within government.
Foreign

See also[edit | edit source]