Mariana

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This country is part of the Altverse universe.
Reino de Mariana
Kingdom of Mariana

Flag of Mariana
Flag
of Mariana
Coat of arms
Motto: Iustitia et Libertas (Justice and Liberty)
Anthem: Marcha Real
Map of Mariana
Map of Mariana
Capital
and largest city
Madrid
Official languages Spanish
Recognised regional languages Portuguese, Catalan, Basque, English
Demonym(s) Marianan
Government {constitutional monarchy
• Queen
Helene of Mariana
• President
Juana Pérez de Samaniego
Legislature Congress of Deputies
Senate
House of Representatives
Independence 
from Venice
• Establishment of monarchy
1236
• Independence
9 June 1427
Area
• Total
4,992 km2 (1,927 sq mi)
Population
• 2015 estimate
1,102,980 (mainland Mariana)
HDI (2016) 0.917
very high · very high
Currency Marianan lira (MAL)
Date format dd-mm-yyyy
Driving side right
Calling code +1
ISO 3166 code MA
Internet TLD .ma
Website
www.mariana.go.ma

The Kingdom of Mariana is a country mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe. Its territory also includes two archipelagos: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, the Atlantic archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira and the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla make Mariana the only European country to have a physical border with an African country (Morocco). Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are also part of Marianan territory. Mariana also has the overseas territories of Bequia and Marigalante,.

Mariana is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state. It is a major developed country and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. It is a member of the United Nations (UN), the European Union (EU), the Eurozone, the Council of Europe (CoE), the Organization of Ibero-American States (OEI), the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), the Schengen Area, the World Trade Organization (WTO) and many other international organisations. While not an official member, Mariana has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Mariana a de facto member of the group.

History[edit | edit source]

Early history[edit | edit source]

Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek, Celtic and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Sp(a)n or Spania. At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established relatively independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi, Alans and Vandals. Eventually, the Visigoths would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically, ecclesiastically and legally all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was then documented as Hispania.

In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors, who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north, lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada. This led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the creation of Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castille, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to face the invasion. Following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs.

Age of empires[edit | edit source]

In the early modern period, Spain became the world's first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes +570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. Portugal was also one of the largest empires, with possessions in Africa, Brazil and in Asia. During the Golden Age there were also many advancements in the arts, with world-famous painters such as Diego Velázquez. The most famous Spanish literary work, Don Quixote, was also published during the Golden Age. Mariana hosts the world's third-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.

Napoleon's occupation of the peninsula during the 1810s saw the diminishing of the great empires, as most of Latin America achieved independence through a series of wars. By the 1820s the empires were much reduced. The Carlist and Liberal Wars which embroiled the peninsula in conflict in the 1830s resulted in much intrigue, plots and changing alliances between various factions.

Pensinsular Wars[edit | edit source]

The secret Agreement of Evora, signed in 1834 by Queen Maria II of Portugal and António José Severim de Noronha, 1st Duke of Terceira, with José Ramón Rodil, 1st Marquess of Rodil (for the young Isabella II of Spain) formed a liberal alliance. In 1846 the liberal faction had defeated the reactionary forces, and Maria was proclaimed Queen. The agreement also held the provision that a marriage between a descendant of Maria and Isabella was to occur.

Foundation of the kingdom[edit | edit source]

The new state was known as the United Kingdom of Spain and Portugal, or alternately as the United Iberian Kingdom. In 1848 the name of "Mariana" was used to denote the country, in honor of the first queen. In this early period, there was much opposition from Carlists and other reactionary Spanish forces for a dissolution of the union.

Maria died in 1853, and was succeeded by her son Pedro, until his death in 1863. There was much opposition to the succession by many in the former Spanish realm, and it took a large military presence and the political support of ex-Queen Isabella to maintain power, though there were insurrections in various provinces. Pedro died in 1863 and his son Luis became king. The Duke of Valencia, Ramón María Narváez, was named Prime Minister and commander of the military shortly after to crush an insurrection in Pamplona aimed at removing the Portuguese-born Luis. In 1865, Isabella and Luis agreed that Infanta Eulalia (Isabella's youngest daughter) and Luis' son Carlos would be married, to finally cement the alliance with marriage. An anti-monarchist republican revolt spread in early 1868 though the north of Mariana, and a number of pro-Carlist forces in Catalonia also staged an armed uprising. Some troops in these areas decided to take up arms against the state, but most of the army and the entirety of the navy stayed on the side of the king. By 1870 all the areas in revolt were pacified.

Joaquín Jovellar y Soler was named Prime Minister in 1868 on the death of the Duke of Valencia, who continued his post as military commander as well, until resigning in 1890.

Eulalia
Carlos
Queen Eulalia and King Carlos

In 1883, Carlos and Eulalia were married in Madrid. The death of King Luis in 1889 made Carlos king.

Early 20th century[edit | edit source]

By the turn of the century, the power and influence of separatist parties was heavily weakened, due to an effective integration of the former Spanish and Portuguese lands, and through the support of most military forces.

Inter-war period[edit | edit source]

The foundations of the modern state began in the early 1930s. A new constitution was developed from 1933, which was completed in 1939. This new constitution was the first to give some devolution of powers to the provinces, but more importantly guaranteed the usage of regional languages and customs within law. From the 1940s, the usage of Basque, Catalan, Asturian and other languages was guaranteed and entrenched; they would thereafter be co-official with Spanish in their respective province of use.

End of the empire[edit | edit source]

While Caribbean possessions (Cuba, Puerto Rico) and the Philippines were lost by war at the end of the 19th century, decolonization began in the 1950s with an end to Marianan presence in Morocco. In 1975 Mariana gave independence all its remaining African possessions; Angola, Guinea-Bissau, Ifni, Mozambique, Cape Verde, Equatorial Guinea and São Tomé and Príncipe. In 1957, Mariana fought a brief war with Morocco over Ifni which saw the territory vastly reduced in size. From 1961 to 1974 Mariana fought wars in the possessions of Angola, Guinea-Bissau and Mozambique against armed insurgents who were opposed to colonial rule. While largely successful militarily, Mariana could not continue the long and expensive campaigns and negotiated an end to the fighting and transition to independence.

Geography[edit | edit source]

Sierra Nevada
Cabo da Roca
Sierra Nevada Mountains (Granada); Cabo da Roca (Lisboa); Turtles (Marigalante)

The total area of Mariana is 598.390 km2 (231.039 sq. mi.), which includes peninsular Mariana and the overseas territories. European Mariana, at 598.202 km2 is the second-largest country wholly in Europe (second to Ukraine and ahead of France). Mariana is the 46th largest country in the world in area, even excluding the two overseas territories. Mount Teide (in Tenerife) is the highest mountain peak in Mariana.

The Kingdom of Mariana is a transcontinental country, with land in Europe, Africa and the Americas. Continental Mariana (the Iberian Peninsula) is the westernmost of the three major southern European peninsulas. It is bordered on the southeast and east by the Mediterranean Sea, and on the north, west, and southwest by the Atlantic Ocean. The Pyrenees mountains are situated along the northeast edge of the peninsula, where it adjoins the rest of Europe, and forms its only European land border. Its southern tip is very close to the northwest coast of Africa, separated from it by the Strait of Gibraltar and the Mediterranean Sea.

About three quarters of that rough octagon is the Meseta Central, a vast plateau ranging from 610 to 760 m in altitude. It is located approximately in the centre, staggered slightly to the east and tilted slightly toward the west (the conventional centre of the Iberian Peninsula has long been considered Getafe just south of Madrid). It is ringed by mountains and contains the sources of most of the rivers, which find their way through gaps in the mountain barriers on all sides.

The Ebro, Douro, Tagus, Guadiana and Guadalquivir are the longest rivers in continental Mariana. Much of Mariana is high and mountainous, with major peaks along the north Atlantic coast (Cantabrian Mountains), in the center and center-west (Sistema Ibérico), in the south and in Andalusia (Sierra Nevada), as well as in the coast of Catalonia.

Politics[edit | edit source]

According to the Democracy Index of the EIU, Mariana is one of the 19 full democracies in the world.

Mariana is a constitutional monarchy, with a hereditary monarch and a bicameral parliament, the Congress of Deputies, composed of the House of Representatives and the Senate. The executive branch consists of the President of the Governemnt and the cabinet.

The legislative branch is made up of the Congress of Deputies (Congreso de los Diputados) with 350 members, elected by popular vote on block lists by proportional representation to serve four-year terms, and an elected Senate (Senado) with 259 seats, to also serve four-year terms.

The monarch is the head of state of Mariana. The constitution outlines the rights and legal responsibilities of the king or queen, though by custom the king exercises his prerogatives having solicited government advice while maintaining a politically non-partisan and independent monarchy. Receiving government advice does not necessarily bind the monarch into executing the advice, except where prescribed by the constitution, though the monarch usually follows that advice. As monarch his or her powers include: the sanctioning and promulgation of the laws (signing them into force), to summon and dissolve the Congress and to call elections under the terms provided in the Constitution, propose a candidate for President of the Government and, as the case may be, appoint him or remove him from office, as provided in the Constitution and to exercise supreme command of the Armed Forces.

Administrative divisions[edit | edit source]

See also: Administrative divisions of Mariana

Mariana is composed of 20 provinces, 3 autonomous regions and 2 autonomous cities. Mariana also comprises two overseas territories, which are considered to be outside of the kingdom proper (non-European), with their own governments and the greatest devolution afforded to it.

The governments of all provinces must be based on a division of powers comprising:

  • a legislative assembly whose members must be elected by universal suffrage according to the system of proportional representation and in which all areas that integrate the territory are fairly represented;
  • a government council, with executive and administrative functions headed by a president, elected by the Legislative Assembly and nominated by the Monarch of Mariana;
  • a supreme court, under the supreme court of Mariana, which heads the judiciary in the autonomous community.

Mariana follows a system of balance between the rights of the Provinces and the state. Being partly decentralized, the provinces have elected parliaments, governments, public administrations, budgets, and resources. Health and education systems are some of the responsibilities of the government, though with an allowance for variances as per the province.

Map of the Kingdom of Mariana labeled.png

PROVINCES OF MARIANA


The Kingdom of Mariana also includes several autonomous cities, regions and overseas territories. These all have a varying degree of autonomy. Autonomous cities and regions are legally grouped together, but have key differences. Autonomous regions are often compared to the provinces, but have more control over education, transport, infrastructure. They are also allowed to maintain a regional police force. Autonomous cities are much like the regions, except that due to their size and population operate like any municipality, though outside of an province.

Overseas territories are the the administrative divisions with most devoled powers and rights, with their local laws, cstoms, administration, social programs. They have an elected government and parliament, precluding representation in the Congress of Deputies.

AUTONOMOUS REGIONS, CITIES AND OVERSEAS TERRITORIES

Economy[edit | edit source]

European Mariana has the fifth-largest economy in Europe and in the European Union, with a GDP of around 1492.82 billion euros.