This article needs to be updated.
|Province of Maricopa (en)|
|— Province of Sierra —|
|Nickname(s): The Valley Province, The Valley of the Sun|
Motto(s): Ita est possumus |
(Latin: Yes we can)
|Provincial song(s): "Rise Above Maricopa!"|
|Official language(s)||*Nationally recognized languages|
(and largest city)
13,737.90 sq mi |
|• Total||4,124,466 (2020)|
299/sq mi (115.44/km2)|
|• Highest point||
7,659 ft (2,334 m)
|• Lowest point||
Gila River near Maricopa-Imperial border|
420 ft (128 m)
|Admission to the Union||November 28, 1858 (8th)|
|Lord Superintendent||Ivan Watters (Ind.)|
|Governor||Cory Grumann (R)|
|Lieutenant Governor||Ted Newman (R)|
|Legislature||Maricopa Provincial Legislature|
|• Upper house||Maricopa House of Councilors|
|• Lower house||Maricopa House of Deputies|
Anthony Guzman (R)|
Ricardio Sanchez (R)
Raphael Torres (R)
|K.S. House delegation||
16 House Commoners|
4 Christian Democrats
2 Social Democrats
Pacific Time Zone |
UTC –8/UTC –7
|Abbreviations||MR, Mar., Mari.|
Category • Topics |
Which much of the province situated within the Sonoran Desert, the Colorado River, the province's only significant source of water, defines the western boundary of Maricopa. It borders Mohave and Flagstaff to the north, Cornerstone to the east, Sonora and Imperial to the south, and the Inland Empire to the west.
Named after the local Maricopa people, Maricopa was originally inhabited by paleo-Indians in the Salt River Valley from 7000 to 6000 BC. Other nomadic tribes continued to move in and out of the area until 1000 BC when the Hohokam civilization emerged. The Hohokam built a complex irrigation system that supported agriculture and lasted until 1450 when they vanished for unknown reasons. By the time the Europeans arrived in the area at the beginning of the 16th century, the O'odham and the Sobaipuri tribes were inhabiting the province. The future cities of Tuscon and Phoenix were established by the Spanish but population remained sparse until Maricopa was transferred to the California Republic through the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in the aftermath of the Mexican-American War. Maricopa was admitted as one of the 22 provinces of Sierra on November 28, 1858 when a new constitution created the present-day Kingdom.
Maricopa was initially home to several mining communities that garnered the attraction of American and Brazorian settlers, particularly Confederate veterans and their families following the American Civil War and War of Contingency. Phoenix, the province's capital, grew from a small camp to a bustling town with an irrigation system similar to those of the ancient Hohokam within a matter of decades. In the 1880s, railroads made Maricopa much more accessible and transportation between the provinces more convenient, revolutionizing the local economy. Maricopa remained sparsely populated until after Great War I, when the population grew three-fold and real estate became a driving force in the urban development of the province. By the 21st century, Maricopa has emerged as one of Sierra's fastest growing provinces, a significant economic hub in the Southern Corridor region, and a consistently conservative base.
The Flag of Maricopa
The Seal of Maricopa
|Amphibian||Arizona tree frog|
|Flower||Saguaro cactus blossom|
|Colors||Blue, old gold, red|
|Firearm||Colt Single Action Army revolver|
|Motto||Ita est possumus|
|Slogan||The Sun Never Sets|
|Song||Maricopa March Song|
|Provincial route marker|
|Part of a series on the provinces, states, areas, and territories of Sierra|
The name Maricopa refers to the native Maricopa people, who calls themselves the Piipash ("the people" in Maricopa language). The word "Maricopa" itself is a shortened form of the Spanish name for Piipash, Cocomaricopa. The origin and original meaning of the Spanish name remains unknown but the earliest documented use of the English word, Maricopa, was used in the 1850s by American settlers in the region when it was then known as the "Salt River" area or "Valley of the Sun". In an 1851 local newspaper, the Phoenix Enquirer, wrote an article that used the word "Maricopa" several times to refer the region:
On the 13th of April, 1851 Wednesday, Mr. Henry Wallace was inaugurated at the Phoenix Town Hall as the Town of Phoenix's 4th sheriff. Mr. Wallace had previously served as a constable and a keeper of the peace in the MARICOPA area. Mr. Javier Romero, Mayor of Phoenix called Wallace, "A most fine and honorable man to serve as Sheriff", further stating that the region of MARICOPA were in good hands. A banquet was held in Wallace's honor at the Town Square with local citizens celebrating Wallace's inauguration. Wallace beat former long-time MARICOPA resident sheriff Mr. Avery Hughes, who had previously served 8 years as Sheriff.
— Front page article of the April 17, 1831 Sunday Edition of the Phoenix Enquirer; italics and capitalization added for emphasis
Maricopa is located in the southeastern central part of the Arizona region in Sierra. Virtually all of Maricopa is situated within the Basin and Range Province, a large physiographic region comprised primarily of steep, linear mountains alternating with vast desert plains. The unique geology of the region is due to the crustal extensions of the North American Plate and these extensions are responsible for the province's thin crust. A small portion of northern Maricopa is situated in the Arizona transition zone.
Like much of southeastern Sierra, Maricopa is fairly mountainous with various rugged ranges that exist as sky islands in the Sonoran and Chihuahuan Deserts. With the exception of the Phoenix metropolitan area, which is fairly flat, eastern Maricopa features several mountain ranges, among them including the Superstition Mountains, the White Tank Mountains, the McDowell Mountains, and the Sierra Estrella.
Maricopa, being primarily situated within the Sonoran Desert, features a hot desert climate (Köppen climate classification BWh) which results in long, very hot summers, and short, mild winters. Much of the province, including the Phoenix metropolitan area, sees over 300 days of sunshine annually and receiving minimal precipitation coverage during the monsoonal rainfall (and haboobs) that form during the monsoon season (generally July to mid-September).
The hottest temperatures of the year typically peaks on July days averaging at 104 °F (40 °C) while the coolest temperatures occur on January nights averaging at 37 °F (3 °C).
Maricopa is home to a diverse community of flora and fauna that is well-suited and adapted for the dry, hot landscape. The biseasonal rainfall pattern that Maricopa experiences allows a greater variation in plant species alive in the desert and is home to unique species such as the Saguaro cactus (Carnegiea gigantea), the creosote bush (Larrea tridentata), and the velvet mesquite (Prosopis velutina).
The first original inhabitants of modern-day Maricopa were the Paleo-Indians who originated from Siberia and migrated into North America and into Maricopa about 11,000 years ago. Primarily hunters and gatherers, the Paleo-Indians hunted Pleistocene age animals including mammoths and mastadons. The Paleo-Indians lived in Maricopa for thousands of years before departing from the area at around 9000 BC. The province may have been left uninhabited by humans for about 2,000 years before the arrival of the archaic Indians at around 7,000 BC. Being hunters and gatherers, the archaic Indians lived nomadic lifestyles before settling down and developing into an agricultural society by 1000 BC. The introduction of maize crop from further south enabled villages to grow and farming to stabilize. The gradual factionalism that emerged among the groups eventually led to the creation of distinct tribes, one of them being the Hohokam who settled in the Salt River Basin.
Paleontologists generally divide the history of Hohokam habitation into five periods, each based on the technological and societal advancements of the people. Initially the Hohokam arrived with primitive pit houses before developing an irrigation system and making artistic pottery. As the villages grew larger in size, art and architecture became more sophisticated with rock art, and cremation techniques used for burial. By 1500 AD, the canal system continued to grow and platform mounds, ballcourts, and plazas were constructed. At its peak, the Hohokam irrigation infrastructure had spanned roughly 135 miles, parts of which were later integrated into the Arizona Canal, Central Arizona Project, and Hayden-Rhodes Aqueduct.
An advanced civilization, the Hohokam were the largest native population north of Mexico City at the time and traded with their neighbors, the Anasazi, the Mogollon, and the Sinagua as well as geographically farther groups such as the Aztecs. Around the 15th century however, the Hohokam civilization disappeared for unconfirmed reasons.
The Hohokam were ultimately replaced by the Pima, the Tohono O'odham, and the Maricopa tribes who migrated into Maricopa. Their establishment in the area before the arrival of the first Europeans were short-lived, who came in the 16th century. It is possible that Marcos de Niza, the first known European to have explored the Arizona region, reached the southern part of Maricopa. Francisco Vázquez de Coronado, the Spanish conquistador who led an expedition through Arizona Sierra did not travel through Maricopa but did help lead the Spanish to establish a permanent presence in the region. Throughout the Spanish colonial period, colonization efforts were concentrated primarily to the east and south of Maricopa, although it was likely that some Spaniards transversed the province.
Maricopa was claimed by the California when it declared independence from Mexico in 1846. These claims were validated when the area was ceded by Mexico following the conclusion of the Mexican-American War and the signage of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848. Despite this transfer, the area in question itself would continue to see no substantial development for nearly 10 years. Initially, Maricopa was incorporated into California as the State of Salt River which included all of Maricopa, and parts of Mohave, Flagstaff, and Imperial. The capital of the state at the time was Prescott. The first settlement within Maricopa was Wickenburg, a town just south of Prescott, and was founded in 1849. Phoenix was founded several months later, and was settled by American, Brazorian, and Confederate immigrants who crossed into the Valley of the Sun. Seeing the potential of the land, local entrepreneurs and farmers established the Salt River Trust & Holdings Company, which officially demarcated land plots and converted arid soil into irrigated farmland.
By 1858, when California was reorganized as the Kingdom of Sierra under the 1858 Constitution, Maricopa's population had swelled to 7,000, and Phoenix, the central hub in the Arizona region. The Maricopa Provincial Legislature, recognizing the rapid growth and expansion of Phoenix, granted it incorporation status, and gave the town a mayor-council government. As Maricopa's agriculture matured, so did its economic value, and more railroads were created to link Phoenix between Porciúncula and Houston as the "Middleman Town". The Southern Pacific Railroad played an immense role in the province's early history, and guaranteed its worth to the Kingdom.
During the Sierran Civil War, most Maricopans were indifferent to the factionalism, and while most were sympathetic to the republican cause, Maricopa did not witness any significant uprising or unrest during the entirety of the war. Geographic isolation and dependence on Porciúncula for goods and supplies were major factors in the lack of republican-inspired activity. Following the war, the population steadily grew at a sustainable pace as immigrants from the east moved westward, and settled in the fertile valley, or made their way towards the Pacific. The weather the province offered was an attractive point of destination for sufferers of tuberculosis where the only cure at the time was rest in a dry, warm climate. The first major hospital was established in Phoenix by a Catholic order of nuns (Sisters of Mercy), and backed by Protestant citizens, who treated tuberculosis patients. A nursing school was established soon after in 1910.
In an effort to make water more accessible in the drier regions of Sierra, Prime Minister Joseph Sterling signed the Lowlands Reclamation Act which allocated funding to support the Sierran interior province's water supply and irrigation systems. Maricopa was able to construct its own dam on rivers, and a provincial-wide commission on water control and usage was established to oversee reclamation efforts. Well into the Great Depression, Maricopa emerged as a regional agricultural center, dominated by commercial farmers and local retailers who were aided by the transcontinental railroad companies. Additional economic output from the province included mining for various materials and metals, especially for copper.
Government and politics
Maricopa has a tripartite form of semi-republican government which consists of an executive, legislative, and judicial branch. Maricopa's executive branch is headed by a governor, who is elected every four years, and may serve as many terms as possible, although no more than two terms in a row. Unlike other provinces, there is no lieutenant governor or equivalent, although according to the provincial constitution, the Secretary of State is the first in line to succeed the governor in the event of the latter's death, resignation, incapacity, or removal from office.
The Maricopa Provincial Legislature is bicameral and consists of a 50-member House of Councilors and a 150-member House of Deputies, and all legislators are elected every two years with legislative sessions lasting four years each. Currently, the legislature is dominated by the Royalists in both houses, who have held control since 1991. Just like most Sierran provinces, Maricopa uses the Anglo-American federal system in contrast to the Westminster system used on the federal level and used in the Pacific Northwest provinces.
The current Maricopan delegation to the K.S. Senate are Royalists Anthony Guzman and Ricadrio Sanchez. There are a total of 21 members representing Maricopa's parliamentary districts in the House of Commons. Since 1980, Maricopa has consistently and reliably voted for Royalist candidates in every prime ministerial election. The current governor, Cory Grumann (R), succeeded Donna Taylor (R) on January 1, 2009, who served her two terms from 2001-2009. Prior to Taylor, Reggie Archibald (R) served as governor from 1993-2001. In Maricopa, governors are restricted to serving up to two terms. In the 2012 prime ministerial election, 69% of Maricopans voted for Royalist candidate Paul Roemmer. In the 2016 prime ministerial election, 74% of Maricopans voted for Royalist candidate Daniel McComb, who proceeded to win the nationwide election.
|Inland Empire||Mohave • Flagstaff||Cornerstone|
|Imperial||Imperial • Sonora||Cornerstone|
|Preceded by|| List of K.S. PSAs by date of admission to the Union
Ratified the K.S. Constitution on November 27, 1858 (8th)