- This country is a part of Altverse II.
Mexican Social Republic
República Social de México (Spanish)
Motto: México para los mexicanos
(English: Mexico for the Mexicans)
Anthem: Himno de la Patria
(English: The Fatherland Hymn)
Map of Mexico (excluding its claims)
and largest city
|Government||Federal semi-presidential constitutional republic|
|Pablo Hidalgo de Veracruz|
|Jose Rosario Macias|
|Legislature||National Assembly of Mexico|
|September 16, 1810|
|September 27, 1821|
|October 4, 1824|
|February 5, 1857|
|September 11, 1956|
|1,647,836 km2 (636,233 sq mi)|
• 2014 estimate
• 2010 census
|GDP (PPP)||2017 estimate|
|$1.8 trillion (16th)|
• Per capita
|GDP (nominal)||2017 estimate|
|$983 billion (17th)|
• Per capita
high · 52nd
|Currency||Mexican peso ($) (MXN)|
|Time zone||UTC−8 to −6 (See Time in Mexico)|
• Summer (DST)
|UTC−7 to −5 (varies)|
Mexico, officially known as the Mexican Social Republic (Spanish: República Social de México) is a federal semi-presidential constitutional republic in southern North America. It borders Brazoria and the Kingdom of Sierra to the north and west; the Pacific Ocean to the southwest and south; the Gulf of Mexico to the east; and Belize, Guatemala, and the Caribbean Sea to the southeast. It is the most populous Spanish-speaking country in the world, and the second largest in Latin America, with a population of over 120 million. It is a federation composed of 22 states and a federal district (Mexico City), that is also its most populous city and its capital. The Valley of Mexico and the vicinity is home to the majority of Mexican citizens, with the Mexico City megapolis accounting for nearly one-fourth of the country's entire population.
Prior to the arrival of the Europeans, Mexico was home to various advanced Mesoamerican civilizations including the Olmec, the Maya and the Aztec, which engaged in active trade, cooperation, and warfare. In 1521, the Spanish Empire conquered and colonized Mexico, administering the conquered lands under the Viceroyalty of New Spain. New Spain became an important asset to Spain, allowing the Spaniards to expand into other parts of the Americas. The Catholic Church played a significant role in the spread and proliferation of Christianity and the Spanish language in Mexico. The syncretic fusion between Spaniard culture and the indigenous cultures led to the formation of a distinct Mexican identity. Mexico was one of Spain's most valuable possessions and was economically exploited for its large deposits of precious metals. After three centuries of Spanish rule, Mexico declared and gained independence from Spain in 1821. Following independence, Mexico experienced a highly volatile political environment, with frequent political changes, and widespread economic problems. Mexico lost over half of its territory during the Mexican-American War to Brazoria and California (which would become Sierra) with the assistance of their ally, the United States.
After the war, Mexico continued to be plagued with internal and international conflict, and several more political changes. The Mexican state instituted reforms that curtailed the power and influence of the Church and military, and granted more rights to the indigenous peoples in the Constitution of 1857. These changes triggered the Reform War and the subsequent French intervention in Mexico, which saw the installation of Maximilian von Habsburg as Emperor of Mexico. After the Republicans' chief ally, the United States, collapsed amid the War of Contingency, the French increased its military support for Maximilian I, while Austria also joined the intervention, which proved successful in putting down the Republican opposition. Under Maximilian's rule, he implemented a limited constitutional monarchy with a democratically elected parliament. The postwar civilian government came under the control of former liberal Republican war general Porfirio Díaz, who was offered high position and status in the imperial government. Díaz's government implemented reforms which strengthened and centralized state power, and attracted investment from Europe and Anglo-America. Mexico enjoyed rapid economic growth and urban development, although the benefits of social and financial progress was unevenly distributed throughout Mexico. The imperial government continued to face occasional rebellions, especially in the northern states.
Following the death of Maximilian I and mounting dissent against Díaz, the country experienced a decade-long civil war that saw the interventions of Sierra and the Landonist United Commonwealth. The revolution ended with the dissolution of the Mexican Empire and the division of Mexico into two client states: a pro-Sierran North Mexico and a pro-Continental South Mexico. Despite brief reprieve in conflict, the two states resumed fighting during the 1920s in the First Mesoamerican War, and eventually, South Mexico, with the assistance of the United Commonwealth, reunified virtually all of Mexico during Great War I. Mexico underwent major land reforms and Continentalist economic policies which redistributed the wealth. By the 1950s, Mexico's ambitions to reassert control over formerly Mexican lands in El Norte and Central America alienated the United Commonwealth, leading to a split between their leaderships, and Mexico aligning itself more closely with China. Separatist, ethnic-based unrest in the Yucatán and Pacific states led to the Second Mesoamerican War during the 1970s, which saw the creation of the short-lived, Sierran-backed Republic of Tarasca. Mexico began to move towards liberalization by the 1980s, eventually culminating into full Delandonization during the Revolutions of 2000.
The Mexican economy ranks as the 17th largest by nominal GDP and the 16th largest purchasing power parity in 2017. It has a relatively high standard of living and is a newly industrialized country with a upper middle-income economy. It is a member of the League of Nations (LN), the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the World Bank, the World Trade Organization (WTO), the G28, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organisation of Economic Co-operation and Development (OCED), and the Organization of American States (OAS). It is a founding member of the American Cooperation Organization (ACO) and is a former member of the Conference of American States (CAS). Emerging from a predominantly agriculturally-based economy, the modern Mexican economy is diversified with large sectors in services, technology, oil, finance, energy, trade, and industry. Mexico has one of the largest standing militaries in the world (with over 700,000 on active duty) and the second largest paramilitary force in the Western Hemisphere (with 480,000), behind the United Commonwealth. The development of Mexico's domestic nuclear program has been the subject of international concern and opposition from its neighbors. Tensions between Mexico and its Anglo-American neighbors, particularly with Sierra, has led to a steady deterioration in relations. Mexico's withdrawal from the CAS, its increased militarization, its nuclear program, and its revived irredentist movement has led to the controversially imposed sanctions by the Anglo-American community.
The name, México (originally spelled as Mexico without the accented letter I) is the Spanish transliteration of the Nahuatl word, Mēxihco, the name used by the Aztecs to describe the ancient heartland of the Aztec Empire in the Valley of Mexico and its people, the Mexica. The name was adopted by the Spaniards when Mexico was organized into one of the territories of New Spain. The name has a long and complex history, with various possible origins and forms. In Nahuatl, the suffix, –co indicates a place name. It has been hypothesized that the name Mexico may have derived from Mextli (Mēxihtli), a "secret name" of the Aztec god of war, Huitzilopochtli. Under this scheme, the name of Mēxihco would mean, the "Place where Huitzilopochtli lives". Other theories include the suggestion that Mēxihco was a portmanteau of the Aztec words Mētztli (moon) and xīctli (navel), which would mean Mēxihco means "Place at the Center of the Moon", a possible reference to the location of the Aztec capital, Tenochtitlan in Lake Texcoco. The lakes that were connected to Lake Texcoco also formed the shape of the head of a rabbit, an animal commonly associated with the moon in Aztec culture.
The official name of Mexico is the "Mexican Social Republic" (Spanish: República Social de México), which is codified in the current Constitution of Mexico. Prior to the adoption of its current official name, Mexico has had a history of various iterations of its official names. Its official name has changed based on its form of government.
The earliest documented and verifiable occurrence of humans appearing in Mexico is around 23,000 years ago. Starting from 7000 BC, Paleo-Indian hunter-gatherers succeeded in domesticating and cultivating the maize crop and beans. Consequently, villages and communes arose from this agricultural revolution and various cultures arose. Between 15000 BC to 700 AD, farming societies evolved into more complex chiefdoms where social stratification became more pronounced with rigid separate classes of people based on profession and religious standing. The most prominent civilizations that existed during this time included the Olmec and Mayans.
The Olmecs were an ancient civilization that thrived on the Gulf Coast around 1500 BC. The cultural legacy of the Olmecs can still be found in the modern-states of Chiapas and Oaxaca, as well as the Valley of Mexico. They are considered one of the primordial civilizations of Mesoamerica, which is regarded as one of the six independent cradles of civilization. Following the decline of the Olmecs, the Maya and Zapotec emerged. At this same time, the first true Mesoamerican writing systems developed. The Classic Maya script, which featured hieroglyphs, represented the peak of the Mesoamerican writing systems, and served as the basis for a rich corpus of literature and historical records.
In Central Mexico, the ancient city of Teotihuacán emerged as a dominant military and economic power. Its influence during the classic period stretched from the areas surrounding the Valley of Mexico to the peripherals of the Maya cultural center. Teotihuacán became known for its large pyramidical structures and elaborate architecture. After the city collapsed in 600 AD, competing powers fought for power over the region, such as the Xochicalco and Cholula. During the power struggle, the Nahua peoples from the north migrated south into the Valley of Mexico. Their presence transformed the linguistic landscape of the region and several Nahua groups emerged as powerful states including the Toltec and the Mixtec. The Mexica, whose political and cultural center was based in Tenochtitlan (present-day Mexico City), became the preeminent power as they forged the Triple Alliance with its neighbors. Alexander von Humboldt is credited with popularizing the term "Aztec" as a collective term to refer to the peoples associated with the Mexica state and the Triple Alliance.
Although the Triple Alliance has been contemporarily referred to as the Aztec Empire, the Aztecs did not exert complete control over its conquered territories. Its territories were bound as tributary states and not all conquered territories were interconnected with the central power in Tenochtitlan. Notably, the Aztec powers did not interfere with local affairs as long as tributes were paid. At the height of their power, the Aztecs spanned most of Central Mexico and became distinguished for their employment of ritualistic human sacrifice.
The turbulence of the early republican era gave away to a period of relative stability during the reign of Emperor Maximilian I. With the support of the French Army and the conservative political forces in Mexico, he established a new government of "order and progress," leading to the industrial and commercial development of the country between 1864 and 1900. During that time Mexico saw the introduction of railroads, faster communications, mining and raw materials processing, the introduction of electricity and telephones, and other public utilities, along with the beginnings of an industrialized economy that could support those projects. These technological developments allowed an increase in life expectancy as well as in birth rates, causing a massive population growth in the second half of the 19th century. As the rural counties could not support the new population, many people moved into cities, creating larger urban areas. The unequal society that Mexico, like other Latin American nations, inherited from Spain was based on nine-tenths of the population being part of a lower peasant class and one-tenth being part of the ruling oligarchy, which was an alliance of landlords, bankers, clergy, and military officers. Urbanization and population growth, along with the rigid hierarchy, prevented social mobility for most people in Mexico and depressed the quality of living. This coincided with the arrival of revolutionary and socialist ideologies into Mexico from North America and Europe, which became popular among the small but growing educated and professional class that emerged in the cities and was more politically active than the rural peasants.
As a result of depressed living conditions, revolutionary republicanism and socialism began spreading among the growing urban population of Mexico, and the initial popularity the Imperial government had from bringing stability and introducing new technologies was disappearing by the start of the 20th century. The increase of the middle class demographic in the army served to alienate the military from the ruling oligarchy, while the anti-clericalism of the liberal revolutionaries decreased the influence of the clergy in maintaining societal order. In response to this, Emperor Maximilian and his close ally and prime minister, General Porfirio Díaz, deliberately weakened the Mexican Federal Army, creating a smaller and more reliable elite paramilitary force (the Rurales), which was trained by the French Foreign Legion and specialized in political repression as well as maintaining public order. At the same time the economy continued to be developed, with a railroad network, financial reforms based on a gold standard, and foreign investment from Sierra, the United Kingdom, France, Germany, and elsewhere being encouraged. It was not long before European, Sierran, and American Commonwealth business interests owned large portions of the Mexican economy. Maximilian and Díaz sought to also maintain an alliance with the Catholic Church, though they did not impede the arrival of Protestant missionaries from Anglo-America. The relationship between the Emperor and his prime minister was cooperative and they maintained political stability during his reign, though they had increasing disagreements after 1898 as Díaz resisted the emperor's attempts to increase democratic elections on the local and state levels or end the suppression of emerging political parties.
The death of Emperor Maximilian I in March 1910 set off a political crisis. As he was childless, a power vacuum was created, but efforts were made to locate the descendants of the original monarch, Agustín I. The Imperial Regency Council, headed by Díaz and several of his political allies, put one of the first emperor's great-great-grandchildren on the Imperial throne as Maximilian II. Because Maximilian II was still a child, Díaz held most of the real power, along with the new monarch's regent and father, Prince Luis Bejamín, and the Minister of War, General Bernardo Reyes. By the summer of 1910 the council was beginning to fall apart as the Prince Regent and the Minister of War both favored democratic and constitutional reforms, while Díaz was moving to consolidate power around himself. The political scheming made both the monarchy and Díaz's faction less popular among the Mexican people, who associated the government with stagnation, corruption, and inefficiency. The historic 1910 Mexican general election occurred in June and July 1910, contested by Díaz's party and the party of the reformist businessman Francesco I. Madero, who favored a Sierran- or British-style constitutional monarchy and was being tacitly supported by the Prince Regent. Díaz made sure the election was rigged declared his victory with 98% of the vote, causing widespread outrage among the Mexican public. Rebellions began breaking out across the nation and in an attempt to keep his control on power, Díaz forced Prince Luis Benjamín to sign a letter of abdication on behalf of the young emperor Maximilian II, declaring the country a republic under his rule. However, the spreading rebellion was beyond the ability of the Federal Army and the Rurales to contain, and Díaz resigned and left the country into exile for Spain on 31 May 1911. These events marked the start of the Mexican Civil War.
The policy of deliberately weakening the Federal Army (the Federales) and there being too few Rurales to put down every uprising meant that the Mexican Revolution spread rapidly throughout the country in the fall of 1910 and through the spring of 1911. Although by 1900 nearly one-third of the annual government budget went to the Ministry of War, much of it paid the oversized officer corps, having one commissioned officer for every four soldiers and one general for every hundred soldiers. Many of the generals were ageing veterans of the French intervention over three decades ago and had no other experience, money was being squandered and stolen by the officers, and the soldiers lived in terribly impoverished conditions. Despite being relatively the most expensive army in North America at the time, it was also extremely inefficient, and could not contain the growing Revolution. A brief caretaker government was led by Francisco León de la Barra after Porfirio Díaz's resignation until the 1911 Mexican general election was organized that October, leading to Francesco I. Madero's victory. However, before the end of the year the Madero presidency lost its initial widespread support, as his economic reforms left the landlords and foreign investors as they were and kept many of Díaz's supporters in their positions. At the same time, the pro-Díaz oligarchy still opposed Madero. He quickly became isolated and faced multiple rebellions from November 1911 through most of 1912. The Zapata revolt in Morelos, which began in November 1911, was contained by General Felipe Ángeles, but was not suppressed. The Pascual Orozco revolt in Chihuahua, begun in March 1912, and was handled by Gen. Victoriano Huerta, but Orozco remained at large. The revolts of General Bernardo Reyes in Nuevo León and General Félix Díaz in Veracruz, in the final months of 1912, were crushed, and the two generals were imprisoned in Mexico City.
Once in the capital, Reyes and Díaz became involved in a plot to overthrow Madero with General Huerta, who was being supported by the U.C. Ambassador to Mexico, Henry Lane Wilson. Wilson was an ally of the Mexican landlord and banker oligarchy as well as the foreign business interests in the country, and worked on their behalf to get rid of Madero and install a puppet into the presidency. During the Ten Tragic Days in February 1913, the two captive generals "escaped" from jail and led an uprising against the Madero administration, who were joined by Huerta, the commander of the Federal Army, after he was convinced by Ambassador Wilson. After Huerta's betrayal, Madero was captured and executed, becoming a martyr in the eyes of many in Mexico for resisting foreign interference. The Huerta presidency was backed by Sierra and the United Commonwealth, but one state governor, Venustiano Carranza, led a rebellion in the north with his Constitutionalist Army, while Emiliano Zapata reemerged in the south and began taking territory with his irregulars. Huerta's government proved to be far more unpopular than any of his predecessors and collapsed in July 1914, this time leading to the dissolution of the Federal Army. The coalition that defeated Huerta fell apart soon after, leading to fighting between Carranza and Zapata, while one of the northern army's generals, Pancho Villa, left the north to join with Zapata. However, in the spring of 1915 the southern rebels were defeated by Carranza's top general Alvaro Obregón, allowing Carranza to consolidate his power as the new president of Mexico. This was initially recognized by the Anglo-American and European powers.
Following his defeat in the south, Pancho Villa escaped to the north and launched a raid on the Sierran town of Columbus, West New Mexico. In March 1916, at the initiative of Sierran Prime Minister Philip Judd, his country, along with Brazoria and the United Commonwealth, deployed an expeditionary force into northern Mexico to capture Villa. They failed to capture Villa and in the process turned the Carranza government against them, who deployed his Constitutionalist Army into the north to fight the Anglo-American expedition, which was seen as unwarranted aggression. The escalation led to a full-scale invasion of Mexico by Sierra and Brazoria in the second half of 1916 (while the United Commonwealth pulled out its troops due to its own domestic unrest). The Sierran-Brazorian invasion, led by Field Marshal Edmond Xu, caused a split between Carranza and his war minister, Obregón, who took a pro-American position. The Xu Expedition succeeded in forcing the Mexican government to accept its demands, installing Obregón as president and forcing Carranza to resign. However, the new administration became as unpopular as Huerta's a couple of years prior, as it was seen as being controlled by foreign powers. The Mexican countryside, including the Sierra–Mexico border, was plagued by rebellion and banditry during 1917 and into 1918, despite the continued military assistance from Sierra. By this point, the former ruling oligarchy of Mexico rallied around Obregón while the urban liberal middle class supported the Carrancistas, and the rural peasantry was divided between the Zapatistas in the south and the Villistas in the north. Over half of the country was in the hands of different insurgent groups by 1919, when the Continentalist Party of the United Commonwealth, while fighting its own war against the Federalists, sent a diplomatic and military mission to meet with Carranza.
Although Carranza, Villa, and Zapata were not Marxist–Landonists, the Continentalist leaders in the United Commonwealth wanted to support like-minded governments in the region. They offered to renounce all of the concessions that Mexico gave to the previous Federalist regime of the United Commonwealth and support their fight against Obregón if they were to become allies of the new U.C. government. The Mexican rebel leaders all accepted, and by 1920 they were making significant gains with the help of Continental military advisors that were sent there. Their main advisor, William Lind, implemented a plan by which Villa created a diversion in northern Mexico that distracted the majority of Obregón's army, and in the meantime the new army that Carranza and Zapata built up in the south marched on lightly defended Mexico City. The plan was successful, as although Villa's rebellion in the north was crushed by Obregón, there was no one to stop the southern rebels from overrunning most of the south, including the capital, by the start of 1921. The only exception in the south was an army of remaining Constitutionalists that took control of the Yucatán peninsula and turned it into a holdout pocket. At the same time the rebels in the south did not have enough troops to subdue either the north or the pocket to the south. With this stalemate, negotiations between the Mexican factions, Sierra, Brazoria, and the United Commonwealth led to the signing of the Armistice of Mascagni in January 1922. The treaty formalized the division of the country between the Third Federal Republic of Mexico, commonly known as North Mexico, and the Mexican Social Republic, or South Mexico. The independence of Yucatán was also recognized. The Mascagni agreement tenuously held for several years, despite the new states remaining politically unstable, with assassination and coup attempts being common.
Great War I
Great War II
Early Cold War
Late Cold War
Geography, climate, and environment
Government and politics
According to the Fifth Constitution of the Mexican Social Republic, the country is a federation and a semi-presidential republic, which recognizes the President as the head of state and the Prime Minister as the head of government. The constitution was approved by voters on 30 April 1987 during the presidency of Miguel Zamora Sandoval. The revisions made to the constitution gave substantial powers to the Prime Minister and Parliament, shifting power away from the Presidency.
Mexico is divided into three primary levels of governance: federal, state, and municipal. All constituent states of Mexico are co-equal components of Mexico which exercise a significant degree of autonomy guaranteed by the constitution. Both the federal and state governments share overlapping responsibilities, powers, and duties, as well as retain distinct, separate powers from one another. The Constitution mandates that all state governments adopt the same form of republicanism utilized by the federal government, but allows it to create its own constitutions, laws, and courts independent of the federal government. The federal government itself is divided into three branches: the executive, the legislative, and the judicial. The separation of powers is enshrined in the Mexican Constitution to ensure that a system of checks and balances exist.
The executive branch is currently led by President Pablo Hidalgo de Veracruz and Prime Minister José Rosario Macias, both of whom are members of the Mexican Unity Party (Partido de Unidad Mexicana), the governing party of Mexico. The president is the head of state and the commander-in-chief of the Mexican Armed Forces. The president has the power to enforce federal laws, appoint and dismiss government officials and judges, negotitate treaties with foreign powers, and grant pardons and reprieves. The prime minister is elected by members of the National Assembly of Mexico and is formally appointed by the president. The prime minister serves as the head of government and is responsible for directing domestic policy in coordination with the president.
Historically, Mexican politics has been dominated by three political parties: the Institutional Revolutionary Party (a leftist political party tracing its roots to the Mexican Revolution), the Christian Democratic Party of Mexico (a conservative, Christian democratic party), and the Progressive Revolutionary Party (a liberal political party). During Landonist rule, the Institutional Revolutionary Party was the dominant political party of the Landonist state and continued to dominate Mexican politics in the years following the transition to a liberal, multiparty state. Since the 2000s, the Mexican Unity Party under the leadership of Pablo Hidaldo de Veracruz has emerged as the dominant party in the 21st century. Broadly described as right-wing populist and nationalist, the Mexican Unity Party has gained control in most institutions in Mexico through governing majorities.
Mexico is composed of 29 federal entities: (28 states and 1 federal district). According to the Constitution of Mexico, it lists a total of 31 federal entities, with the two additional entities being Baja California and Sonora. Both of these states are part of Bajaría, a country of the Kingdom of Sierra. Two other areas are also claimed as part of Mexico but are administratively part of the Kingdom of Sierra: Cancún (claimed as part of Quintana Roo) and Mérida (claimed as part of Yucatán).
Each federal entity is represented proportionally through seats set aside for the polities in the National Assembly of Mexico by population. As a federation, the federal and state governments share power and responsibilities over governance, taxation, and services. Each federal entity must abide by a republican form of government and are governed by their own state constitutions, government, officers, courts, and laws.
The Mexican Armed Forces is the standing armed forces of Mexico and is divided into three branches; the army, navy and the air force. The navy has both the naval infantry and Maritime Search and Rescue division. The armed forces itself had went through major reforms during the 1980s and 90s, but suffered a major decline in the 2000s as a result of both the 2001 Mexican financial crisis and the 2008 global recession. Since 2013, the Mexican Armed Forces has been the subject of much needed reform and the need was intensified with the 2015 Emergency Mobilization Plan which has been ongoing since its implementation. The Mexican Armed Forces have participated in many League of Nations peacekeeping operations, but have been accused of being the personal force of President Veracruz, especially the special forces.
Crime and law enforcement
Music and dance
Cult of personality
Since the ascension of Veracruz to power as President of Mexico, his regime has help facilitate a major cult of personality surrounding Veracruz and has been compared to the cult of personality in the 1940s and 50s in the Manchu People's Republic. The cult of personality surrounding Veracruz depicts him as the savior and sole protector of Mexico and the only one keeping the country a sovereign and independent state from Sierran and Brazorian imperialism. Propaganda in the form of posters, state-run media broadcasts and even political education programs have helped promote the image of Veracruz as a benevolent defender of Mexican sovereignty and has been criticized by human rights organizations and international observers as helping maintain an authoritarian government and is used to justify censorship and suppression of dissent.
Public holidays and celebrations
The following public holidays are considered statutory holidays under Mexican law:
|Date||English name||Spanish name||Remarks|
|January 1||New Year's Day||Año Nuevo||First day of the year of the Gregorian calendar.|
|February 5||Constitution Day||Día de la Constitución|
|March 21||Benito Juárez's Birthday||Natalicio de Benito Juárez|
|May 1||Labour Day||Día del Trabajo||Commemorates Mexican workers and laborers|
|September 16||Independence Day||Día de la Independencia||Commemorates the start of the Independence War when Father Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla called on Mexican colonists to rebel against Spain in 1810. Festivities begin the evening of September 15 and culminate with a military parade on September 16.|
|November 20||Revolution Day||Día de la Revolución|
|December 25||Christmas Day||Navidad||Celebration of the birth of Jesus Christ; secular and religious holiday.|