Monarchy of Skandinavia
|King of Skandinavia|
|Kongen av Skandinavia|
Frederik X of Skandinavia|
since March 11, 2015
|Heir apparent||Crownprince Christian|
|First monarch||Frederik I of Kalmar Union|
|Residence||Det Kongelige Slott, Christiania|
The Monarchy of Skandinavia is the constitutional monarchy of Skandinavia. The present monarch, Frederik X of Skandinavia, has reigned since March 11, 2015. He and his immediate family undertake various official, ceremonial and representational duties but also retain important powers according with the Unionenslov. The monarch is head of state and holds the highest public office in Skandinavia and the highest military and social rank. The Unionenslov of 1925 designates the House of Glücksburg as the Skandinavian royal house.
Constitutional rights and privileges: Royal Prerogatives
Although the 1951 Act of Union grants important executive powers to the Monark, these are almost always exercised by the Statsrådet, the Unionsparlamentet and the Kongelige Domstoler in the name of the Monark. Parliamentary practice has replaced the direc appointment of the Government by the Monark in normal situations, who use to accept what is proposed by the parliament. Nevertheless, the reserve powers vested in the Monark by the Act of Union are very importants and this become very important the role of the Monarchy.
The King's person is sacred; he cannot be censured or accused. The responsibility rests with his Council.
This article applies to the Monark personally. The Monark has legal sovereign inmunity.
The Queen and Royal Princes and Princesses shall not personally be answerable to anyone other than the King, or whomever he decrees to sit in judgment on them.
This means that the Queen, Princes and Princesses also have immunity on the discretion of the king. He could decide to let them be judged by the regular courts or he could decide to judge them himself.
Council of State
The Statsrådet is formally convened by the reigning Monark. It consists of a Statsminister and his cabinet, formally appointed by the Monark. Parliamentarism entails that the cabinet should not have the parliament against it. The Statsrådet must have the confidence of Skandinavian legislative body, known as the Unionsparlamentet. In practice, the Monark will ask the leader of a parliamentary block that has a majority in the Storting to form a government. After elections resulting in no clear majority to any party or coalition, the leader of the party most likely to be able to form a government is appointed Statsminister. The Statsminister designates the rest of the members of the Statsrådet who are then appointed by the Monark.
Under the Act of Union the Monark has the Royal Prerogative to summon, prorogue and dissolve Unionsparlamentet. This prerogative is normally exercised at the request of the Storting and the Statsminister but it could be exercised by the Monark himself.
Veto of laws
The Monark has to sign all laws in order for them to become valid. He can veto any law. However, if three differents Stortinger approves the law it becomes valid even without the Monark's consent. Every bill proposed to be debated in the Storting has to get the "King's Consent" before its first lecture in. If the Monark refuse his consent, the bill can not be proposed again during the same legislature.
If the King assents to the Bill, he appends his signature, whereby it becomes law.
If he does not assent to it, he returns it to the Parliament with a statement that he does not for the time being find it expedient to sanction it. In that case the Bill must not again be submitted to the King by the Parliament then assembled. [...]
The King is fount of justice in the Realm...
The King shall have the right in the Council of State to pardon criminals after sentence has been passed.
Justice in Skandinavia is administrated by the Kongelige Domstoler in the name of the Monark.
A pardon is the forgiveness of a crime and the penalty associated with it. It may be given if new information on the crime or criminal has come to light after sentencing has begun. A pardon may entail a complete or partial withdrawal of punishment. The practical execution of this right has been delegated to the Ministry of Justice which may dismiss an application for a pardon. The formal approval of a pardon has to be done by the King in Council.
Appointing senior officials
The King shall choose and appoint, after consultation with his Council of State, all senior civil, ecclesiastical and military officials.
Under the Act of Union the appointment is made by the Monark, but is in practice up to the elected government.
Dismissing the government
The Statsminister and the other Members of the Statsrådet, together with the State Secretaries, may be dismissed by the Monark without any prior court judgment, after he has heard the opinion of the Statsrådet on the subject.
Den Skandinaviske Kirke (Church of Skandinavia) also known as the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Skandinavia, is the state church of Skandinavia, to which more than 80% of inhabitants are members. The Church professes the Lutheran branch of Christianity with the inspiration of Nordic-Catholicism.
The Monark is the supreme governor, Head and protector of the Church. He formally decides who is to become bishops and oversees that the church conducts its business according to "the norms prescribed" for them, the maintenance of fundamental principles of the Christian faith and the observance of the traditional moral precepts.
War and Foreign Affairs
The King is Commander-in-Chief of the land, air and naval forces of the Realm.
The King has the right to call up troops, to engage in hostilities in defence of the Realm and to make peace, to conclude and denounce conventions, to send and to receive diplomatic envoys.
The Monark is revered in the armed forces as their highest commander. The Monark must have an extensive military training and to some extent pursued a career within the armed forces before ascending to the throne. The Monark has to ratify and sign any foreign treaty or agreement and has the right to send and to receive diplomats.
According with the Act of Union, "The King is fount of honour and may bestow orders upon whomever he pleases, as a reward for distinguished services[...]".
In addition to maintaining some of the orders and decorations inherited from the kingdoms of Denmark, Norway and Sweden various orders of knighthood have been specifically created in Skandinavia as well as awards for military service, bravery, merit, and achievement which take the form of decorations or medals. Some medals are graded and each one recognises specific service and as such there are normally set criteria which must be met. These criteria may include a period of time and will often delimit a particular geographic region.
Candidates are identified by public or private bodies, by government departments, or are nominated by members of the public. Depending on their roles, those people selected by the honours committee are submitted either to the Statsrådet for their approval before being sent to the King for final approval. Medals are not normally presented by the Monarch.
Certain great honours are awarded solely at the Monark's discretion, such as:
- Royal Order of St. Olav
- Royal Order of the Elephant
- Royal Order of the Seraphin
- Order of the Sword
- Order of the Dannebrog
- Order of Merit
- Order of the Skandinavian Lion
- Order of the Polar Star
- Order of Vasa
These awards are presented by the Monark or his designated representative.
Main article: Nobility of Skandinavia
All Skandinavian honours, including peerage dignities, are created directly by the Monark, taking effect when letters patent are affixed with the Great Seal of the Realm. The Monark is considered the fount of honour, and as "the fountain and source of all dignities cannot hold a dignity from himself", cannot hold a Skandinavian peerage.
The Monark is invested with powers both from the people and from the church. The People when he takes the oath of allegiance to the Act of Union by the Unionsparlamentet leader, and the Church when he is coronated in the Nidaros Cathedral in Trondheim. The coronations also symbolised that the King would hold the Kingdom in fief to St. Olav, the eternal King of Skandinavia.
The Skandinavian coronation ritual commenced with the king and queen making a procession to the Nidaros Cathedral preceded by the Skandinavian Regalia. Once there, they are greeted by the Bishops of Trondheim, Christiania and Bergen and their attendant clergy with the words: "The Lord bless your going out and your coming in now and forevermore". Entering the cathedral, the Monarchs seated themselves upon two canopied thrones in the choir.
The ceremony begins
Once the King and Queen are seated, the Bishop of Trondheim began the ceremony by intoning the first line of the Introit hymn, which was then sung by the choir and the people. Next, the Bishop of Christiania recited the Nicene Creed following which the Bishop of Bergen intoned the first six verses of the Te Deum. This was followed by a sermon, given by the Bishop of Christiania. A priest and the choir sang a verse of a hymn, each singing alternate lines in turn. The choir next sang the first part of the Anthem, while the king proceeded to a throne set up for him on a dais before the altar, with the Royal Standard being held at his right. The King removed the mantle he had worn during the procession into the church, and it wis laid on the altar as the royal mantle is taken from the altar and placed over his shoulders by the Bishop of Trondheim and the Chief Justice.
Anointing and crowning the King
After receiving his royal mantle, the king knelt before the altar as the Bishop of Trondheim anointed his right forearm and forehead with holy oil using a formula unique to the ancient Norwegian rite. Following this, the King seat himself upon his throne and the bishop of Trondheim and the Prime Minister conjointly crowned him. The bishop of Trondheim and the Minister of Foreign Affairs then hand the king the scepter; this is followed by the orb, which is handed to the king by the bishop of Trondheim and the Minister of Finance. The bishop of Trondheim and the Minister of Defence next hand the king the royal sword. Each item of the regalia is presented using a traditional Norwegian formula. Once all of the crown jewels had been given to the sovereign, the choir sing the second part of the Anthem and a part of another hymn, after which the bishop of Trondheim says a prayer for the newly crowned King and give him his blessing. The king then return to his throne in the choir wearing his crown and bearing his scepter and orb.
Anointing and crowning the queen
Now the Queen leave her canopied throne in the choir and proceeds to her throne before the altar, as the choir sing the third part of the Anthem and part of yet another hymn. She is robed in the royal mantle and then knelt as the bishop of Trondheim anoint her on her right forearm and forehead. She then seats herself on her throne, and is in turned crowned and given her scepter and orb by the bishop using formulas appropriately modified from those used for the King. Afterwards, the fourth part of the anthem is sung by the choir, together with portions of another hymn. The bishop of Trondheim says a prayer for the Queen and bless her, using a form similar to those used for the King. The queen then returns to her throne in the choir bearing her regalia.
After the crowning of the Queen, the President of the Unionsparlamentet takes the King and Queen oath of allegiance to the Act of Union, then stands up and proclaims the coronation act to have been duly performed. Following this, two verses of the hymn "God bless our dear Fatherland" are sung, and then the fifth part of the Anthem is sung by the choir while the bishops and clergy left the sanctuary. The King and Queen then proceed out of the cathedral wearing their coronation mantles and regalia, thus concluding the ceremony.
The line of succession to The Skandinavian throne is determined by the Skandinavian Act of Succession with equal primogeniture, meaning that the eldest child of the monarch, regardless of gender, takes precedence in the line of succession. In the Act of Union the succession line was only for male descendats, but it was ammended with the Act of Succession of March 2, 1957.
Only people descended from the reigning monarch and the reigning monarch's siblings and their descendants through approved marriages are entitled to succeed to the throne and have the title of "Prince or Princess of Skandinavia". Heir Dynasts lose their right to the throne if they marry without the permission of the Monarch given trhough the Council of State. Individuals born to unmarried dynasts or to former dynasts that married without royal permission, and their descendants, are excluded from the throne. Further, when approving a marriage, the Monarch can impose conditions that must be met in order for any resulting offspring to have succession rights.
Heir apparent of Skandinavia wear the titles of Skandinavian Crown Prince (Kronprinsen i Skandinavia) or Skandinavian Crown Pricess (Kronprinsesse i Skandinavia) and Duke or Duchess of Skåne (Hertug og hertuginne av Skåne).
- Christian X of Skandinavia from March 1, 1925 to April 20, 1947
- Frederik IX of Skandinavia from April 20, 1947 to January 11, 1972
- Margrethe II of Skandinavia from March January 11, 1972 to March 11, 2015
- Frederik X of Skandinavia from March 11, 2015 to present days
In Skandinavia, all members of the ruling dynasty that hold the title Prince or Princess of Skandinavia are said to be members of the Skandinavian Royal Family. The King and her siblings belong to the House of Glücksburg, a branch of the House of Oldenburg.
Skandinavian Royal Family is, according to the Royal Court, currently categorized into three groups;
- First, those with royal titles and style (manner of address) who perform official and unofficial engagements for the nation, are the members of the Royal Family (currently this category only includes the King, Queen and their descendants, including spouses. Also include former Monarchs in case of abdication.)
- Second, those with royal titles and style (manner of address) who performs no official engagements
- Third, the extended family of the King which is other close relatives who are not dynasts and thus do not represent the country officially
Regalia of Denmark, Norway and Sweden are understood as Skandinavian Regalia. In the coronation ceremonies of the King are used those of Norway, although the King can use any of them indistinctly in ceremonies and official acts.
The King, Queen, Crown Prince and Crown Princess are exempt from paying any taxes and their personal finances are not revealed to the public. Other members of the royal family have lost that privilege upon marriage. The Royal Farms, Royal Forests and Royal Companies generate revenues that are part of the Monarch's income. All public companies wearing the name of "Royal" allocate a part of their profits to the maintenance of the crown.
The national budget allocates annually an amount for the King and another for the Crown Prince as appanage. This amount is directly related to a percentage of the taxes collected. In addition, other amounts are allocated for the maintenance of the King's Office and the maintenance of Royal Residences.
The Det Kongelige Slott in Christiania functions as the main official residence of the Monark. The offices of the King, other members of the Kalmar Union Royal Family, and the offices of the Royal Court are located in the Palace. Det Kongelige Slott is used for representative purposes and State occasions by the King, while Drottningholm Palace is the private residence of the Kalmar Union Royal Family. In addition to Det Kongelige Slott and Drottningholm Palace there are a number of palaces along the realm that are at the disposal of the Monarch and form the Royal Residences. All the Royal Residences are property of the Crown.
- Amalienborg Palace
- Christiansborg Palace
- Fredensborg Palace - Residence of former Queen Margrethe II of Kalmar Union
- Marselisborg Palace
- Gråsten Palace
- Hermitage Hunting Lodge
- Sorgenfri Palace
- Schackenborg Castle
- Det Kongelige Slott (Royal Palace) - Official residence at Christiania
- Bygdøy Royal Estate -
- Akershus Fortress - Army Regional Headquarters Scandinavia (ArmyHQ-SC)
- Stockholm Royal Palace -
- Drottningholm Palace -
- Gripsholm Castle
- Gustav_III Pavilion
- Haga Palace
- The Chinese Pavilion
- Rosendal Palace -
- Rosersberg Palace
- Strömsholm Palace - Armed Forces Headquarters (KUAFH)
- Tullgarn Palace
- Ulriksdal Palace
- Kalmar Castle
Royal Coat of Arms
The Coat of Arms of Skandinavia serves both as the coat of arms of the nation and of the Royal House.
The Kings and Queens of Skandinavia are addressed as 'Your Majesty', (Hans Majestet Kongen or Hennes Majestet Dronningen) whereas princes and princesses are referred to as 'His or Her Royal Highness' (Hans or Hennes Kongelige Høyhet).Those princes or princesses who have been separated from the line of succession are adressed as 'His or Her Highness' (Hans or Hendes Høyhet).
The titles of the King are: By the Grace of God, King of Skandinavia, King of Norway, Denmark, Sweden, Iceland, Greenland and Aland. King of Slesvig and Holstein, the Wends and the Goths.