Republic of Mutapa
Republiek van Mutapa
|Government||Federal parliamentary constitutional republic|
|January 17, 1852|
|May 31, 1902|
|January 10, 1948|
• Democratization and the current constitution
|April 27, 1994|
|1,268,756 km2 (489,869 sq mi)|
• 2020 estimate
• 2020 census
|GDP (PPP)||2019 estimate|
|Currency||Mutapan rand (R)|
|Time zone||Mutapan Standard Time|
|ISO 3166 code||MTP|
Mutapa, officially the Republic of Mutapa is the southernmost country in Africa. The capital city of the country is Pretoria while the largest city is Johannesberg. Most of the population of Mutapa are of Black African ancestry while the remaining population are of the European, Asian, and multiracial ancestry.
Mutapa is a federal republic following its parliamentary system. The President is the both head of state while the State Counselor is the head of government. The national legislature is the bicameral Volksraad, which divided into two chambers: Federal Council (upper house) and Federal Assembly (lower house).
Before it was colonized by Dutch and British, the country was already inhabited by the Black African groups such as Bantu, Xhosa, and many others. In 1652, the first European settlement was established by Jan van Riebeeck and the country became a Dutch colony. In 1795, the Dutch lost in the Battle of Muizenberg and it became a British colony. The South African Republic (also known as Transvaal Republic) was established in 1880 after the Republic defeated the British Empire in the First Boer War. The Transvaal Republic together with the other Boer republics and the British colonies of Cape of Good Hope, Natal, Lesotho and Swaziland are unified into a present-day Mutapa after the British lost to the Second Boer War. The United Party imposed apartheid in 1948 that institutionalized the racial segregation of the country. After a long and violent struggle by the Mutapan National Congress and other anti-apartheid activists, the racial segregation dissolved in the mid-80s. Since the leadership of Nelson Mandela, all ethnic groups have experienced equality in the countty.
Etymology[edit | edit source]
The country's present day was originated from Mwenemutapa. It derived as the combination of two words, Mwene meaning King or Lord and Mutapa meaning land. The land of southern Africa at that time was called Monomotapa by the Portuguese in 16th century.
History[edit | edit source]
Prehistory[edit | edit source]
Mutapa has some of the oldest archeological sites and human-fossil sites in the world. Archeoogists have recovered extensive fossil remains on the caves in Tshwane Province. The homonids in the country was already existed from about three million years ago, such as Australopithecus africanus. Modern humans have inhabited Mutapa for at least 170,000 years.
Pre-colonial period[edit | edit source]
Colonial history[edit | edit source]
Portuguese exploration[edit | edit source]
Dutch colonization[edit | edit source]
British colonization[edit | edit source]
South African Republic[edit | edit source]
Unification[edit | edit source]
Apartheid era[edit | edit source]
In 1948, the United Party was elected in power. It strengthened the racial segregtion of blacks and whites in the country. In this system of the social stratification, white citizens has the highest status, followed by Asians and Coloureds, then Black africans. The whites at that time enjoyed the highest standard of living while the blacks had disadvantaged towards their needs. As a result of the apartheid, the Mutapan provinces of Lesotho and Swaziland declared independence from Mutapa because they did not agree to the racial segregation.
Post-apartheid era and present day[edit | edit source]
Geography[edit | edit source]
Government and politics[edit | edit source]
Administrative divisions[edit | edit source]
Federal provinces[edit | edit source]
Autonomous province[edit | edit source]
Political parties[edit | edit source]
Mutapa is a multi-party state and the citizens aed 18 have the right to vote. The country has five major political parties that dominate national politics. These parties are United Democratic Movement, National Freedom Party, Christian Democratic Party, People's Nation Party, and Liberty Alliance.