National Union Party (Rainier)
|National Union Party|
|Leader||Rachel Baron MP|
|Deputy leader||James Hancock|
|Slogan||Serving the Nation|
|Founded||13th April 1934|
Old Barn House|
7 Sunthorn Road
|Youth wing||Young Nationals|
International Democrat Union |
American Conservative Coalition
|Official colours||Blue, red|
|House of Councillors|
|House of Senators|
The National Union Party abbreviated to NUP and colloquially known as the Tories is a conservative Rainian political party. Founded out of a merger between the Conservative Party and Liberal Party, it generally follows centre right policies.
The NUP was founded in 1933 following the General Strike, Prime Minister Edmund Chester Osborne oversaw the merging of the Conservative and Union parties to create an anti-socialist coalition. The NUP currently are the third largest opposition party the House of Councillors and the second largest party in the House of Senators.
Rise of the new right
The NUP officially names itself as adhering to conservatism, but has been described as straddling a wide range of centre-right politics from one-nation conservatism, new right and traditionalist conservatism. Political scientist John Anderson describes the NUP as a "fairly classic centre-right party of the Toryism, with a respect for tradition whilst also being cautiously accepting of reform". Never the less, the NUP have traditionally been identified with centre-right economic and socially conservative policies alongside support for agrarianism and the maintenance of Anglican Rainian culture.
When founded in 1934 the NUP largely was a ideologically heterogeneous mix of classical liberals centred in urban ares who supported industrialisation and free trade and tories in rural areas who supported agrarianism and protectionism. The party however broadly supported fiscal conservatism, anti-socialism and close ties with the United Kingdom..
The rise of the social democratic Labour Party in the 1940's and creation of a welfare state led the NUP to move to the political centre soon defining itself as a moderate, one-nation conservative party which supported ordoliberalism and a social market economy. As such throughout the 1950's-80's the NUP became associated with a moderate form of conservatism that championed Keynesian economics and pragmatic social policies, whilst being anti-socialist and staunchly against Soviet communism. However, a long period in opposition between 1981-1995 meant that the NUP went through vicious ideological debates, especially during the 1980's between the one-nation wing of the party and the neoliberal faction. Since the 1980's, the party has moved the right being in favour of neoconservatism.
The NUP today continues to identify as conservative, and is described as conforming to right-of-centre policies, being compared to the British Conservative Party and National Party of New Zealand in their centre-right politics. The NUP have most often advocated for conservative policies, although in recent years they have become more hawkish on foreign policy. Currently the party is split between those who advocate Keynesian economics (the left of the party, known as Red Tories) those who favour social conservatism and a hawkish foreign policy (the blue tories) and those who favour economic liberalism (the new right).
The NUP since its creations have been influenced by a strong belief in free markets and individual enterprise. During its existence the NUP has been influenced by various forms of economic liberalism - ordoliberalism amongst red Tories and neoliberalism amongst the new right.
Since the 1980's the NUP have broadly supported supply side economics, low taxation and limited intervention in the economy implementing privatisation and deregulation. However the NUP have more divided views on the issue of state spending and the size of the welfare state - under Fairbrook state spending increased and the government largely retained welfare programs started by Labour, whilst under Clarkson there has been a preference to cut state spending in line with the governments deficit reduction strategy.
Traditionally the party has strong links with the Christian right and has supported socially conservative views on immigration, climate change, abortion and gay marriage. Former leader Gerald Fairbrook called homosexuality "repulsive" in 1998 and under current leader Andrew Clarkson the party opposes gay marriage although has broadly retained Labour's civil union policy.
The NUP have rejected or downplayed the importance of global warming, and have supported fracking and greater energy production. The NUP have also supported tightening abortion laws as a "pro-life" party and stated support for teaching creationism in schools. However in recent years the NUP have been more left wing on social issues, with Andrew Clarkson calling the creationism debate "a non-issue" and that the NUP support abortion laws. Clarkson also said "all people, regardless of race, sexuality or religion should be allowed to participate in the National Union party".
The NUP reject state multiculturalism and promote "One Rainier" in line with their one-nation conservative principles. The NUP support much tighter immigration laws and assimilation, to the point some NUP lawmakers have been accused of xenophobia or racism. The party's national executive have said such instances are "exceptions not the rule" and that the NUP support an inclusive Rainier with sustainable immigration.
The NUP have traditionally been seen as a pro-British party, but have since World War Two been seen as being primarily supportive of the United Commonwealth. Nevertheless the NUP are seen as one of the firmest supporters of closer ties with members of the Commonwealth particularly the UK, Australia and New Zealand.Japan, Sierra and Rainier and the retention of Rainian military bases in Okinawa. The NUP were largely responsible for the Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security with Japan and Sierra in 1952 and has since been a firm supporter of closer economic and political ties with Japan. The NUP have also supported close links with other pacific nations such as South Korea, Tanjung, Australia and historically the Republic of China until the 1970's. The NUP remain more sceptical of China and has opposed the Chinese sponsored RCEP.
The NUP have generally been as neoconservative and support interventionism. Under the Fairbrook government the NUP approved Rainian intervention in the Iraq War and have since been in favour in intervention in the Middle East. The NUP currently support close ties with Israel, Saudi Arabia and Turkey and have been staunchly anti-Iran. The NUP has called for the overthrow of Syrian President Bashar al-Assad and has backed anti-Assad groups such as the Free Syrian Army.
The NUP have generally been less Atlanticist then the Labour party, with some members being critical of the European Union for maintaining regulated markets in Europe. Nevertheless the NUP have in recent years been supportive of post-communist state in Eastern Europe and have opposed Russian interventionism, with Andrew Clarkson in 2014 calling Vladimir Putin a "dictator undermining the stability of Europe". Nevertheless the NUP have consistently supported the United Kingdom.
The NUP is made up of several components; constituency parties, the parliamentary party, the Federal Executive Committee.
The highest body in the National Union Party is the Federal Executive Committee (FEC), which serves as the highest executive body in the NUP. The FEC is made up of 20 voting members and 5 non-voting members and is elected by party members with the exception of the party leader and deputy leader who are ex-officio voting members.
The leader is the most powerful individual of the NUP being elected by an electoral college of members, local councillors and the parliamentary party. This electoral college also elects the deputy leader.
Regional National Union Parties
The NUP contains within several distinct factions, often based around both ideological, regional and personalist differences within the party. When the party was founded it was divided between the former members of the Union and National parties, but quickly split between red tories and blue tories. During the 1980's a new faction the new right emerged within the party, albeit drawing influence from the liberal influences of the Union party. Although there is overlap between the factions generally members support similar policy prescriptions and ideas.
Red Tories trace their heritage back to the moderate wing of the National party and liberal members of the Union party. Ideologically red Tories are inspired by one-nation conservatism believing in paternalism and the concept of noblesse oblige, and to this extent support Keynesian economics, the welfare state and moderate social reform based on the principle on stability (sometimes criticised as being "Tory socialism"). On foreign affairs red Tories tend to be interventionist (albeit to a lesser extent than the new right) and are supportive of free trade.
The Red Tories were most powerful during the post-war period up until the 1980's with the governments of Edward Henderson and Frederick Joseph being classic examples of red Toryism. However modern day red Tories - such as former Prime Minister Gerald Fairbrook and former cabinet member Daniel Lee - tend to be more supportive of economic liberalism whilst defending the welfare state. Nevertheless red Tories often oppose greater privatisation or deregulation.
Blue tories are the oldest ideological faction within the NUP and are often associated with traditionalist conservatism. Ideologically blue tories support a form of Tory corporatism with an emphasis on fiscal conservatism, differing from the red Tories in their rejection of welfarism and the new right by lessening focus on tax cuts and free-market neoliberalism. Blue tories are also very socially conservative being closely aligned with the Christian right as well as being more non-interventionist in world affairs and heavily protectionist.
Blue Tories were most powerful in the early years of the party under Albert W. Moore, and retained influence especially over social policy during the post-war period. They regained prominence in the 1990's and early 2000's in social policy under Gerald Fairbrook.