New Mexico

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New Mexico
Nuevo Mexico
Region
Flag of New Mexico
Flag
Countries
Area
 • Total 315,199 km2 (121,699 sq mi)
Population (2018)
 • Total 2,472,605
 • DensityBad rounding here7.8/km2 (Bad rounding here20/sq mi)
Demographics
 • Ethnic groups
 • Languages English, Spanish, German, Southern Athabaskan
New Mexico (Spanish: Nuevo Mexico) is a geographic and historical region of Southwestern Anglo-America. The term "New Mexico" received its name prior to the independence of Mexico from Spain. It referred to the region immediately north of the Rio Grande and was later applied to the province of New Spain, the territory of Mexico, and the three contemporary New Mexican entities: West New Mexico (a Sierran territory subdivided into three municipalities), East New Mexico (a Brazorian region within the Pecos Province), and East Albuquerque, a Brazorian metropolitan province). Although the geographical extent of New Mexico's eastern boundaries are varied, most accept the historical Anglo-American survey of New Mexico during the American Civil War, defining the eastern border of the region at the 103° W longitude. The Rio Grande north of the Sierra–Brazoria–Mexico border and south of the Colorado region (along the 37° N parallel line) has been used to delineate the border shared between West New Mexico and East New Mexico. It borders the Sierran provinces of Apache, Cornerstone, and Sonora to the west, the Bajarian state of South Sonora and the Mexican state of Chihuahua to the south, the Brazorian province of Comanche, the Sierran territory of West Colorado and Brazorian territory of Ute to the north, and also shares the Four Corners with the Deseret area of Zion.

Prior to European exploration and conquest, New Mexico was inhabited by Amerindians including Ancestral Puebloans, Mogollon, Comanche, and Utes for several thousand years. In 1598, it was colonized by Spain and administered as a part of New Spain, an imperial viceroyalty established over the Americas. It became a Mexican territory after Mexico gained independence from Spain in 1824. Initially, New Mexico exercised an appreciable degree of autonomy but its relative independence from Mexico rapidly deteriorated during the Centralist administration, culminating in the Revolt of 1837. Anglo-American settlement increased in the region, leading to growing dependence on Anglo-America and its fellow Mexican territorial neighbors, California and Texas. During the Mexican-American War, as California and Texas both declared their independence from Mexico, the breakaway states, with the assistance of the United States, invaded and occupied New Mexico. Following the ratification of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, New Mexico was administered as a joint condominium between California and Texas (now known as Brazoria). The arrangement was temporary and disagreements over the extent of each other's territorial claims over New Mexico led to armed conflict between the two states in 1863. The conflict ended with the Treaty of Rio Grande which partitioned New Mexico into two separately controlled territories, using the Rio Grande in New Mexico to determine the border between the two states.

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