Orange

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 This article is a B-class article. It is written to a good standard. This article is part of Altverse II.
Province of Orange (en)
Naranja (es)
Orange (fr)
橙色省 (hn)
橙色省 (zh)
Tỉnh Trái Cam (vn)
오렌지 (kr)
オレンジ州 (ja)
Orange (de)
Province of Sierra
Flag of Orange Provincial seal of Orange
Flag Seal
Nickname(s): The Beach Province (official), The Boating Province, Orange Country, The Park Province, The Seagull Province, The Fisherman's Paradise, The Gated Province
Motto(s): Das Wasser fließt von Freiheit
(German: The water flows of freedom)
Provincial song(s): "Bountiful Shores"
Map of Orange
Official language(s) *Nationally recognized languages
Demonym Oranger
Capital St. Anne
Largest city Rothenburg
Area Ranked 21st
 • Total 948 sq mi
(2,460 km2)
Population Ranked 3rd
 • Total 7,228,845 (2010)
 • Density 7,625/sq mi  (2,938/km2)
Ranked 2nd
Elevation
 • Highest point Santiago Peak
5,689 ft (1,734 m)
 • Lowest point sea level
Admission to the Union August 1, 1901 (15th)
Lord Superintendent Timothy Sheraton
Governor Daniel Vo (R)
Lieutenant Governor James Crenshaw (R)
Legislature Orange Provincial Legislature
 • Upper house Orange Chamber of Councilors
 • Lower house Orange General Assembly
K.S. Senators Ryan Pimentel (R)
Mark Chan (R)
Amy Jeong (R)
K.S. House delegation 17 total commoners
8 Royalists
6 Democratic-Republicans
3 Christian Democrats
Time zone Pacific Time Zone
UTC –8/UTC –7
Abbreviations OR, OC, Ora., Oran.
CategoryTopics

Orange is a province located in the coastal region of southwestern Sierra. It is the second most populous province in the Kingdom and the second smallest province with a total area of only 984 square miles (2,460 square kilometers). It has the second largest population density in the country, after San Francisco. Its capital is St. Anne and its largest city is Rothenburg. The province was the 15th province to be admitted into the Kingdom, after the southernmost section of the Gold Coast was partitioned off on August 1, 1901.

Orange forms an integral part of the Southwest Corridor. The province is situated between the coastal plain of the Porciúncula Basin and the foothills of the Santa Ana Mountains. It shares land borders with the Gold Coast to the north; the Inland Empire to the east, and Laguna to the south. To its immediate west, Orange borders the Pacific Ocean through 42 miles of shoreline and shares maritime borders with the offshore Channel Islands.

The province was originally inhabited by the indigenous Tongva, Juaneño, and Luiseño peoples. The first known European presence in Orange were spearheaded by Spainish-Catalan explorer Gaspar de Portolà in 1769, followed by Franciscan friar Junípero Serra, who founded Mission San Juan Capistrano, the province's first permanent non-Amerindian settlement. Orange underwent rapid development and land use under the Spanish colonial government, as an extension of the heavier development further north around Porciúncula and off the coast on the Channel Islands through the French-Spanish Condominium.

After Mexico gained independence from Spain, the Mexican government seized ownership over mission lands from the Roman Catholic Church and converted the land into ranchos to be repurposed and sold to civilian settlers such as those under the Rancho Los Nietos system. The manner of granting large parcels of land to settlers became the defining political feature of early Orange history. Settlers in Orange played a minimal role during the Bear Flag Revolt and Mexican-American War. Orange was admitted into the California Republic as a county within the Gold Coast in 1848, and was later integrated into the Kingdom of Sierra in 1858. After remaining nearly 40 years as part of the province of the Gold Coast, Orange had acquired a large and distinct enough population to form its own province. Orange was formally incorporated as its own province on August 1, 1901. The province's predominantly agrarian-based economy transformed into a diversified economy that supported tourism, business, technology, and education. It became one of the most prominent centers during the Sierran Cultural Revolution, becoming one of the country's most ethnically diverse and linguistically pluralistic provinces by the 1970s.

Orange features a warm Mediterranean climate that results in warm, dry summers and cool, wet winters. Along the coast, the beachfront communities face milder weather year-round. Orange is dominated by two prevailing valleys: St. Anne Valley and Saddleback Valley against the backdrop of the Santa Ana Mountains, which defines Orange's borders with the neighboring Inland Empire. The Santa Ana River is the main watercourse which runs through Orange from the northeast and empties into the Pacific Ocean just south of Huntington Beach. The highest point in Orange is Santiago Peak, which stands at 5,689 feet (1,734 m), and can be seen at nearly every point in the province on clear, fair days.

Agriculture and oil extraction played a critical role in Orange's economic development. The construction and completion of various infrastructural projects including an irrigation system and a railroad system stimulated explosive population growth in the province. Its name and self-promoted image as a semi-tropical paradise contributed to its popularity to immigrants, particularly those from Anglo-America and Germany, whereby tens of thousands of families emigrated to Orange in search of job opportunities and warm weather. The Sierran Cultural Revolution and Great War I transformed Orange into a highly diversified economy with a multi-ethnic society. After Great War II, the housing market in Orange boomed. In the contemporary era, Orange's shift towards aerospace, manufacturing, and tourism has greatly altered the province's landscape from farm fields to that of urban sprawl. Today, Orange is home to a number of significant tourist attractions and points of interest including Disneyland Resort and Knott's Berry Farm. It is a major center for tourism, entertainment, retail, technology, education, fashion, telecommunications, sports, and business. The province's affinity with the beach as a coastal-dominated province spawned the prevalent surf culture in the region. Orange is also home to one of the Kingdom's wealthiest and most affluent neighborhoods, within reach of hundreds of retail businesses and beaches. It has the second highest median income in the country and is home to four of ten wealthiest counties and county-equivalents in the entirety of Anglo-America.

Etymology[edit | edit source]

Orange symbols
Flag of Orange.svg
Seal of Orange.svg
Living insignia
Amphibian Orange-bellied newt
Bird Anna's hummingbird
Butterfly Pale swallowtale
Crustacean Sierran spiny lobster
Fish Garibaldi
Flower Western wallflower
Mammal Bottlenose dolphin
Reptile Red-eared slider
Tree Palm tree
Inanimate insignia
Colors Orange, yellow
Motto Das Wasser fließt der Freiheit
Shell Kelp scallop
Ship HRMS Orange
Slogan Prosperity in every corner
Song Bountiful Shores
Sport Surfing
Provincial route marker
Orange route marker
Part of a series on the provinces, states, areas, and territories of Sierra
The land to the immediate south of Porciúncula including present-day Orange was referred to as Saintiana during the Spanish colonial period. The region had acquired an influx of French and Creole peoples, and was the mainland center of Francophones. The arrival of German settlers and German-speaking Anglo-Americans during the late 19th century created a distinct divide between the established Francophones to the northwest of the Santa Ana River and the newer Anglo-American and German settlers to the southeast of it. The discovery of silver in the Santa Ana Mountains and rich soil spurred immigration into the area, which land barons capitalized on. By the turn of the 20th century, there was a push among settlers towards independence from the urbanizing Gold Coast and capital city of Porciúncula. Legislators sympathetic to the cause successfully pushed for a bid to win the area independence from the Gold Coast in 1901.

The name Orange was named after the citrus fruit in an attempt to advertise the province's location and the ideal soil for growing crops. The name evoked the sense that the province was a tropical paradise that would yield profitable crops of any kind, especially the orange and similar citruses. When the province was admitted into the Kingdom, the official name read the "Province of Orange" and since then, its residents have been known as "Orangers".

Colloquially, residents of Orange and neighboring provinces refer to Orange as the "O.C.", which is an abbreviation for "Orange Country", an informal name for the province that was first ascribed during the early 1950s by real estate developers who wanted to emphasize its open-country land in direct contrast to the industrializing Gold Coast. Less common is the abbreviation "O.P.", which stands for "Orange Province".

Nicknames[edit | edit source]

Orange's official provincial nickname is "The Beach Province", which appears on province's online tourism website, tourism-related advertisements, its constitution, welcome signs, and vehicle registration plates. Although Orange only has 42 miles of coastline, no point in Orange is further than 24 miles from the ocean. More than two-thirds of Orange's population lives within 10 miles of the ocean and three major cities in Orange contain the word "beach" in their names (Aliso Beach, Huntington Beach, and Newport Beach). The relative small area of the province, local geography, climate, proximity to the ocean, and surfer culture have contributed to the province's association with beaches. Orange's beaches are among the most popular destinations with locals in the Southwest Corridor, especially during the months of summer, and attracts millions annually.

The acronym "OC" (alternatively stylized as "O.C.") is a common nickname used by both residents and non-residents to refer to the province. The term originates from its lesser-used backronym, Orange Country, which was a term invented by real estate developers and land barons during the 1950s. The name appended country to the province's name in an effort to emphasize the widespread availability of rural, open countryside which Orange offered that the neighboring Gold Coast ostensibly did not have any longer. The ploy was to attract more families to the area who sought to pursue an agricultural-based lifestyle or one that was independent from the "city-mindfulness" of the Gold Coast. The name became very popular during the 1960s and 1970s when the province experienced a real estate boom, before declining in usage in favor of its abbreviated form, OC, by the 1980s, due in part to a number of Hollywood television series and movies which were set in Orange and referred to the province as such.

Other nicknames used for the province include "The Boating Province" (Orange had the highest boat owners per capita in the country), "The Park Province" (the province boasts over 570 individual parks), "The Seagull Province", "The Fisherman's Paradise", and "The Gated Province" (pejoratively used in reference to the high concentration of gated communities in southern Orange).

The official provincial motto is German: Das Wasser fließt von Freiheit, which means "The water flows of freedom". It is the only German motto used for any PSA in the country, and is a reference to the Santa Ana River where Orange's early settlers lived nearby.

Geography[edit | edit source]

The Saddleback is formed by the Santiago Peak and Modjeska Peak and is a prominent geographic feature in Orange.

With a total area of 948 square miles (2,460 km2), Orange is the smallest province in the Kingdom in terms of geographic size. Orange is nestled in the center of the South Coast, a region in the Southwest Corridor. The province is situated between the coastal plains of the Porciúncula Basin to the northwest, the Pacific Ocean to the west, and the foothills of the Santa Ana Mountains to the southeast. Most of the populated parts of Orange lies within two shallow coastal valleys: the Santa Ana and the Saddleback Valleys.

The Santa Ana Mountains can be seen from the Newport Center in Newport Beach.

The Santa Ana Mountains define the eastern boundary of Orange with the Inland Empire and includes the Bachelor National Forest. The highest point in Orange and most prominent mountain of the Santa Ana Mountains is Santiago Peak, which stands at 5,689 ft (1,734 m). The Santiago Peak, alongside the Modjeska Peak (which is only 200 feet shorter), form a ridge known as the Saddleback, a geographic feature that can be seen at almost any point in the province, and can be seen further in the Gold Coast, Laguna, or the Inland Empire on exceptionally clear days.

Orange boasts about 42 miles of beaches and shoreline, including the ones depicted here in Point Dana.

The Peralta Hills and Loma Ridge are other notable raised geographic features that lie to the west of the Santa Ana Mountains. The former branches off of the Mountains while the latter runs parallel to the range near the central region of the province and separated by the Santiago Canyon.

The Santa Ana River is the province's primary source of freshwater and runs through the center of the province from the northeast to the southwest where it flows into the Pacific Ocean. Other rivers, tributaries, streams, and other watercourses flowing through the province include the Aliso Creek, Coyote Creek, San Juan Creek, and Horsethief Creek. A small portion of the San Gabriel River crosses through Orange from the Gold Coast in the north before reaching the sea between Grands Ballons and [[Pinnipède Landing, Orange|Pinnipède Landing}}. The only naturally occurring lakes in the province are found in Laguna Beach in the estuary marshlands, which were formed from water pushed up by the pressure of an underwater fault. The three other large bodies of water include Irvine Lake, Lake Mission Viejo, and Sulphur Creek Reservoir, all three which were manmade and planned.

Climate[edit | edit source]

June Gloom conditions in Pinnipède Landing during a morning in June 2013.

As with the rest of southwestern Sierra, Orange features a Mediterranean climate with warm, dry summers and mild, wet winters. With a Köppen climate classification of Csb, Orange experiences relatively milder and consistent year-round compared to the inland provinces due to its proximity to the ocean. Orange is subject to relatively dry conditions for much of the year, due in part to its location near the subtropical ridge and location on he eastern end of the Pacific oceanic basin. The variation in temperature between the seasons is less extreme in areas closest to the ocean than most Mediterranean climates with the temperatures on average, being a consistent 70 degrees year-round. The milder temperatures are especially pronounced within 10 miles of the coast, which lead to conditions typical of an oceanic climate. In the summer, average high temperatures generally peak at 79 degrees Fahrenheit, compared to further inland where temperatures may reach to the 100s. Inland areas experience temperature variations and highs more typical of Mediterranean climates, and heat waves may occur a few times throughout the year, especially during the late summer months. Snow is exceedingly rare in Orange at elevations below 4,000 feet. When snow does occur during strong storm systems, it is generally limited to the highest peaks of the Santa Ana Mountains.

On average, Orange receives a precipitation of 13 inches with an average of 278 days of sunshine. The amount of rainfall varies from year to year, and is subject to the global weather phenomena, including the alternating, irregular cycle between El Niño and La Niña, which can produce drier or wetter than average years respectively. During the late spring and early summer, Orange, like much of the rest of southwestern Sierra, may experience a daily marine layer known as "Gray May" or "June Gloom" (named so for its frequent occurrence during the months two ) that forms in the morning and dissipates by noontime.

From time to time, especially during the summer in the higher, drier elevations, wildfires may start and pose a threat to nearby communities. During the fall, the infamous Santa Ana Winds may occur, further increasing the chances of wildfires and fueling any existing ones. The Santa Ana Winds are strong, dry katabatic winds which originate from the Great Basin in the Inland Empire. The winds travel in a generally southwest direction, towards Orange and into the Pacific Ocean. During the wintertime, when rainfall typically picks up, mudslides and flash floods may occur, especially in recently burned areas that were affected during the preceding wildfire season.

Ecology[edit | edit source]

Flora and fauna[edit | edit source]

The Sierra buckwheat (Eriogonum fasciculatum) is a native species of flowering shrub.

Orange hosts a diverse community of plants that include over several dozens of species which are endemic to the region. The native species of flowering plants, trees, and shrub that grow in the province have adaptive characteristics that reflect the local climate and geography. Orange's floristic community is classified as a Sierra coastal sage and chaparral ecoregion. The extent, size, and growing patterns of many native species grow according to generally semi-arid conditions and relatively limited amount of precipitation the province experiences. Orange's natural flora includes the coastal-growing Sierra sagebush (Artemisia serra), the brittlebush (Encelia serra), Sierra buckwheat (Eriogonum fasciculatum), and the Munz's sage (Salvia munzii). Succulents such as the Sealettuce (Dudleya caespitosa) and yucca grow along the coast of Orange.

Further inland in the mountains, in the Mediterranean forest environment, conifers such as the sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana), the ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), and Jeffrey pine (Pinus jeffreyi) grow in abundance. Many of these trees grow in the federally protected Bachelor National Forest, which protects the vegetation from unauthorized logging or burning by commercial interests, local governments, or private citizens.

The Sierra gull (Larus serra) is a common sight in Orange and while normally found on the beach, can be miles further inland from the sea.

Orange is also home to a diverse community of wildlife that are adapted to the province's environment and climate. Reptiles and amphibians such as the Western field lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis), Speckled rattlesnake (Crotalus mitchellii), the Sierra tree frog (Pseudacris cadaverina), and the red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans) are commonly found in the thick vegetation and wetlands in the province. Birds such as the Great egret (Ardea alba), green heron (Butorides virescens), and brown pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis) typically inhabit the estuaries along the Santa Ana River and along the beaches. The Sierra gull (Larus serra) is one of the many seagulls known to inhabit Orange and although the birds are typically found at the beaches, the gulls can be found further inland, as far as 80 miles from the ocean. Birds of prey including the red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) and Cooper's hawk (Accipiter cooperii) also call Orange their home. The majority of native terrestrial mammals are rodents and members of the Carnivora order including coyote (Canis latrans), long-tailed weasel (Mustela frenata), eastern gray squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis), and dusky-footed woodrat (Neotoma fuscipes macrotis).

History[edit | edit source]

A drawing depicting a standard hut of the Juaneños or the "Acjachemen".

Pre-Sierran period[edit | edit source]

Prior to European contact, the indigenous natives of Orange included the Tongva, Juaneño, and Luiseño Indians who lived and organized themselves into tribal communities or clans with their own governments and religions. Making use of their land and resources, the Indians traded each other with a barter system, fished with boats, and ate diets consisting primarily of soup, cakes, and bread utilizing game, berries, nuts, and fish. The Juaneños, whose living self-identified descendants call themselves Acjachemen, lived in cone-shaped huts made out of willow tree branches with tule roofing and flooring.

The first documented European presence in Orange occurred when Spanish-Catalan explorer Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan friar Junípero Serra explored and traveled through the province in 1769. During their trip, they named future capital Santa Ana, Valle de Santa Ana (Valley of Santa Ana) and continued northward, heading to Monterey. Following the trip, the Spanish established Mission San Juan Capistrano, as part of the larger Spanish mission system in the new Spanish colony of Alta California. This development brought Spanish settlers in, who began settling in the province. French settlement in the Channel Islands and the Sierran mainland encouraged an influx of additional settlers from France and other parts of the European colonial empires. The arrival of African and mestizo laborers led to the development of Sierran Creole culture, and the region came to be known as Saintiana.

Two men from the Portolá expedition, José Manuel Nieto and José Antonio Yorba, were given large land grants: the Rancho Los Nietos and Rancho Santiago de Santa Ana, respectively. The descendants of the men would own additional ranchos, and encouraged other Spaniards to lay stake in the province. The ranchos system revolved around individual owners and their families who managed their land and used it for cattle farming and grazing. Ranchos varied in size, largely depending on the status and wealth of the owners. Measured by leagues (about 4,428 acres), most ranchos were no larger than 2 square leagues although the Rancho Los Nietos was about 10 square leagues.

The remnants of the Spanish Mission San Juan Capistrano have been preserved by the K.S. Register of Historic Sites and is open to the public as a museum.

In 1821, Mexico gained independence from Spain and consequently gained the territorial rights to Orange and the rest of present-day Sierra. Although the Mexican government retained the Spanish rancho system, the missions were confiscated from the Church and sold to the public due to the new nation's official secular policy.

In 1846, the Mexican-American War broke out at a time when the Californios and American settlers in Orange and the rest of the territory grew disoriented and resentful toward the Mexican government. The Californios desired greater autonomy and independence from Mexico City while the Americans yearned to live freely uninhibited by a "foreign", hostile government. When the Bear Flag Revolt broke out up north in Sonoma, residents in Orange responded to the news by rebelling against local Mexican authorities through an armed resistance. Although Orange never saw any significant battles within its territory, it was pivotal in the logistics and movement of both the rebels (who were supported by the Americans) and the Mexican government.

Early Sierran period[edit | edit source]

Through the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, California gained independence in 1848 from Mexico and Orange became the "State of Orange". The Republic, which would last for only 10 years, eventually reformed as the Kingdom of Sierra through the promulgation of the 1858 Constitution. Under this new constitution, Orange became a county of the province of the Gold Coast. Orange remained a largely backwater county in the Gold Coast as development was focused in Northern Sierra and the Gold Coast. After the Sierran Civil War, national politics and economic activity shifted southwards from San Francisco City to Porciúncula, which provided opportunities for growth in Orange.

With the Gold Coast growing rapidly, population spillover and immigrants from around the world arrived to Orange for its ideal weather conditions, idyllic geographic location, and excellent farming viability. Profiting off of the name "Orange", the province was particularly popular among Asian immigrants who were lured in with the prospects of affordable housing and limitless economic opportunity.

Orange's agricultural success warranted attention from the national government, and under the Royal Agricultural Subsidy Act of 1878, farms and ranches in Orange alongside Central Valley, received thousands of dollars to specialize in crops and convert family plots into large commercial farms. The success of this subsidy was meant with limited success in Orange and exacerbated further when a severe drought struck the province. The drought and loss in confidence crippled although did not completely devastate Orange's progress and economic prospects. In the 1887, silver was discovered in the Santa Ana Mountains, thus reinvigorating the province at a time where farming and ranching yielded more profits than pre-drought production.

Early 20th-century[edit | edit source]

While the Gold Coast shifted away from farming towards heavy industry, Orange remained heavily dependent on agriculture and oil extraction. Nonetheless, towns such as Santa Ana, Anaheim, and the capital, Orange, ballooned in population. In 1904, the Pacific Electric Railway was completed, connecting Santa Ana to the Gold Coast city of Santa Monica, boosting population flow and travel.

During the Sierran Cultural Revolution, Orange became an increasingly multicultural province. Despite being near the epicenter of the Revolution, Orange witnessed significant racial unrest between whites, Hispanics, Asians, blacks, and Creoles. Lynchings and mob-related violence were prevalent, compelling the federal government to send National Guard and Purpleshirt forces on multiple occasions. The nadir of racial relations occurred in 1926 at the height of the Approbatio when the St. Anne Chinatown was torched and the resultant fires destroyed nearly half the city.

The addition of highways and growing interest in Orange as a beach vacation destination increased development in the province and appeal. Following Great War I, Orange transformed from being an agrarian society to an industrial economy centered on manufacturing and industry. Cheap housing, diverse venues, and fair weather were cited as key factors to Orange's exceptional population growth during Great War II and afterwards. The opening of the Disneyland Resort in 1955 marked Orange's ascension as the primary tourist hub in the southwestern Sierran region. Other attraction parks such as Knott's Berry Farm and Disneyland's extension park, Sierra Adventure were later constructed, increasing variety.

Migration from Northern Sierra during The Disturbances significantly increased the population of Orange. During the Cold War, refugees from North and South Vietnam, as well as the Andes fleeing from war arrived in Orange, which became one of the prime destinations for Sierra-bound immigrants.

Contemporary era[edit | edit source]

Since the 1980s, Orange has remained the choice destination for tourists for its beaches, attractions, and landscape. Although the housing market remains prominent in the province, in recent years, people have gravitated towards neighboring province, the Inland Empire, where there is more land and cheaper housing. In addition, Orange's cost-of-living, especially in the southeastern region, has increased dramatically. Much of this has been evidenced by the growing prominence of Orange's most affluent neighborhoods in the southeast and homelessness in the northwest (which had been the historic population center of the province).

Demographics[edit | edit source]

Businesses and malls such as the Phước Lộc Thọ (Asian Garden Mall) in Sarangnha's Little Saigon signify the strong presence of the Asian community in Orange.

The Sierra Royal Bureau of Census estimates that the population of Orange in July 2015 is 7,436,926. In the 2010 census, 7,228,845 people were counted as citizens of Orange. Orange receives heavy immigration from Asia and substantial flow from Latin America. Orange's domestic migration rate has, in recent years, slowed however, with citizens moving out, mostly to the Inland Empire, or prospective buyers choosing said province, where housing is more affordable.

Racial and ancestral makeup[edit | edit source]

Orange has the highest concentration and second largest population of Asian Sierrans, and second largest Hispanic and white populations.

Religion[edit | edit source]

Religious affiliation in Orange
Affiliation % of Sierra population
Christian 67 67
 
Protestant/Evangelical 46 46
 
Catholic 18 18
 
Eastern Orthodox 1 1
 
Other Christian 1 1
 
Other Faith 14 14
 
Unaffiliated 12 12
 
Don't know/refused answer 1 1
 
Total 100 100
 

About 67% of Orange residents identify themselves as Christian with 46% as Protestant or Evangelic, 18% Catholic, 1% Eastern Orthodox, and 1% another denomination or church. The largest religious Christian denomination by number of adherents is the Roman Catholic Church with 18% of the province. The Church's local body is represented by the Diocese of Orange. The next largest churches are the independent Evangelical churches, Baptists, Seventh-day Adventists, Mormons, Restorationists.

The next largest group are the irreligious (which includes atheists, agnostics, antitheists, and apatheists) who comprise of 12% of the population. The largest non-Christian religion is Buddhism at 6% with the Mahayana branch as the largest (accounting up to 90% of Orange's Buddhists). Orange also has significant Canaanite, Muslim, Jain, Sikh, and Hindu communities.

Languages[edit | edit source]

The official languages of the province include the nine languages recognized nationally (English, Spanish, Chinese, Vietnamese, Korean, Thai, Tagalog, Japanese, and Serran), thus requiring all official government documents in the province to be published with all of the aforementioned languages. The push for the inclusion of Persian as one of the province's official languages has grown in recent years. Persian, which is the province's sixth most spoken language, claims nearly 5% of the population with 361,442 speakers.

Approximately 45% of the population (3,252,980) spoke English as their primary language at home in 2010. The second most commonly spoken language at home was Spanish. The third most spoken language in Orange is Vietnamese, followed by Korean, Chinese, and Persian. Orange has the largest concentration of Cambodian, Hmong, and Vietnamese speakers; the second largest concentration of Persian, Russian, Korean, Tagalog, and Thai; and third largest concentration of Chinese speakers.

Culture[edit | edit source]

A view of the Huntington Beach Pier from air.

A coastal province that has attracted millions of immigrants, Orange's culture has been profoundly influenced by Asian and Latin American culture. Contemporary Orange has been depicted as idyllic, lofty, and laid-back with its weather, real estate, and access to various beaches, venues, activities, and points of interests. The summer is strongly associated to Orange where the province is the ideal choice for beachgoers and tourists alike. The Sierran surfer culture developed in Orange where surfing has been very popular among locals. The world-famous Huntington Beach is a hot spot for surfers both professional and casual. "The Wedge", located on the tip of the Balboa Peninsula in Newport Beach is commonly cited as one of the world's best and most famous surfing sites. Other activities such as volleyball, bonfire gatherings, yacht sailing, bicycling, and snorkeling are also popular choices on the beach.

Art and literature[edit | edit source]

Music[edit | edit source]

Sports[edit | edit source]

Due to Orange's geographic location near the ocean and its year-round sunny climate, the province has been ideal for a wide range of sports. Its beaches allow surfing, swimming, sailing, jetskiing, and volleyball, with accommodation bicycle routes. The Santa Ana Mountains and other geographic features within Orange also offer residents and visitors a chance to mountain bike, hike, or rock climb. During the winter, skiing and snowboarding is approximately an hour and a half hours away in the Inland Empire at Big Bear and Lake Arrowhead.

The two major league sports in the province are the Porciúncula Angels of Anaheim (MLB) and the Anaheim Ducks (NHL) which are both based in Anaheim. The Angels have won the World Series once in 2002 World Series against the San Francisco Giants while the Ducks won the Stanley Cup in 2007 against the New Jersey Devils.

Huntington Beach is the host city for several major sport venues among these including the Pacific Open of Surfing, the AVP Pro Beach Volleyball, and the Vans World Championship of Skateboarding. The Toshiba Classic, a golfing event part of the PGA Champions Tour, is held every March in Newport Beach.

Surf culture[edit | edit source]

Economy[edit | edit source]

Jamboree Center in downtown Irvine

Orange is home to a vibrant, lucrative amount of businesses and corporations. The headquarters of several Fortune 500 companies, Orange is also home to the most start-up companies in the Kingdom including music group O.P. Entertainment. Heavily reliant on the services sector, the aerospace industry, manufacturing, and tourism, Orange's eased regulations and low corporate tax rates as well as competitive real estate has made the province an attractive location for businesses.

Orange's technological sector is particularly strong in the Irvine metropolitan area where companies such as computer manufacturer Gateway Inc., router manufacturer Linksys, video game creator and producer Blizzard Entertainment, and in-flight entertainment manufacturer Panasonic Avionics Corporation are based. Orange is also home to several regional headquarters of international companies including Toyota, Samsung, Kia Motors, Hyundai, and Toshiba.

Tourism[edit | edit source]

Tourism and retail are Orange's vital strengths to its economy. Disregarding the beaches, the city of Anaheim is the main tourist hub for Orange, most notably for being home to the Disneyland Resort which includes two theme parks: Disneyland and Disney Sierra Adventure. In addition to the Disneyland Resort, the city of Buena Park is home to Orange's other significant theme parks: Knott's Berry Farm and Knott's Soak City. The Anahiem Convention Center is one of the region's largest and busiest exhibition centers and hosts several major venues and events annually. Beach resorts and recreational parks are other major attractions that bring in millions of guests yearly.

Agriculture[edit | edit source]

Business[edit | edit source]

Housing and real estate[edit | edit source]

Taxation and budget[edit | edit source]

Infrastructure[edit | edit source]

Energy[edit | edit source]

One of the largest provinces in the Kingdom in terms of electrical consumption, Orange receives the majority of electrical supply from one in-province nuclear plant and three in neighboring provinces. Private use of solar panels are comparatively higher in the region than other provinces with 1 out of 3 households in the province owning one or multiple solar panels to power their own homes. Coal and natural gas are also used to support the province's energy use. Although parts of Orange sits atop oil fields of the Porciúncula Basin, Orange's high dependence on oil is satisfied through imports from foreign countries.

Freeways[edit | edit source]

Major highways[edit | edit source]

Rail and public transit[edit | edit source]

Orange's public rail and transit system is provided by Sierrail while the commuter rail system is managed by the Metrolink, which links major cities from Orange to the Gold Coast, the Inland Empire, and Laguna. Stations established include those in Anaheim, Tustin, Buena Park, and Laguna Niguel. The Pacific Surfliner (managed by Sierrail) is a passenger train that runs through eight stations in Orange and travels from San Luis Obispo, Kings to San Diego, Laguna.

A streetcar line has been proposed to link major attractions within Anaheim including Disneyland and the Angels Stadium. A plan to extend the line beyond the city to other towns has also been considered since 2011.

Airports[edit | edit source]

File:Queen Elizabeth International Airport.jpg
The Queen Elizabeth International Airport and vicinity from the sky.

The Queen Elizabeth International Airport (QAA) is Orange's only major and commercial airport and is the second busiest airport in the region (with nearly 9 million passengers in 2008) after the Porciúncula International Airport (LAX) in the Gold Coast. Queen Angelina is located in an unincorporated land adjacent to the cities of Newport Beach and Costa Mesa. There are only two other airports in Orange, these being: the general aviation Fullerton Municipal Airport (FUL) in Fullerton and the Los Alamitos Army Airfield (SLI) in Los Alamitos.

Seaports[edit | edit source]

The Balboa Island Car Ferry is a ferry service based in Newport Beach that docks every 5 minutes, allowing passengers to move from the mainland to Balboa Island. The Catalina Flyer and the Catalina Express are the primary connection links between the mainland and Avalon with daily round trips throughout most of the year. Aside from the Balboa Peninsula in Newport Beach, Point Dana is the only other major port in the province and it mostly accommodates small sailboats and yachts.

Water[edit | edit source]

Orange receives and depends on most of its water intake (over 70%) from the Orange Groundwater Basin, not the ocean. Water from the Santa Ana River as controlled by the Inland Empire-based Prado Dam is used to replenish this underground supply. The ongoing drought crisis affecting the entire Kingdom has threatened the basin's supply and has forced citizens to reduce water intake by as much as 40%.

Government and politics[edit | edit source]

Overview[edit | edit source]

Run by a semi-republican form of government, Orange's government is divided into three branches: the Executive, the Legislative, and the Judicial. The governor of Orange heads the executive branch and is charged with signing or vetoing legislation, appointing judicial and civil positions, granting pardons, assembling an annual provincial budget, and commanding the Orange National Guard. The current governor of Orange is Daniel Vo, a Royalist from Westminster. The executive branch also includes the Lieutenant Governor, Attorney General, Comptroller, Treasurer, Superintendent of Education, and Historian.

Executive[edit | edit source]

As part of the Kingdom, Orange falls under the realm of the Crown, and shares the Crown co-equally with the rest of the provinces. The Monarch is represented in Orange by the Lord Superintendent, an official appointed by the Monarch (with the counsel of the Governor), who is responsible for carrying out all the ceremonial functions of the Monarch when the latter is not within the province, or is unable to execute their duties in a given circumstance.

Legislative[edit | edit source]

The Orange Provincial Legislature is a bicameral legislature composed of two chambers; the Chamber of Councilors and the General Assembly. The legislature has a total of 200 seats with the Chamber of Councilors having 50 and the General Assembly having 150. Like most provinces, Orange uses the Anglo-American federal system with, though each session lasts a total of four years with mid-term elections being held once every two years. Electoral districts are drawn in similar matters to those for parliamentary seats and the responsibility is handled by the provincial legislature specifically the Legislative District Boundary Committee. Since the 1980s, the Royalists and Libertarians have dominated in both chambers with the Democratic-Republicans making up the opposition, though the latter has grown in recent years.

Judicial[edit | edit source]

The judicial branch is headed by the Supreme Court of Orange which is composed of a chief justice and four associate justices. The Court is the only authority in the province with the power to interpret Orange constitutional matters and its decisions on binding on all lower courts in Orange. Its members are appointed by the governor and confirmed by the Provincial Legislature and may serve an unlimited amount of 6-year terms.

Law[edit | edit source]

Counties, cities, and towns[edit | edit source]

Political party strength and ideologies[edit | edit source]

Orange is a traditionally conservative province and has been a known Royalist and Libertarian stronghold with both parties having dominated provincial politics since the 1980s, though many Democratic-Republicans have been elected governor and have held positions of authority in the past. The Royalists are largely centered in the south and center of the province and the Libertarians are centered in the same areas as well. The Democratic-Republicans meanwhile have largely been centered in the north and many coastal cities. The Democratic-Republicans are largely based in the north due to the strong presence of working-class and blue-collar citizens who largely lean Dem-Rep thus their districts are blue. The Social Democrats and Greens are also centered in similar areas, though in recent years the Social Democrats and progressive Democratic-Republicans have gained seats in the center of the province. In recent years, the Christian Democrats have become a rising force and have carved out electoral enclaves in various parts of the southeast.

Federal and CAS representation[edit | edit source]

Education[edit | edit source]

Education is an issue relegated to the provinces by the federal government and as such, public education and education standards are managed by the Orange Department of Education.

Primary and secondary schools[edit | edit source]

Colleges and universities[edit | edit source]

Colleges

Universities

Symbols[edit | edit source]

See also[edit | edit source]