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Pacífico Norte

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State of Pacífico Norte
Estado de Pacífico Norte (es)
دولة شمال المحيط الهادئ (ar)
State of Bajaría
Flag of Pacífico Norte Provincial seal of Pacífico Norte
Flag Seal
Nickname(s): Tierra Libre y Soberano
Free and Sovereign Land
Motto(s): Libre y soberano, bravo y laborioso
(Free and sovereign, brave and laborious)
Map of Pacífico Norte
Map of Pacífico Norte
Official language(s) Spanish, English, Arabic
Demonym Nortepacíficano(s) (North Pacificans)
Capital Salsipuedes
Largest city Tijuana
Area Ranked 7th
 • Total 27,590 sq mi
(71,450 km2)
Population Ranked 10th
 • Total 3,332,455 (2020)
 • Density 120.78/sq mi  (46.64/km2)
Ranked N/A
Elevation
 • Highest point Picacho del Diablo
10,157 ft (3,096 m)
 • Lowest point Laguna Salada
33 ft (10 m)
Admission to the Union March 6, 2021 (42nd)
Lord Superintendent Marco Bonifaz Magón
Governor Alejandro Arellano Torres (PCU)
Lieutenant Governor José Ramiro Blasquez Sabah (PCU)
Legislature Pacífico Norte Legislature
 • Upper house Senate
 • Lower house Chamber of Delegates
K.S. Senators Joel Cruz Ruiz (PCU)
Karla Reyes Angélica (PCU)
Ernesto Treviño Martinez (PCU)
K.S. House delegation 14 total commoners
6 Conservative Unionists
4 Progressive Democrats
3 Democrats
1 Social Unionist
Time zone PST/PDT
UTC –8/UTC –7
Abbreviations PN, KS-PN, PN, PAN
CategoryTopics

Pacífico Norte, officially the State of Pacífico Norte (Spanish: Estado de Pacífico Norte, Arabic: دولة شمال المحيط الهادئ) is a state of Bajaría, located on the northern half of the Baja California peninsula. It, alongside Pacífico Sur, South Sonora, Cancún, and Mérida form Bajaría, a constituent country of the Kingdom of Sierra. Bajaría was formerly known as El Norte, a disputed region between Sierra and Mexico. Its capital is Mexierra while its largest city is Tijuana, which sits along the Pacífico Norte–Laguna border. It and San Diego form the San Diego–Tijuana metropolitan area, one of the world's largest in terms of population. Other major cities include Salsipuedes, Ensenada, Tecate, and Rosarito. The official state languages are Spanish, English, and Arabic, with the former the most prevalent. It is the 7th largest PSA by total area and the 10th most populous in the Kingdom.

Pacífico Norte and Pacífico Sur were originally part of Mexico's Baja California. Sparsely inhabited at the time, Pacífico Norte was seized by insurrectionist Californians who revolted against Mexican rule during the Mexican-American War. Following the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga, Mexican control over California was informally rescinded. Sensing Mexico's near defeat, Californian and American troops invaded the Baja California peninsula, forced the Mexican authorities to capitulate, and occupied it until the war's end. Through the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, Mexico officially recognized California's independence and also recognized California's sovereign control over the Baja California peninsula and the Sonoran region in 1848. In 1858, California reformed into Sierra, and the new constitution officially listed Pacífico Norte as one of the Kingdom's territories. In 2021, voters across El Norte including Pacífico Norte approved measures to confederate the El Norte territories as one country (Bajaría), with the intention of joining the Kingdom as incorporated territory. On March 6, 2021, Pacífico Norte became a Bajarian state and became the 42nd PSA of the Kingdom.

Pacífico Norte shares its northern borders with Federal Sierra (with the Sierran provinces of Laguna, Imperial, and Sonora) and its southern border with Pacífico Sur. It shares its eastern land border with South Sonora, while the Gulf of California (Sea of Cortez) divides it from the rest of South Sonora, as well as Mexico further southeast. On the western side, it borders the Pacific Ocean. The Sierra de San Pedro Mártir is a major mountain range which includes Piancho del Diablo, the state's highest peak. As the most prominent geographic formation in the state, the mountain range divides the state into separate weather patterns. The northwest is semi-dry and features a Mediterranean climate while the central part of the state is more humid due to altitude. The southern part of the state is much drier as it transitions into the Vizcaíno Desert. In addition to the peninsular mainland, the state includes a number of islands. The westernmost point for both the state and Bajaría is Guadalupe Island. Other significant islands include Coronado Islands, Todos Santos islands, and Cedros Island on the Pacific coast and Angel de la Guarda Island in the Sea of Cortez.

The state is one of the most diverse in the Kingdom and the country. While Spanish-speaking Mestizos constitute the majority ethnic group in the state (most of whom self-identify as Mexican), it includes significant communities of Europeans including Spaniards, Middle Easterns, East Asians, and indigenous Amerindians. There is also a significant population of Latin Americans outside of Mexico including Central Americans.

Etymology

Pacífico Norte is the Spanish form of "North Pacific". Historically, Pacífico Norte was known as Baja California (Lower California) when it was a territory of Mexico. "California" was used to refer to both the peninsula and the land north of what is now the Kingdom of Sierra. Californian lands north of Baja California was referred to as Alta California (Upper California) to differentiate the Californias. Pacífico Norte retained the name "Baja California" even after its land was transferred to the Californians through the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. It was finally renamed to its current name under the new Kingdom and constitution which officially referred to the territory as Pacífico Norte as an indication of the Kingdom's departure from its association as California. Although politically, Pacífico Norte and its sister territory, Pacífico Sur were renamed, geographically, the peninsula the two are located on continue to be referred to as the "Baja California peninsula" as opposed to the "Pacífico Peninsula" by both official sources and by the public.

History

Pacífico Norte has been inhabited by humans for at least 11,000 years. The inhabitants were primarily Yuman-speaking Amerindians or the Cochimí. The largest group of Yuman-speaking Amerindians in the region were the Killwa, Paipai, Kumeyaay, Cocopa, and Quechan. The indigenous natives lived hunter–gatherer lifestyles, although some Amerindian communities shifted towards a more sedentary lifestyle. Notably, the Cochimí on Cedros Island had a strong maritime economy. In the northeastern part of the state, the Cocopa and Quechan developed agricultural-based societies that utilized floodwater from the floodplain of the lower Colorado River. Another group of Amerindians known as the Guachimis were responsible for Sierra de Guadalupe cave paintings near Rancho La Trinidad, Mulegé in Pacífico Sur, and are known to have inhabited the peninsula between 100 BC and 1300 AD.

European exploration and colonization began in 1539 with the arrival of Spaniard Francisco de Ulloa. De Ulloa explored both the eastern and western coast of the Baja California peninsula and reached as far north as Cedros Island. In 1540, Hernando de Alarcón explored further north along the peninsula's eastern coast and traveled up the Colorado River. In 1542, Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo explored the rest of the peninsula's western coast and continued northward along the Sierran mainland coast. With the exception of Sebastián Vizcaíno's survey in 1602, European activity in the peninsula remained dormant until 1697 when the Jesuits founded a permanent mission in Loreto in present-day Pacífico Sur. The Spaniards gradually expanded northward through a series of explorations and missions, eventually establishing the first European settlement in Pacífico Norte with Misión Santa Gertrudis in 1752. Two missions were later founded: Misión San Francisco Borja and Misión Santa María de los Ángeles. In 1768, the Spanish Empire expelled Jesuits from New Spain, including those ministering in Baja California. The Franciscans briefly administered the missions in the Jesuits' place from 1668 to 1773, and managed to open another mission: Misión San Fernando Rey de España de Velicatá. In 1769, Baja California became the base for the Spanish expedition team led by Gaspar de Portolà and Junípero Serra, whose objective was to explore and missionize Alta California. In 1773, the Dominicans assumed control over the missions in the Baja California and established a newer network of missions in northernmost sections of the peninsula. In 1804, the Spanish Crown formally divided California into Alta California and Baja California to distinguish the jurisdictions of the Franciscans and Dominicans in the region.

In 1821, Mexico gained independence from Spain. Under Mexican rule, Baja California's missions were officially secularized in 1833 due to liberal concerns that the Catholic Church had become too influential and powerful in Mexican politics. The mission lands seized by the state government were then auctioned off or sold as land grants to private buyers to encourage settlement and development. In 1846, the Mexican–American War began between Mexico and the United States, as well as the self-declared republics of California and Texas.

Geography

Climate

Flora and fauna

Government and politics

Pacífico Norte is a state of Bajaría, which is classified as a PSA under Kingdom law. It is headed by the Lord Superintendent of Pacífico Norte, who is the formal viceregal representative of the Queen. The Lord Superintendent is the territory's head of state, although their role and function is limited to largely ceremonial ones. They are appointed by the Queen and serve at Her Royal Majesty's pleasure. The head of government is the Governor, who is elected by their own peers from the Parliament of Pacífico Norte based on confidence and supply.

Political parties and elections

Municipalities and cities

Law enforcement and crime

Taxation and budget

Federal and CAS representation

Demographics

Ethnic groups

Languages

Religion

Economy

Culture

The culture of Pacífico Norte is based predominantly on Mexican and Bajarian culture, which are based on a blend of European (mostly Spanish) and Amerindian (Nahuatl) cultures, and influenced by Anglo-American culture, particularly mainland Sierran, and some West African, East Asian, and Middle Eastern cultures as well. Like much of the PSAs in the Kingdom, Pacífico Norte's population is relatively recent in terms of settlement, with the overwhelming majority arriving to the state no more than three to four generations ago. The majority of settlers arrived from Mexico, Spain, or Sierra, whose primary tongue was Spanish. Subsequent immigration from other parts of the world, as well as other linguistic speakers from mainland Sierra contributed to the state's cultural evolution. Modern Pacífico Norte is one of the most culturally diverse states in Bajaría, which is especially prominent in its most populated places, including Tijuana, Ensenada, Salsipuedes, and Mexierra. As a predominantly Spanish-speaking state, its culture is closely related to other Latin American cultures, where the Catholic religion, the Spanish language, and Spanish customs and values have been the main drivers in the culture.

Cuisine

Media

Infrastructure and transportation

Major freeways

Interprovincials, K.S. Routes, Provincial Highways, and other highways in Pacífico Norte
  • Bajaría Route 1
  • Bajaría Route 1D
  • Bajaría Route 2
  • Bajaría Route 2D
  • Bajaría Route 3
  • Bajaría Route 4
  • Bajaría Route 5
  • Bajaría Route 6
  • Bajaría Route 8
  • Bajaría Route 23
  • Bajaría Route 38
  • Bajaría Route 61
  • Bajaría Route 62
  • Bajaría Route 201

Education

Sports

See also

Preceded by List of K.S. PSAs by date of admission to the Union
Admitted on March 6, 2021 (42nd)
Succeeded by


Attribution notices
Wikipedia logo This page uses material from the Wikipedia page Baja California, which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License (view authors).
Wikipedia logo This page uses material from the Wikipedia page Baja California Peninsula, which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License (view authors).
Wikipedia logo This page uses material from the Wikipedia page Gulf of California, which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License (view authors).
Wikipedia logo This page uses material from the Wikipedia page Mexico, which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License (view authors).
Wikipedia logo This page uses material from the Wikipedia page Tijuana, which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License (view authors).