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 This article is an A-class article. It is written to a very high standard. This article is part of Altverse II.
Province of Plumas (en)
Nieuw Holland (nl)
Nouvelle-Hollande (fr)
Plumas (es)
普盧默斯 (zh)
Plumas (vn)
팔루마스 (kr)
普盧默斯 (td)
プルマース州 (ja)
Плумас (ru)
Province of Sierra
Flag of Plumas Coat of arms of Plumas
Flag Seal
Nickname(s): The Dutch Province, New Holland, Wine Country, Grape Province
Motto(s): Landbouw – Industrie – Vrijheid
(Dutch: Agriculture – Industry – Freedom)
Provincial song(s): "Plumas, My Home"
"Providence Led Us Here"
Location of Plumas in federal Sierra
Official language(s) *Nationally mandated official languages
Demonym Plumasonian(s), New Hollander(s)
Capital Ukiah
Largest city New Rotterdam
Area Ranked 6th
 • Total 23,213 sq mi
(60,121 km2)
Population Ranked 6th
 • Total 5,800,666 (2010)
 • Density 66.64/sq mi  (25.1/km2)
Ranked TBD
 • Highest point Mount Tehama
9,239 ft (2,816 m)
 • Lowest point sea level
Admission to the Union November 28, 1858 (5th)
Lord Superintendent Pablo Gilroy
Governor Leslie Kovac (DR)
Lieutenant Governor Albert Van Schoorel (DR)
Legislature Plumas Provincial Legislature
 • Upper house Plumas Senate
 • Lower house Plumas House of Aldermen
K.S. Senators Gustaff Meeuwis (DR)
Danielle Kappel (R)
Lord Brian Hall (R)
K.S. House delegation 6 total commoners
3 Democratic-Republicans
2 Greens
1 Social Democrats
Time zone Pacific Time Zone
UTC –8/UTC –7
Abbreviations PL, KS-PL., Plu.

Plumas symbols
Flag of Plumas.svg
Coat of arms of Plumas.svg
Living insignia
Amphibian Northern red-legged frog
Bird California scrub jay
Butterfly Sierra pipevine swallowtail
Crustacean Dungeness crab
Dog breed Mendocino highlands terrier
Fish Chum salmon
Flower Thistle
Mammal Northern flying squirrel
Reptile Western yellow-bellied racer
Tree Jeffrey pine
Inanimate insignia
Colors Bright vermillion, white, cobalt blue
Motto Landbouw – Industrie – Vrijheid
Poem Here Lies Blue Lilies
Ship HRH Plumas
Slogan Where Old Meets New
Song "Plumas, My Home"
"Providence Led Us Here"
Provincial route marker
Plumas route marker
Part of a series on the provinces, states, areas, and territories of Sierra
Plumas ([ˈplu.mas]; Spanish for "feathers"), also known as New Holland (Dutch: Nieuw Holland, French: Nouvelle-Hollande), is a province in the northwestern region of Sierra. Plumas is the 8th largest and 6th most populous of the 23 provinces of Sierra. The province's capital is Ukiah while the largest city is New Rotterdam. It is ranked 5th in the order of admission into the Kingdom, being admitted on November 28, 1858, the inaugural day of the Kingdom of Sierra. It is the only second-level administrative region in the Kingdom to have Dutch as one of its official languages, and one of three PSALTs to include French as one.

Plumas shares borders with Shasta to the north, Washumko and Reno to the east, San Francisco and Tahoe to the south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west. Although Plumas is officially part of the Pacific Northwest region, it is sometimes considered a part of the Styxie and was historically a constituent state in the Second California Republic during the Sierran Civil War. Geographically diverse and expansive, the province is divided into three main regions: Western Plumas, Central Plumas, and Eastern Plumas. Western Plumas is primarily hilly with minor topographic variations within the North Coast Range. Central Plumas lies within the northern end of the transnational Central Valley and is flat at sea level, and suitable for farming. Eastern Plumas is dominated by the Sierra Nevada with steadily rising elevations eastward, reaching over 14,000 feet in some parts.

Numerous indigenous tribes originally inhabited Plumas before the first Dutch settlers arrived in the mid-17th century to establish New Holland. Although Plumas was under de jure control of Spain, the Dutch administered a colonial autonomous government in present-day New Rotterdam, who eschewed Spanish detection by maintaining secrecy of its existence until the late 18th century. After the French overthrew the old Dutch Republic in favor of the Batavian Republic, the new Dutch republic ceded New Holland. New Holland came under the administration of the French-Spanish Condominium before Spain gained full control after the Third Treaty of San Ildefonso. After Mexico gained independence from Spain, New Holland was automatically transferred to Mexican administration. The Dutch colonists were permitted to continue living on the land as Mexican citizens, but were forced to adopt Catholicism and speak Spanish, which angered the predominantly Protestant population. Angered by Mexican attempts to suppress the Dutch way of life, many New Hollanders participated in the Bear Flag Revolt, and the much larger Mexican-American War in 1846, and helped the Anglo-Americans in toppling the Mexican government. Plumas became a state in California after the war ended in 1848. On November 27, 1858, Plumas became a province of Sierra.

Plumas features variable geography and landscapes, with two major mountain ranges straddling either side of the province in a northwest-southeast orientation (the Sierra Coast Ranges and Sierra Nevada), and the Central Valley running in between the slopes of these two ranges. Coastal Plumas is studded with low to mid-rolling grassy hills, while Central Plumas' elevation dips to flat, fertile farmland at sea-level, before giving way to deciduous and coniferous forests that cover the steadily rising levels of the Sierra Nevada in Eastern Plumas.

Agriculture, mining, fishing, forestry, chemicals, and tourism are major industries in Plumas. The province also has a rich history in shipbuilding and manufacturing, and these industries continue to play an important, albeit reduced role in the economy. It is the leading producer of rice, potatos, apples, pears, cherries, ginger, and soybeans in the country, and one of the highest producers of these aforementioned crops in the world. Annually, Plumas receives over 9 million unique visitors, mostly from Sierrans in other PSAs, who visit New Rotterdam, Cessnock Provincial Forest, Lassen Volcanic National Park, Auburn Provincial Recreational Park, the Town of Juno, and Lake Oroville Provincial Recreational Park.


The name Plumas derives from the Spanish name for Feather River, El Rio de las Plumas (The River of the Feathers). The river is a major waterway that runs through most of the province, and was given its name by John Marsh, Jose Noriega, and their company of men when they explored eastern Plumas in 1836 along Sacramento River. When they happened upon one of Sacramento River's tributaries, there was a bed of feathers covering one particular spot near the river. Usage of the name "Plumas" became immensely popular among both English and Spanish-speaking people in the area, and was the name chosen by the California National Legislature when it admitted Plumas as a state. When Plumas was incorporated into the Kingdom of Sierra, it was officially known as the Province of Plumas.

Another commonly used name to refer to Plumas is New Holland to reflect the province's long history of the Dutch who were the first Europeans to inhabit the region, and who has maintained a rich, thriving community in the present-day. This name has no relation to the Republic of New Holland. New Holland was the name for the Dutch colony established along the Pacific in present-day New Rotterdam, and itself a reference to Holland, a region in the Netherlands. The official Dutch translation for Plumas is New Holland (Nieuw-Holland), although both Nieuw-Holland and Plumas are used interchangeably with no clear preference among Sierran Dutch speakers. In addition, the official translation in French, another working language within the Plumasonian government, is also New Holland (Nouvelle-Hollande). Sometimes, to distinguish Plumas from the Republic of New Holland (Republiek Nieuw-Holland), Plumas is referred to as the "Province of New Holland" (Province of New Holland).


Rice fields growing in Sacramento Valley.

With an area of 23,213 sq mi (60,121.4 km2), Plumas is slightly larger than Togo and the Netherlands. It is the eighth largest province in Sierra, and the 10th largest PSA in the Kingdom. Plumas shares borders with five other provinces: Shasta (north), Washumko (east), Reno (east), Tahoe (south), and San Francisco (south). It, San Francisco, and Shasta form the Sierran Pacific Northwest, although the province is often culturally and politically grouped alongside the Styxie, a region which includes its southern neighbors, Tahoe, Reno, San Joaquin, and Santa Clara.


The province's topography is mainly divided into three regions: the Coastal Ranges, Sacramento Valley (Central Valley), and Sierra Nevada.

The coastal section of the province is mostly hilly, though few areas exceeding 8,000 ft in elevation. The Mendocino Range, alongside the Mayacamas Mountains, Sonoma Mountains, and Vaca Mountains help define the Northern Coastal Ranges that run parallel to the Pacific Ocean. Much of the coast lies within the Coastal Range Physiographic Province, and features various valleys in-between ranges including Sonoma Valley and Napa Valley, both renowned areas for wine-making.

View of Lake Oroville.

Immediately east of the Coastal Ranges lies the Sacramento Valley. The valley is the northernmost extension of the nationwide-long Central Valley. Situated in the center of the province, Sacramento Valley is an extremely fertile region of grassland and arable soil nestled between the surrounding mountain ranges. Unlike the western and eastern regions of Plumas, central Plumas is almost entirely flat, with few exceptions including the Sutter Buttes (referred to as the "world's smallest mountain range"). Water derives from both sides of the valley, and feeds into the Sacramento River and its tributaries.

Railroad bridge crossing over Feather River Canyon.

Eastern Plumas contains the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada Mountain ranges, as well as portions of the Basin and Range Geological Province to the far east. The relief is moderately varied, although the region as a whole is topologically more consistent than the coastal region. The Sierras were created and formed by continuous uplift and historical glacial movement.


Like much of Sierra's Californian region, Plumas' climate is generally hot-summer Mediterranean (Köppen: Csa), although in higher elevations, the climate is milder with a warm-summer Mediterranean climate. Summers are characterized by high daytime temperatures and little to no precipitation, while winters are milder and wetter, with foggy mornings. Due to the cooling effect of the California Current along the Pacific Ocean, coastal Plumas is significantly cooler than the central inland year-round, and has stabler, consistent temperature gradients.

Overall, Plumas receives some of the highest levels of precipitation in federal Sierra, with some areas averaging rainfalls as high as 28 inches a year. Generally speaking, as temperature cool by increasing elevation, the amount of precipitation in the province increases. A noticeable rain shadow exists east of the Coastal Ranges within Central Plumas, with the region experiencing wetter conditions as one moves eastward due to the Sierra Nevada. Snowfall does occur, but is generally restricted to high-elevations with altitudes of 7,000 feet and up, with the majority of the province's snowfall occurring in the Sierra Nevada in the east. Certain areas can receive up to 10 feet of snow per year. Snow in the Sierra Nevada is the primary source (aside from subterranean groundwater) and provider for water in Plumas, and the entire country, contributing as much as 70% of the province's water needs. The area, known as the Sierra National Water Project, is crucial to agriculture and other industries, and is carefully supervised by the Plumas Central Water Authority. When droughts occur, retentive measures are laid down in place to limit natural water loss and human consumption.



A specimen of the rare endemic species of the sculpted puffball (Calvatia sculpta) growing in Plumas.

Plumas is home to hundreds of species of plants, some of which are unique only to the region. The province is divided into several distinct ecoregions, and are dependent on location, altitude, and climate. The flora in Plumas are one of the most environmentally sensitive in the Kingdom, and are threatened by drought, deforestation, wildfires, and grazing.

Plumas' lower-lying forests within the transition zone include species such as the redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) and the giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum). Other native trees found in Plumas include the tanbark oak (Notholithocarpus), pepperwood (Umbellularia), sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana), madrona (Arbutus), and the Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii). The forest floors are home to ferns and flowering plants such as the swordfern (Polystichum), barrenwort (Epimedium), huckleberry, azalea, the tulip, mariposa, tiger, and leopard lilies.

On higher elevations, the colder climate can sustain specieis including the Jeffrey pine (Pinus jeffreyi), the red fir (Abies magnifica), the foxtail pine (Pinus balfouriana), the lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta), the sculpted puffball (Calvatia sculpta), the western redbud (Cercis occidentalis), and the dwarf manzanita. The alpine mountains are also covered with a variety of wildflowers ranging from the Sierra primrose (Primula suffrutescens), yellow columbine (Aquilegia flavescens), the yarrow (Achillea millefolium), blue elderberry (Sambucus nigra ssp. caerulea), buttercups (Ranunculus), and the alpine shooting star (Dodecatheon alpinum).


There are many species of terrestrial and marine animals in Plumas, reflecting the biological diversity and richness of the province. Covering a large area of territory, Plumas covers several biotic zones including montane, subalpine, and alpine. In the province's transition and Canadian zones, there are American black bears, gray foxes, mountain lions, bobcats, Roosevelt elk, mountain weasel, snowshoe hare, chipmunks, squirrels, several species of garter snakes and rattlesnakes, kingfishers, chickadees, towhee, water puppies, and redwood salamanders. In higher altitudes, species including the coney, white-tailed jackrabbit, and the bighorn sheep exist.

Aquatic life is as equally diverse as Plumas' terrestrial biosphere, and includes numerous species of salmon and trout. Deep-sea lifeforms that live off the coast of Plumas include sea bass, yellowfin tuna, barracuda, and several types of whale. Along the shores, there are seals, sea lions, and various kinds of shorebirds.


Early history

Hendrik Brouwer, the founder of New Holland.

Numerous Native Sierran tribal groups inhabited the area in what is now known as Plumas. Among the groups which existed within the province's modern boundaries were the Pomo, Coast Miwok, and Wappo. Other groups in the area included the Patwin, Nisenan, and Konkow people. It is widely believed, based on archeological findings, that the earliest peoples first arrived and settled in Plumas between 8000 and 5000 BC. The first settlers demonstrated some command in tool-making and art, as evidenced by rock carvings found throughout the province.

When the Europeans began exploring Sierra starting in the 16th century, various colonial powers laid claim over Plumas either directly or indirectly from broader claims over the Sierran territory. Among these powers were Spain (as part of New Spain), England (as New Albion), the Netherlands, and Russia. Although Plumas ultimately fell under the de jure control of Spain, much of Plumas was never formally explored or occupied by the Spanish. Spanish Alta California's accessibility was difficult, and Spanish colonization efforts were primarily concentrated in southern Sierra (mostly in the hands of Jesuit, and later Franciscans and Cordoban priests), leaving northern Sierra, including Plumas, practically free from Spanish presence. As a result of this vacuum, Russia and the Netherlands were able to develop colonies in the region.

New Holland

In 1644, Dutch navigator and colonial administrator Hendrik Brouwer landed at the mouth of Noyo River with the purpose of establishing a base to defend Dutch trade in the East Indies (VOC) and Japan. Initially naming the base "Fort Rotterdam", Brouwer envisioned a colony which would rival that of Spain's. Both the Netherlands and Spain were at war at the time. Prior to landing in Fort Rotterdam, Brouwer was appointed Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies. Seeking to strengthen Dutch colonial holdings throughout the Pacific, he set sail from Dutch Brazil and led an expedition which originally included the exploration of the abandoned Spanish town of Valdivia in Chile, and the sacking of other Spanish settlements in the region. Brouwer and his men attempted to find gold and establish a colony there, and befriended Manquipillan, the local cacique there. Difficulties quickly arose, and relations with the natives grew awry after Brouwer tried to build a fort there. Finding no gold, Brouwer sent a convoy back to Dutch Brazil. While they sent back an official report of Valdivia and request for reinforcements, Brouwer decided to extend his expedition to include all of the Pacific coastlines of the Americas, and return to his post in the Dutch East Indies.

Romanticized drawing of the early Dutch settlers.

When Brouwer moved near the Mexican coastline, he steered his fleet away from common Spanish trade routes. He recorded several encounters with Spanish galleons but all were without incident, and he reportedly hoisted stolen Spaniard naval ensigns on all of the ships by day to avoid arousing suspicion. He made a brief excursion near present-day Salsipuedes on September 1, 1645, narrowly avoiding detection by the Jesuit priests stationed nearby in Ensenada. Here, Brouwer gathered and restocked their supplies, and departed after two days. Brouwer continued sailing northward for three more weeks, before he landed at Noyo Bay. Confident that the area was free from any Spanish presence, he ordered his men to commence building a fort. In his diary, he wrote, "The land is of rich and astounding quality. Its weather is mild, and its landscape is ideal for settlement," and declared the land in the name of the Dutch King. Brouwer and his men encountered several indigenous tribes including the Yuki, the Pomo, and the Wintun. Overall, the contact was friendly, and gifts were exchanged, starting a longstanding relationship between the Dutch settlers and the indigenous people. Brouwer's men are widely believed to be the first Europeans to come into contact with the northern Native Sierran tribes, and were likely responsible for the decline in native populations shortly thereafter due to virgin soil epidemics. They were also responsible for introducing Old World poultry to the region including chickens and ducks, which they used for meat and eggs in the new settlement.

After spending a few weeks in the area, Brouwer departed from Plumas on a trip to Japan. He left behind 20 of his men whom he entrusted to maintain the colony. The colony was named Brouwershaven in honor of Brouwer, and had seventeen complete buildings, including a church, a granary, and a tannery by 1647. For the first few years, the men struggled to set up the colony. Although they had access to an abundance of raw material, they frequently experienced food shortages. Unaccustomed to the environment, the men relied heavily on sustenance from the local tribes. The men intermarried with indigenous women, and started biracial families which allowed the colony to grow.

A modern-day replica of 't Hart van Venlo, a VOC ship built in New Holland in display in Amsterdam.

The first Dutchmen who were not part of Brouwer's expedition to arrive in New Holland were the roughly 450 ethnic Dutch, Sephardi Jews, Flemish, Walloons, and Afro-Indian slaves who were expelled from the defunct Dutch Brazil. This wave of colonists was crucial in the colony's enlargement and the permanent fixation of the Dutch in the Pacific coast. After their arrival, New Holland continued to receive new colonists until the early 18h century as the Spanish increased their activity in Alta California. By 1700, the population grew to the size of 3,300, and a second town, Roosje, was established. The New Hollanders organized themselves with a government overseen by the Director-General, who was appointed by the Dutch East India Company. Over time, the citizens' Council of Aldermen rose into prominence, superseding the powers of the Director-General.

The colonial scene was vibrant and economically productive. It served as the sole North American hub for the Dutch in the Pacific, and enjoyed a rich shipbuilding industry. The New Hollanders frequently traded with the neighboring Russians to the south of the colony, as well as the Chinese, Japanese, and Han merchants from afar. Contact with the Spaniards was forbidden, and Dutch merchants were advised to steer clear of the Southeastern and Central Pacific Ocean to avoid detection from Spanish trade ships. The Spanish remained oblivious to the presence of New Holland until José de Gálvez became New Spain's new visitador (inspector-general), and launched his ambitious plan to revitalize Spain's colonial reaches in the Pacific Northwest. Gálvez wanted to expand development northward of Mexico into the then-underpopulated Alta California, which was at the northern fringes of the vast but overextended New Spanish Empire. To galvanize people within Spain's ruling circles, Gálvez spread rumors that foreign powers would take the supposedly unspoiled land from Spain. Such lands would pose a threat to Spain's existing colonies and dominance in the Americas. After a Spanish ambassador in Russia revealed that Catherine the Great planned to build a colonial empire reaching as far south as present-day Monterey, Central Valley, Gálvez was granted permission by King Carlos III to pursue his plans.

Flag of New Holland

The discovery of foreign powers in northern Sierra deeply alarmed Spanish authorities, and prompted the Spanish crown to commission expeditionary voyages along the Pacific Northwest throughout the late 18th century. Spain confirmed the existence of New Holland in a 1769 expedition, but the Spanish chose not to militarily engage it. Within less than two decades however, as Spain began aggressively colonizing southern Alta California with its missions, Spain eventually assumed control over the Dutch holdings. In 1795, the Batavian Republic took over the Netherlands, and became a client state of France. In the Treaty of The Hague, one of the Dutch lands the Netherlands ceded was New Holland. The French, who were on good terms with the Spanish, placed New Holland under the French-Spanish Condominium, which operated in the Channel Islands, thus signaling the first time Spain had direct control over the "hidden" colony. New Holland's time within the Condominium was short-lived. In 1802, the Third Treaty of San Ildefonso was signed, and France absolved all territorial rights to the Condominium, thereby effectively giving the Spanish full control over New Holland and the Channels.

Now under Spanish rule, the Spanish government allowed the New Hollanders to continue living freely as citizens under certain conditions. New Hollanders were not permitted to establish any settlements south of their existing territorial extent, and were required to render complete allegiance to the Spanish Crown. The Board of Alderman was also subject to the oversight of the Condominium Governor, and ultimately, the viceroy of New Spain. Although the Spanish allowed the New Hollanders to continue practicing their own legal system and courts, they were required to comply with Spanish land law. In practice, Spain gave major, formal land concessions to the New Hollanders in the region, allowing some families and individuals to own large stakes as far east as the Sierra Nevada.

In 1821, Mexico gained independence from Spain, and assumed control over all of Alta California, as well as New Holland. As a republic, Mexico organized itself into constituent states but Alta California and New Holland was not considered one of such states. For New Holland, its obvious cultural, ethnic, and linguistic differences, as well as its long distance from the capital, prevented it from being considered a state. Instead, it was organized as a territory. Unlike the Spanish government, the Mexican government sought to ultimately expel the colonists, or assimilate them into Alta California. Mexico was fearful that New Holland would one day declare its own independence, signaling the vulnerability of the already weak and battered state to other powers including Spain and the United States. Starting in 1825, the Mexican Congress passed a series of laws to limit many aspects of Dutch life in New Holland, including the requirement for schools to teach students solely in Spanish.

Californian period

As more Anglo-Americans and British settlers arrived in Alta California, including New Holland, the Mexican government tightened its grip on the far-flung territory, much to the ire to the local Dutch and new settlers alike. Eventually, both the New Hollanders and Anglo-Americans joined forces in gaining independence from the Mexican state. Following reports that Brazoria had gained its independence from Mexico, New Hollanders and Anglo-Americans formed an army to expel the Mexicans and Californios from the region. In June 1846, a group of settlers seized a military garrison in Sonoma, today known as the Bear Flag Revolt, and declared all of California as an independent republic. The declaration coincided with the Mexican-American War, which started about a month earlier, between the United States and Mexico over the Rio Grande. The two events coalesced into one as the United States pledged support for the Californians, and extended the conflict to the Great Basin, Sonoran Desert, and the Southland.

New Hollanders played an instrumental role in securing California's independence as many residents joined the war effort. After California gained its independence, nearly a third of delegates to the 1848 Californian Constitutional Convention hailed from New Holland. New Holland was officially organized as the State of Plumas, and was for a while, Plumas was the Republic's most populous state.

In 1849, gold was discovered in the neighboring state of Sacramento in Colusa. As news spread, it triggered a gold rush as tens of thousands of people from across the world came to California. Plumas was one of such states that attracted gold prospectors. The arrival of international prospectors boosted the economy of Plumas, and the introduction of the newly found gold strengthened it even further.


On November 28, 1858, the California Republic was officially reorganized as the Kingdom of Sierra following its adoption of the Constitution of 1858. The Constitution was the result of a year-and-a-half long process over the future of the country as it struggled with debt, corruption, and inefficiency. The newly established Parliament convened and admitted Plumas on the same day as Sierra's creation. Plumas was the 5th province to be admitted to the Kingdom. The formulation of Sierran Plumas' constitution coincided with the Californian Constitution of 1857, and during this time, 140 delegates from across the state were sent to New Rotterdam to negotiate details on the future province's constitution. Like all other provinces, Plumas would recognize a Lord Proprietor as its head of state, while investing actual government powers to a civilian governor. During the constitutional drafting process, there was a dispute between the Dutch and the Anglo-Americans over where the capital would be located. While the Dutch naturally favored their traditional and largest settlement, New Rotterdam, the Anglo-Americans favored the town of Santa Rosa. A compromise was reached, and the town of Ukiah was chosen where both parties were roughly equal in size, and was sufficiently "balanced" enough between the coastal Dutch and the insular Anglo-Americans.

Plumas was initially the Kingdom's most populous province, although by 1865, San Francisco had surpassed it. Nonetheless, constituents from Plumas remained one of the Kingdom's most influential forces, and served as one of the early bases for the Royalists. Plumas was one of the first provinces to receive major funding and improvement to its public utilities and services, and was one of the Kingdom's most agriculturally productive regions. As transcontinental railroads were being constructed, Plumas continued to experience new immigrants from the rest of Anglo-America, who mostly settled in Central and Eastern Plumas. In order to defend its linguistic and cultural heritage, the Plumas government officially declared Dutch as its working language.

In the years preceding the Civil War, the Anglo-American settlers in Central Plumas became galvanized by the Royalists' coastal and business-oriented policies. Financially damaged by the ministries of Bachelor, Sr. and Trist, the Anglophone Plumasonians rallied behind republicanism, whilst the Dutch backed monarchism. These differences were the source of much hostility between the two groups, which included ethnic-related conflicts and disputes over land use and property rights, especially in gold mining areas. By the 1870s, Plumas had grown so volatile that both sides had established over 40 separate "clubs" composed of armed members. There have been numerous documented gunfights and fistfights between the Dutch and English speakers prior to the Civil War, leading some historians to dub the phenomenon as the "Little Civil War".

Sierran Civil War

In the immediate years prior to the Sierran Civil War, Plumas was violently divided between monarchists and republicans. Tensions were high along the central region of Plumas, and at the capital, Ukiah, where conflicts over policy and interests occurred. The wealthier and more business-oriented Dutch sided with the Royalists, whilst the poorer, agricultural-based Anglophones sided with the Democratic-Republicans. After Democratic-Republican Prime Minister Ulysses Perry was assassinated in 1873, many Democratic-Republicans, including those in Plumas, believed that it was politically motivated and perpetrated by Royalist elites and the monarchy. The rise in political clubs led to increased violence. When San Joaquin rebelled and declared secession from the Kingdom, republicans in Plumas launched their offense against Plumas' government. Plumas came under occupation by the self-proclaimed Second California Republic shortly after the war began in 1874, and remained under republican control for a little more than three years before Monarchist troops liberated the province in 1877. As many of 10,000 people in Plumas (including civilians and soldiers) died during the war, making the war the single bloodiest event in the history of the province.

The war had a severe impact on Plumas' economy, but its postwar recovery was much stronger than its Styxie neighbors as it received disproportionately more funding from the federal government during the Reconstruction period. Tensions between monarchists and republicans have continued on to the present-day, a legacy of the war which has been deeply ingrained to the province.

Modern Plumas

Since the Sierran Cultural Revolution and the Great Depression, Plumas Royalist Party has generally dominated local politics, although the Democratic-Republican has remained a strong, potent force in Central and Eastern Plumas. As with most of the Styxie, the traditional manufacturing sector has waned in Plumas as there was mass exodus of several manufacturing companies which left for overseas labor markets. The province's economy has shifted towards the services sector, and led to more citizens moving away from rural areas to the cities. During World War II, Plumas produced the bulwark of the nation's military ships and aircraft, and was a top producer in steel. Following the war, the provincial economy transformed as government contracts and private investment fueled the rise high-technology companies in the region.

During the 1960s, Plumas received federal funding to create the Oroville Dam along Feather River. The dam created Lake Oroville, Sierra's second-largest reservoir, and became the primary facility of the Sierra National Water Project. Since then, much of the Kingdom has heavily relied on the water systems that originate from within Plumas and other provinces in northwestern Sierra. Agriculture has continued to flourish in Plumas despite the increasing dependence on the services-oriented economy.

On August 12, 2016, Prime Minister Steven Hong was assassinated in the town of Juno by a radical republican, which triggered the 2016 Styxie unrest in the region.

With a population of about 6 million according to the 2010 census, Plumas is the second most populous province in the Styxie (after San Joaquin) and the sixth most populous province in the Kingdom. It is also the fastest growing province in the Kingdom outside the Southland.


The Sierra Royal Bureau of Census estimates that the population of Plumas was 5,892,111 on October 16, 2016. The 2010 census officially recorded a population of 5,800,666, indicating a population increase by 91,445 or roughly 1.58%. This includes a natural increase of 58,421 since the year 2010 (that is 102,749 births minus 44,328 deaths) and an increase due to net migration of 21,473 into the province. Immigration from outside the Kingdom of Sierra resulted in a net increase of 32,229, and migration within the country resulted in a net decrease of 16,528. According to the 2010 census, of the people residing in Plumas, 72.5% were born in Plumas, 19.2% were born in another Sierran PSA or territory, 2.2% were born abroad to Sierran parent(s), and 5.75% were foreign-born.

There are 79 cities or municipality-level settlements in Plumas. The largest and most populous city in Plumas is the province's capital, New Rotterdam. The smallest city in Plumas is Alleghany. Nearly two-thirds of Plumas' residents live in either the New Rotterdam metropolitan area, or the Plumasonian section of the Greater Sacramento metropolitan region.

Racial and ancestral makeup

According to the Sierra Royal Bureau of Census, the 2010 racial makeup of the Province of Plumas was as follows according to self-identification.

  • White Sierran – 74.4%
  • Asian Sierran/Pacific Islander – 12.9%
  • Black or African Sierran – 2.5%
  • Multiracial Sierran - 7.2%
  • Native Sierran/American Indian – 1.4%
  • Some other race – 1.6%
Plumas Racial Breakdown of Population
Racial composition 1990 2000 2010
White 82.6% 80.8% 74.4%
Asian 8.9% 9.3% 12.9%
Black 1.8% 1.7% 2.5%
Two or more races 4.5% 4.5% 7.2%
Native 2.0% 1.9% 1.4%
Other race 2.2% 1.8% 1.6%
Young Dutch Sierran women dressing up in Santa Rosa for an annual cultural heritage and cheesemaking festival.
The majority (about 55%) of non-Hispanic Whites in Plumas are of Dutch descent, and the Dutch community in Plumas is one of the largest outside the Netherlands. Nearly two-thirds of Dutch Plumasonians are the descendants of the Dutch settlers who settled in the province when it was then known as "New Holland" between the 17th and 19th century. The Dutch are mostly concentrated around the historical colonial region along the western coast which includes the Greater New Rotterdam Area. The next largest non-Hispanic White ancestry is German, followed by English. The latter two are primarily descendants of Anglo-American settlers who moved to Plumas during the 19th century either before the Mexican-American War or after the California Gold Rush. These groups have mostly settled in Central Plumas and small communities distributed throughout Eastern Plumas along the Sierra Nevada. Other non-Hispanic White ancestries represented in Plumas include the French, Walloons, Belgians, Norwegians, Italians, and Russians. Rural portions of Plumas are also home to several communities of Russian Mennonites, a group of German-Dutch Anabaptists from West Prussia and Ukraine, who settled in Plumas during the 20th century.
Several different Asian businesses in New Rotterdam's Chinatown.

The largest Hispanic group (of any race) in Plumas are Mexicans, some of whom self-identify as Chicanos, or multigenerational Mexican-Sierrans who have lived in Sierra. In recent years, Plumas' Hispanic population has grown rapidly with the main sources stemming from Los Pacíficos, a Sierran territorial region which includes the Baja California peninsula and Lower Sonora, as well as Salvadorians, Guatemalans, and Dominicans. Most established Hispanic families live in Western Plumas, while newer immigrants have favored Sacramento Valley in the central region as the area offers affordable housing and plentiful job opportunities in the agricultural sector.

The Asian population has been the fastest growing group in Plumas. About two-thirds of Asians living in Plumas are descendants of immigrants who arrived during the 19th century immigration waves. Most of these immigrants were peasants from Southern China or Japan who came in search of economic opportunity and success. Subsequent large immigration waves periodically occurred during the start of the Sierran Cultural Revolution and the Cold War during the 20th century. Between 1960 and 1980, immigrants from other countries including the Vietnams (North and South), Korea, and Southeast Asia arrived. Today, most Asian immigrants come from South Asian backgrounds, although East Asian emigration, particularly from China and Korea, remains strong. Most Asian Sierrans are concentrated within the suburbs of the Greater New Rotterdam Area. New Rotterdam and Santa Rosa both feature large Chinatown neighborhoods, and other Asian enclaves including Little Tokyo, Little India, and Little Saigon.

Of the Sierran black population, the overwhelming majority are African Sierran, or more specifically, African Americans, being descendants of African slaves brought to the United States during the American colonial era. There is a minority of blacks who identify themselves as Sierran Creole, as well as those who claim heritage from the descendants of African slaves who were brought directly to Plumas during the New Holland period. Today, there has been steady growth of blacks from the West Indies, Latin America, and Africa. Most blacks have settled around the Greater New Rotterdam Area although a significant number has moved to Sacramento Valley.

Native Sierrans account for a small minority of the population. Making up only 1.4% of the population as of the 2010 census, most have mixed ancestry with white and/or Hispanic backgrounds. There are 25 federally registered tribes in Plumas, and 34 reservations distributed throughout the province. Nearly a half of Plumas' residents who identify as Native Sierran or American Indian do not live in any federally recognized reservation or tribal areas.

As with much of Sierra, multiracial Sierrans are a visible minority in Plumas. 7.2% of residents in Plumas identified themselves as multiracial, or numbering over 417,600 people. The majority of multiracial Sierrans are residents of European and Asian heritage, with over 377,000 in their ranks, or about 6.5% of the total population. The next largest group are those who claim European and African heritage with about 17,400 individuals, or 0.3% of the population. The remaining 0.5% of multiracial Sierrans include those of European and Native Sierran heritage, Asian and African heritage, and African and Native Sierran heritage.


Religious affiliation in Plumas (2015)
Affiliation % of Plumas population
Christian 87 87
Catholic 11 11
Protestant 44 44
Evangelical Protestant 24 24
Mainline Protestant 6 6
Other Christian 1 1
Unaffiliated 9 9
Nothing in particular 5 5
Agnostic 1 1
Atheist 4 4
Jewish 0.7 0.7
Muslim 0.8 0.8
Buddhist 2 2
Hindu 0.2 0.2
Other faiths 0.1 0.1
Don't know/refused answer 0.2 0.2
Total 100 100

Plumas has a long history of religious tolerance and diversity. During the Dutch colonial period, the Dutch Reformed Church was the official state church of New Holland, though other Christian denominations, as well as Jewish communities, were able to worship freely and openly. When New Holland became part of the French-Spanish Condominium, the first Catholic church was established in New Rotterdam, and the status of the Dutch Reformed Church as the state religion was absolved. Nonetheless, the Spanish respected the colonists' faiths. Citizens in New Holland were not required to convert to Catholicism as those in other colonies throughout New Spain had to. This changed however, when Mexico assumed control over New Holland after it gained independence from Spain. Although Mexico secularized the Spanish mission system, the government required citizens including those in the territories, to convert to Catholicism, and to learn and speak Spanish. This stark contrast to the Spanish non-interference with religious affairs were one of the key factors in motivating the New Hollanders to join the Anglo-Americans during the Bear Flag Revolt, and thereby securing California's subsequent independence from Mexico in the Mexican-American War. In the constitutions of both incarnations of Plumas as a Californian state, and then a Sierran province, they guaranteed the freedom of religion.

According to the Ministry of Culture, about 55% of Plumas' population were part of some organized religion. The largest religious body in terms of adherents was the Roman Catholic Church with over 638,000 adherents, followed by the Reformed Dutch Church in Sierra (affiliated with the Lutheran World Federation) with 592,112 adherents, and the Western Baptist Convention with 440,393 adherents. Other significant Christian denominations and churches in Plumas include the Apostolic and Anglican Episcopal Church in Sierra, United Methodist Church, the Presbyterian Church in Sierra, the Sierran Congregationalist Church, the Seventh-day Adventist Church, and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Plumas is also known for its Mennonite communities, most of whom are German-speaking "Russian" Mennonites. The Mennonites are mainly concentrated in rural parts of Groningen County and Sutter County, with some communities adhering to traditional, simpler lifestyles (distinguished with their attire and limited or non-existent use of modern technology), while others are more distinctly modern.

New Rotterdam and its vicinity are home to a burgeoning population of Jews, Buddhists, Muslims, Hindus, Sikhs, and others. Buddhists represent the largest non-Christian religious group in the province, accounting for 2% of the population. Unlike other provinces in Northeastern Sierra and the Styxie, the percentage of Plumas' population identifying themselves as "non-religious" is drastically lower than the rest of the region, and slightly lower than the national average (9% compared to 12%).


Top 10 Non-English Languages Spoken in Plumas
Language Percentage of population
(as of 2010)
Dutch 44.9%
French 11.8%
Spanish 3.8%
Chinese (including Mandarin and Cantonese) 3.6%
Japanese 2.9%
German 2.8%
Yiddish 2.2%
Han 1.1%
Vietnamese 0.98%
Korean and Hmong (tied) 0.75%

The official languages in Plumas in addition to the nine federally mandated languages (which includes English) are Dutch and French. It is the only PSALT in the Kingdom where Dutch is an official languages, and one of three where French is one as well. Nonetheless, with the exception of recent immigrant communities, knowledge of English is practically universal, with about 95% reporting being able to speak the language. English is the lingua franca throughout the province, and retains the "special status" as the primary working language used by the provincial government, despite its legal, equal status with the province's 10 other official languages. According to the 2010 census, 2,604,499 people (44.9% of the population) spoke Dutch most often at home, and 684,478 (11.8% ) spoke French most often at home. Basic knowledge of either languages is quite extensive even among non-native speakers. This is especially true along the western region of the province, where the two languages are often taught alongside English in both public and private education.


The Napa Valley in the fall.

Plumas' culture is considered unique among Sierra. Although rural Plumas is strongly influenced by the Styxie, the culture along coastal Plumas is distinctly Dutch with Hispanic and East Asian elements. The province is renowned for its shipbuilding, winemaking, cheesemaking, skiing, and college basketball. Western Plumas has been culturally described as Pacific Northwest, sharing similarities with Shasta and San Francisco, as well as the neighboring country of Rainier, whilst Eastern Plumas is closer to the Styxie. Unusual to either region however, Plumas is noted for its comparatively higher religiosity, where church attendance remains high, and it has traditionally aligned itself with the Royalists and conservative politics. In addition, the importance of local government is much more pronounced in Plumas as seen with its traditional town hall meetings and water boards.

While Dutch culture is the strongest along the coast, its influence is felt in all parts of the province. The Dutch was the first non-indigenous group to settle in Plumas, having arrived in the mid-17th century. As of the 2010 census, the Dutch remain the largest ethnic group constituting about one-fourth of the entire population. Nevertheless, Anglo-Americans, including those of Scottish, English, and Scots-Irish ancestry, have shaped the province's culture as well. During the 19th century, Plumas received a substantial number of Anglo-American immigrants who sought economic prosperity in the "western frontier". Many settled in the fertile Sacramento Valley, away from the Dutch, and more came during the California Gold Rush. Hispanics and East Asians have also contributed to Plumas' evidence, the latter's effects having been accelerated through the Sierran Cultural Revolution. Like the rest of Sierra, many settlements feature Spanish names, and there are elements of Spanish law in the otherwise ubiquitously Dutch legal system practiced in Plumas. In Dutch cuisine, Latin American and East Asian cooking techniques have been incorporated such as stir-frying.

The New Rotterdam Historic District is the largest historic preservation district in the Kingdom, and features extensive Dutch Baroque architecture. The district hosts the annual Grand Wheel Cheese Festival, one of the largest food-related events in the Western Hemisphere, and is home to many contemporary art galleries and shows. The Sands-to-Peak Bicycling Marathon is held every June. The marathon is a roughly 100-mile-long one-way cycle race from Glass Beach in New Rotterdam to the peak of Sheetiron Mountain. In the small town of Juno, the multi-genre Clear Moon Music Festival, is held on the first weekend of August every year, attracting thousands of patrons and local artists.


A Stretford reactor at a geothermal plant in Sonoma County, Plumas.

Since its early history, Plumas has a diversified, robust economy, with agriculture, manufacturing, telecommunications, tourism, technology, insurance, and entertainment contributing significantly to the economy. It has always been highly dependent on global trade, with its mercantile spirit tracing back to its colonial beginnings in the 17th century. The province's agricultural sector boasts farming-related sales exceeding $18 billion alone as of 2014. The province is the number one producer in the Kingdom in several crops including rice, potatoes, pears, cherries, ginger, and soybeans. It also a major producer in numerous other crops including grapes (which is mainly used for wine), almonds, and avocados, as well dairy-related products including milk, cream, and cheese.

Much of Plumas is rural, and consequently, the proportional contribution to the economy from the service and light industry sector is higher than the agricultural and heavy industry sectors in the province. Major heavy industry products include steel, weapons, military aircraft and naval vessels, chemicals, aerospace manufacturing, and mining. Plumas once had a strong automobile industry which has drastically declined since the 1980s due to outsourcing. In contemporary years, various technology firms and finance companies have established businesses and operations within the province. New Rotterdam has become one of the fastest growing economies in the Kingdom, and is home to six Fortune 500 companies.

In 2014, Plumas' gross state product of $296 billion ranks the province 8th in the nation. If it were its own independent country, Plumas would rank as the 42nd largest economy in the world. Its GSP-per-capita in 2014 was $50,393 (adjusted for inflation), placing it on the upper quartile in a ranking of all PSAs in the country. As of January 2017, the unemployment rate was slightly lower than the national average at 4%, down from 9% during the 2008 recession.


Legal forms of gambling in Plumas are cardrooms, the Plumas General Lottery, and parimutuel betting (for certain sports and events). Because of tribal sovereignty and the 1994 Federal American Indian Gaming Act, Indian reservations are exempt from Plumas' prohibition of certain non-card casino games, and are thus free to establish their own gambling halls and casinos. Throughout Plumas, there are 17 Indian casinos and 19 bingo halls and cardrooms. The gaming industry is a major source of revenue for these tribes, and a significant amount of these earnings are returned to the province through taxes. The Plumas General Lottery, which was established by the province in 1997, has also benefited the government.


In Plumas, there are eight income tax brackets ranging from 2% to 10% of personal income, as well as four corporate income tax brackets ranging from 2% to 6.5% and a flat capital gains tax of 10.75%. The province imposes a 7.35% sales tax on all tangible retail sales and goods (except groceries [up to $300.00], clothing [up to $200.00], periodicals, over-the-counter drugs, certain prescription drugs, and hygiene products [up to $150.00]). Property tax is levied on a sliding scale from 0.1% to 4% according to the market value of a given date, as determined by a state assessor. There are six estate tax brackets, ranging from 8% to 35%. The province also levies a gift tax (except on gifts that: do not exceed $20,000 per recipient by any one donor; are given to a (KS citizen) spouse, parent, or child; are given to charities or tax-exempt religious organizations; are given to pay for tuition; or are given to pay for medical expenses) with five brackets ranging from 4% to 29%. As the federal government does not levy any estate or gift tax, a portion of the province's revenue from these taxes are collected by the federal government.


The Plumas Department of Transportation is responsible for overseeing and maintaining the public roads, highways, freeways, bridges, tunnels, and other transportation services throughout the province. It is also responsible for all construction projects related to transportation, and apportioning the necessary funds to support such projects.


Major highways

Interprovincials, K.S. Routes, Provincial Highways, and other highways in Plumas

Rail and bus

Intercity passenger rail transit is primarily provided by Sierrail with connections to the Bay Area Rail Transit (BART) to the south. The busiest line is the trip on Betelgeuse Shuttle between New Rotterdam and Santa Rosa. A direct trip from New Rotterdam and San Francisco City is provided by the Allegiant Express, which extensions to Palo Alto. A small portion of the transcontinental Western Zephyr runs through Plumas although there are no stops within the province. There are several active freight railroads in Plumas. The Royal Pacific Railroad runs the only two transcontinental railroads in Plumas: the Pan-Pacific Railroad and the Northwest & Kentucky Railroad. Within the Greater New Rotterdam Area and Santa Rosa, numerous light rail lines are open to the general public.

All five counties in Plumas operate at least one bus line, with New Rotterdam, Santa Rosa, Chico, and Yuba City all operating their own city bus lines. Intercity bus travel is provided for by the Yellowbird public carrier, providing service to over 18,000 passengers daily.


Plumas is served by one major airport, the Hendrik Brouwer International Airport (KHBR), in New Rotterdam, which is the busiest airport in the Sierran Pacific Northwest after the San Francisco International Airport. The Chico Municipal Airport (KCIC) in Chico is the primary hub for Central and Eastern Plumas, while the Charles M. Schulz Regional Airport (KSTS) in Santa Rosa provides service for southwestern Plumas and northern San Francisco (Marin County). In addition to these airports, there are fifteen additional reliever and general aviation airports in the province.


The Port of New Rotterdam in Noyo Bay is the only major seaport in Plumas. It provides jobs for 6,700 citizens and is the busiest port in Sierra north of San Francisco City. Along the coast, there are also 14 smaller marinas and docks.

Government and politics


The 34th and incumbent Governor of Plumas, Leslie Kovac (DR)

As defined by the Constitution of Plumas, the government of Plumas has three branches of government: the executive, the legislative, and the judicial. The executive branch consists of several popularly elected offices and appointed officials, with the Governor as the chief executive and head of the government. The Queen is represented in Plumas by Her Majesty's Lord Superintendent, a viceregal noble, who serves as the nominal head of state. Legislative functions are handled by two bodies: the Plumas Provincial Assembly and the Plumas Central Water Authority. The former is responsible for creating and passing general legislation, while the latter is responsible for establishing regulations and oversight over the province's waterways and bodies of water, as well as providing meteorology evaluations, and flood prevention services. The judiciary is composed of the Supreme Court of Plumas and its inferior courts.

Although the Constitution of Plumas names the Lord Superintendent of Plumas as the nominal and titular head of the Plumasonian government, the viceroyal prerogatives given to them is exercised through the governor, a civilian. The Governor of Plumas serves as the chief executive of the province and has the authority to exercise the powers given to them by the Constitution of Plumas. The governor and the lieutenant-governor are both elected on the same ticket, and serve four-year terms. Like other provinces in the Styxie, the governor may not serve more than two consecutive terms, and may not serve more than four terms in their lifetimes.


The governor oversees the executive branch, which includes the offices of the Secretary of Education, Provincial Treasurer, Provincial Auditor, Provincial Comptroller, and the Provincial Attorney-General. In addition, the governor works with the Plumas Provincial Legislature and the Supreme Court of Plumas to govern the province. All bills must receive viceregal assent from the Lord Superintendent, who generally allows the governor to assent in their name.

The governor is able to nominate leaders for executive bodies and courts (with confirmation by the Provincial Senate), and remove any leaders from nearly all provincial departments, commissions, and boards at-will. From time to time, the Governor can call for a special session in the Legislature, and set the legislative agenda, especially if their party is in majority rule.

The governor can also issue pardons, reprieves, and commutations. In addition, the governor functions as the commander-in-chief of the provincial National Guard, and Royal Reserve. During times of crisis or emergencies, the governor can assume nearly full command over the province's defenses, logistics, and resources.


Plumas has a bicameral legislature known as the Provincial Legislature. The Legislature is composed of a 100 member Senate and an 280-member House of Aldermen. As of the 2016 elections, the Senate is controlled by a Royalist majority while the House is controlled by the Democratic-Republican Party in a coalition with the Greens and Social Democrats. Terms for both the Senate and the House of Aldermen are held every two years, occurring every even-numbered year. Each legislative session lasts six years in total with the current session lasting until 2022. Being located in the Pacific Northwest, Plumas is one of the few provinces to use the Westminster-style parliamentary system for its legislature in contrast to most Sierran provinces with operate off of a system of Anglo-American federalism.

Water boards

There are a total of eleven water boards distributed across Plumas. Each hold their own elections, levy their own taxes, and function independently from the government, and work together through the Plumas Central Water Authority. Water boards function as enhanced water districts, and were introduced by the early Dutch colonists from the Netherlands where water boards were already commonplace. The Water Authority is empowered by the Constitution to create legislation pertaining to water supply, safety, sewage treatment, management, usage, and infrastructural developments and maintenance (dams, levees, etc.), and to enforce such laws throughout Plumas. Due to its unique powers and jurisdiction, it is a powerful institution although it works closely with the Provincial Legislature and the Executive Government.


The Supreme Court of Plumas is the highest court in the province and is composed of 6 justices and a chief justice. There are three intermediate court of appeals in Plumas in both civil and criminal cases. There are twelve judicial districts, each headed by a district court, and six superior courts (trial courts), one for each county. The composition of the inferior courts varies from one to five, although most, especially the upper-level courts, feature three judges depending on the severity of a case.

Counties and municipalities

County County seat Population Population
(sq. mi.)
Area %
Groningen Chico 623,456 10.75% 11,064 47.66%
Holland New Rotterdam 2,748,321 47.38% 3,878 16.70%
Napa Bosland 731,958 12.62% 1,813 7.81%
Sonoma Santa Rosa 780,779 13.46% 1,768 7.62%
Rijn Druifstad 502,106 8.65% 1,252 5.40%
Sutter Dappe 414,006 7.14% 3,438 14.81%
Plumas is divided into six counties. The county governments are responsible for providing essential services including law enforcement, elections and voter registration, property assessment and documentation, tax collection, public health, health care, education, roads, building and health inspections, jails, community centers, libraries, fire protection, ambulance services, animal control, and public utilities (with the notable exception of water). Counties are each governed by an elected board of supervisors, and organized into supervisory districts. In addition, counties serve as the local government for all areas which are not municipalities. Municipalities are county subdivisions which may take up the form of either cities, towns, or civil townships; only cities are considered incorporated under federal regulations. The largest county in terms of total area is Groningen County, while the most populous county is Holland County.

In Plumasonian law, municipalities are distinguished from unincorporated area by the presence of a local government, and satisfying several conditions which would qualify the area as a PSALT (i.e., a "locality"). Virtually every municipality has tangible, defined boundaries, and a local government which operates within these jurisdictions. The most basic form of a municipality features a simple town council which may be composed of 4 to 12 councilmen who manage the government. There are a total of 79 municipalities, of which only 15 are classified as cities. Cities are the most advanced form of municipality, and generally the most populous municipalities in Plumas. Cities are distinguished by the presence of a strong mayor-form of government, and may operate under their own charter, rather than the general laws of Plumas. The largest city in New Rotterdam (1,273,033), while the smallest is Ukiah (54,378).

New Rotterdam, the largest city in Plumas and the county seat of Holland.

Towns are typically smaller, and are distinguished by the presence of a weak-mayor government, and are all known as general law municipalities under federal regulations due to their lack of charters. There are a total of 22 towns, leaving the remaining 57 as civil townships. The largest town is Druifstad (72,808) while the smallest town is Nevada City (32,090).

Townships are the most basic form of municipality in Plumas and are generally small communities which have been granted home rule. Like cities and towns, civil townships are able to provide basic services to its citizens, and create and enforce ordinances. However, they almost never have a true mayor, and are mostly concerned with basic services including local road maintenance, law enforcement, fire safety, tax collection, land survey, snow removal, after-school services, and emergency services. The function and purpose of civil townships can be construed as localized but supplementary levels of government within counties that provide specialized support in predominantly rural, isolated communities. Consequently, townships are often quite large in terms of land area, and have significantly low population densities. The largest township in Plumas is Paradise (29,756), while the smallest township is Butte Meadows (40).

In addition to these municipalities, there are about 200 recognized communities (census-designated places) which have been not been formally classified or organized as a municipality.

Law enforcement

The Plumas Highway Patrol (PHP; Dutch: Snelweg patrouille van Nieuw Holland; French: Patrouille routière de Nouvelle-Hollande) is a provincial-wide law enforcement agency with patrol jurisdiction over all of Plumas' freeways, principal highways, toll roads, and other public roads. Although it is primarily concerned with road law enforcement and traffic safety, it functions similarly to provincial police. It is responsible for various duties which include but not limited to: safely ending all police pursuits that occur on any highways, investigating any accidents on said highways, investigating all accidents involving school buses anywhere in Plumas, neutralizing terrorist threats or other high-risk incidents occurring near public buildings, facilities, officials, or roads, and more. The PHP has over 2,200 uniformed officers provincial-wide, and are often the very first of first responders to appear on scene of an accident. The PHP is also responsible for working closely with local, as well as federal law enforcement agencies in conducting investigations or apprehending suspects within the province.

Federal and CAS representation

In the K.S. House of Commons, Plumas is represented by 19 commoners. Each commoner represents around 300,000 constituents, and parliamentary districts are redrawn, added, or deleted once after every decennial census count. As of the 2016 elections, there are 6 Democratic-Republicans, 1 Libertarian, 8 Royalists, and 4 Social Democrats representing Plumas in the House. In the K.S. Senate, Plumas' senators are Gustaff Meeuwis (DR), a native and former Secretary of State, Danielle Kappel (R), a native and former Mayor of New Rotterdam, and Lord Brian Hall (R), a Tahoe-born baron and former Attorney General of Plumas. Like the other provinces in the Styxie, all three senators are directly elected by the province, as opposed to the national norm for one of the senators to be appointed by the governor.

In the CAS Parliament, Plumas is divided into two constituencies: Northwest Pacific Sierra (Western Plumas and Shasta) and Northern Central Styxie (Eastern Plumas, Tahoe, Western Washumko, and Reno). Northwest Pacific Sierra currently elects 8 MAPs, while Northern Central Styxie elects 5 using the d'Hondt method of party-list proportional representation.


Earth and Physical Sciences building on the University of Sierra, Davis campus.

Plumas' education system consistently ranks in the top ten subnational entities in the Western Hemisphere according to the Conference of American States. Students from Plumas have generally outperformed national counterparts in mathematics, science, and writing/reading across all grades. All public and private schools in Plumas adhere to the Master Educational Plan, as defined by the Plumas Department of Education, and students, as well as schools are tested annually in the Cumulative Academic Testing (CAT) to ensure academic accountability and improvement. In 2014, 84% of high school students graduated within four years, and 79% of new students in 2014 have enrolled in preschool or other preparatory-level instruction programs prior to entering school as kindergarteners.

Between 2013 and 2016, Plumas spent $11,789 per pupil and its pupil-to-teacher ratio was 22.5. Instructors were paid an average of $51,367, placing the province ahead the national average of $47,609. As of March 2017, there are 36 school districts across the province.

Although education is compulsory, Plumas allows parents or guardians to homeschool their children as an alternative, and utilizes a special program to ensure homeschooled students meet the same educational standards and expectations of their public and private school counterparts.

Plumas is home to 52 higher education institutions, some of which have placed high in international rankings for best colleges and universities. The province is home to the University of Sierra's Davis campus, and Sierra National University's Chico and New Rotterdam campuses. In addition, there are twelve community and junior colleges in the province, of which all but two are part of the Sierra Community Colleges system. The Brouwershaven University and the Western Maritime Institute of Technology are prominent private universities in Plumas, which have consistently been named as one of the world's most competitive and successful universities.


Plumas is home to several major professional and collegiate sports teams. Of the most popular sports in the province, basketball at both the collegiate and professional level, has dominated the scene as the province's most prominent. It was first introduced to high schools throughout the province in the early 1900s by Anglo-American coaches, and the flare of the new sport spread rapidly. The Nassau Hikers, the oldest Sierran-based professional basketball team, was founded in 1967, and joined the Anglo-American Basketball Association (AABA) in 1972. Major Sierran basketball giants Jason Hill and Chris Frazier hailed from the cities of Santa Rosa and Maastricht respectively. Both Hill and Frazier played for Plumas-based teams (Hill with the New Rotterdam Seadogs and Frazier with the Chico Cruisers), and carried both teams into in the AABA championships (Hill/Seadogs in 1974, 1976, and 1979; Frazier/Cruisers in 1983, 1984, and 1986). In college men's basketball, the Brouwershaven University Flying Dutchmen have won four AACA national championships and 14 Occidental-Twelve (OCE-12) championship games, and two women's basketball national championships. The Mendocino Rendezvous has won two AACA national championships and 8 PCAL championships.

Outside basketball, American football and baseball are also quite popular. Since the Bernheim Deltas' departure from New Rotterdam in 1979, Plumas has had no professional baseball teams since then. However, a new team based in the Golden World Ball Field in New Rotterdam, the New Rotterdam Wilds, are due to debut in the 2018–19 AALB season. In football, the Santa Rosa Bears and the Petaluma Sphinxes both play in the AFL. New Rotterdam is also home to Plumas' only professional hockey team, the New Rotterdam Icebreakers, who are based at the Starco–Northwest Stadium. Plumas is also home to two Royal Premier League soccer teams, the New Holland Rage and the Plumas FC, both of which are based in Nassau and Pavonia respectively.

In addition to the "Big Four" sports, Plumas hosts a number of other sports organizations, events, and venues. Many residents in Plumas enjoy sports car racing, and horse races, and winter-related sports such as skiing and snowboarding. The annual Sierran Derby occurs every early May at Chico. Plumas has also hosted the Von Holt 100, a CAS-based car race, on numerous occasions, and several editions of the WGA Championship, the Alpine Cup, and the Grand Continental Roulette. Every late July, Clear Lake hosts one of the world's largest bass fishing tournaments, which attracts tens of thousands each year. The lake is also home to a plethora of other watersports and events.


Insignia Symbol Binomial nomenclature Year Adopted
Official provincial amphibian Northern red-legged frog Rana aurora 2006
Official provincial bird California scrub jay Aphelocoma californica 1905
Official provincial butterfly Sierra pipevine swallowtail Battus philenor 1993
Official provincial beverage Milk 2008
Official provincial fish Chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta 1989
Official provincial flower Thistle (creeping) Cirsium arvense Traditional
Official provincial mammal Northern flying squirrel Glaucomys sabrinus 1983
Official provincial crustacean Dungeness crab Metacarcinus magister 1983
Official provincial motto "Landbouw – Industrie – Vrijheid" (Agriculture – Industry – Freedom) 1974
Official provincial slogan "Where Old Meets New" 2013
Official provincial Latin motto Ex misericordia pax (From compassion, peace) 1877
Official provincial nickname "The Dutch Province/New Holland" Traditional
Official provincial tree Jeffrey pine Pinus jeffreyi 1978
Official provincial fruit Almond Prunus dulcis, syn. Prunus amygdalus 1999
Official provincial song "Plumas, My Home" / "Providence Led Us Here" (revised version) 1908/1957
Official naval ship KHMS Plumas 2004
Coat of arms of Plumas featuring the Badge of the Lord Superintendent of Plumas, the Shield of Plumas, and the Hollander Lions

See also

Preceded by List of K.S. PSAs by date of admission to the Union
Ratified the K.S. Constitution on November 27, 1858 (5th)
Succeeded by
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