Poland

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Kingdom of Poland

Królestwo Polskie
Flag of Poland
Flag
Coat of arms of Poland
Coat of arms
Motto: Nieposkromiony
Undaunted
Anthem: Witajcie w Polsce
(Hail to Poland)

Royal anthemDługie panowanie
(Long Reign)
Location of Poland in Europe
Location of Poland in Europe
Capital
and largest city
Warsaw
Official languages Polish
Recognised regional languages German, Ukranian, Yiddish, Lithuanian
Demonym(s) Polish
Government Federal Parliamentary Constitutional Monarchy
• King
Augustine II
Aleksy Kowalczyk
Legislature Sejm
Senate
Chamber of Deputies
Population
• Census
39,392,582
• Density
6/km2 (15.5/sq mi)
GDP (PPP) estimate
• Total
$1.01 trillion
• Per capita
$35,291
HDI 0.891
very high
Time zone Central Europe Time
ISO 3166 code PL

Poland, officially the Kingdom of Poland, is a sovereign nation located in in Central Europe. Poland borders Germany, Czechia, and Slovakia to the west, Belarus and Ukraine to the east, and Romania to the south. With a population of over 39 million, Poland is the TBD most populous country in Europe and is the 37th largest country in terms of population globally. The capital and largest populated city in Poland is Warsaw.

The history of human activity on Polish soil spans thousands of years. Throughout the late antiquity period it became extensively diverse, with various cultures and tribes settling on the vast Central European Plain. However, it was the Western Polans who dominated the region and gave Poland its name. The establishment of Polish statehood can be traced to 966, when the pagan ruler of a realm coextensive with the territory of present-day Poland embraced Christianity and converted to Roman Catholicism. The Kingdom of Poland was founded in 1025, and in 1569 it cemented its longstanding political association with Lithuania by signing the Union of Lublin. This union formed the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, one of the largest (over 400,000 square miles in area) and most populous nations of 16th and 17th century Europe, with a uniquely liberal political system which adopted Europe's first modern constitution, the Constitution of 3 May 1791.

With a declining military and political presence in European geopolitics, Poland would later be partitioned by it's neighbors, continuing officially as a state in the Russian Empire. During the Russian Revolution of 1923, Poland would gain break away from the crumbling Russian Empire, and with the support of Germany, it's independence would be secured by the end of the conflict. Quickly, Poland would become aligned with Germany, becoming one of it's chief principal allies. Poland would side with the Triple Alliance in Great War I, assisting it's allies in defeating the French-led Entente Impériale. During the interwar period, Poland's economy would begin to grow as the country began industrialization. During Great War II, Polish forces would be overwhelmed by Derzhavist Russia, who would brutally occupy the country for a majority of the war. Poland would be liberated by the Allies by 1956. During the Cold War, Poland would continue to side with Germany, serving as a member of the Warsaw Pact and becoming one of the founders of the European Community.

Poland is a federal constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy. The head of state is the Monarch, who possesses largely ceremonial executive powers. Instead, most executive power in granted to the head of government, the Prime Minister. The nation's legislature is the Sejm, and is composed of two houses, the Senate and the Chamber of Deputies. The nation's chief judicial branch is the Royal and Supreme Court of Poland. In the modern era, Poland is considered a developed nation and a "middle power" in Europe. Poland is a founding member of the League of Nations and the European Community, and is a member of NATO and the IMF.

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