Proto-Letsio-Adzeian

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Proto-Letsio-Adzeian (PLA) is the linguistic reconstruction of the ancient common ancestor of the Exhulan, Qeranic, Sillenic, Berabic languages, which together are grouped as the Lestio-Adzeian languages. The Letsio-Adzeian languages is one of the world's primary language families, with its XXX languages collectively having over XXX million native speakers predominantly in East Letsia, the Adzeian subcontinent (specifically the Greater Sillas region and the Beraban peninsulas), and Northwest Kalmiya.

The notion of a common origin for these languages dates back to antiquity, and served as a justification for Sillas' conquests across the region. Proto-Letsio-Adzeian is not attested in writing, with the earliest written examples of Ancient Qeran and Sillenic dating to about 3,000 years ago; this gives us the minimum date for the age of Lestio-Adzeian. However, both Ancient Qeran and Sillenic were already highly divergent from each other, making this date highly unlikely. Estimates for when PLA was spoken vary widely to as recent as 6,000 years ago, to as late as 20,000 years ago, with the most accepted date being 12,000-14,000 years ago, thus making it much older than other proto-languages.

While a genetic relationship between its daughter languages is accepted, details - such as the construction of cognates and which traits are ancestral and others due to areal contact - continue to be fiercely debated. The location of the Letsio-Adzeian Urheimat (referring to the hypothetical place where the speakers of PLA lived as a single linguistic community) is also debated. Most place the Letsio-Adzeian Urheimat in Northeast Letsia (though there are competing hypotheses as to where exactly where), Tohatia, or the Horn of Letsia.

Much of Proto-Letsio-Adzeian is conjecture, with only a few words being reconstructed, evidence of a common genetic link comes more so from typological similarities: agglutinative morphology, accusative alignment, frequent use of suffixes and/or postpositions, and verbs being conjugated for tense, aspect, person, and transitivity. Other traits PLA has are a relatively large consonant inventory including three sets of plosives and three sets of affricates, a three-way distinction between short, half-long, and long vowels, and extremely conservative phonotactics.

Urheimat[edit | edit source]

Phonology[edit | edit source]

Consonants[edit | edit source]

Labial Dental/

Alveolar

Post-alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
plain lateral
Nasal m n1, n2, n3
Stop voiced b d g ɢ

gg

unvoiced p t k q

kk

ʔ

q

aspirated

Affricate unvoiced ts

tz

tl

ch

voiced dz

dl

j

Fricative unvoiced f s, θ

s, th

ɬ

lh

ʃ

x

ɣ

ǵ

ʁ

rh

h1, h2, h3
voiced v z, ð

z, dh

ɮ

lzh

ʒ

zh

x

χ

kh

Approximant ɹ? l j w
Trill ɾ

Vowels[edit | edit source]

Front Central Back
long short long short long short
Close i o
Mid e
Open a

Phonotactics[edit | edit source]

Consonant correspondences[edit | edit source]

PLA Exhulan Qeran Old Olmac Classical Sillenic Old Makuku Sayaleni
b ɓ p, b (<ᵐb) p b
p p f ɸ
f ɸ
d d t, d (<ⁿd) t d
t t t
s h s ~ ʃ
g ŋ k, g (<ᵑɡ) k ŋ
k k h k
χ x
ɢ q ø ʔ
q χ
ʔ ʔ ʔ
dz t͡s dʲ, j j, l z ~ ʒ
j l, j
t͡ʃ ʒ
ts s ts h s
ɬ
ʃ ʃ
v w b f b
ð ɟ d d
z s z z
ɮ j~lʲ dʲ, j j, l ʒ
ʒ ʃ
ɣ ʁ g h g
ʁ r k ɣ
f ʍ f ɸ
θ c tʰ, s h x
s s s ʃ
ɬ ɬ sʲ, s ɬ
ʃ t͡ʃ ʃ
x χ kʰ, s h
χ
h1, h2, h3 ħ ø ø ø
m m m m m
n1, n2, n3 n, ŋ n, ŋ, ɲ, ʎ n, ŋ n, ɲ
l l, ɬ l l l
j j j j j
w w w w w
ɹ l ɾ ~ ɹ ɾ l
r r r

Grammar[edit | edit source]

Vocabulary[edit | edit source]

PLA Classical

Qeran

Old

Sayaleni

Proto–Sillenic Old

Olmac

Classical

Sillenic

Old

Makuku

I to V-kō ecō (a)khóu ko
you (singular) te ekō ecō-ecō ekhóu
this ce V-tōn etōn tón to
who co sino cino sino hino
what inoC inō
one sa esaC ezā
two tual tanwaL tlanhuā thalouá tanwhā
fish mecetl (m)etzeC eztlā sthā
dog sjolotl so- zo
louse xoto kyto icto khuro kuto
blood toxo tykoC ticō dukhó tukō
bone omoto fytoC itō buthó hutō
egg aj etlocV etlōc cho ihō
horn soge syngeC izne súnē hunge
tail poto fVntot intōt bonthó hotō
ear neka tingə itni thēgna tenga
nose wog ilōn ilōn ilō
tooth nec nifen nipen nípen nihe
tongue ligwa tiLa tlina thila tira
hand majt kəmeC icnē kamē kamē
know wam əlam ilān lan lo
die mekecen məteN intē mathē mate
give kepen fikeN ikē bikhé hikē
sun tonatl ənoC anō róu ro
moon mocetl pyranC inān blan hurā
water uota V-thypik tipic thúbi tuhi

Example[edit | edit source]

On a hill, a sheep that had no wool saw horses, one of them pulling a heavy wagon, one carrying a big load, and one carrying a man quickly. The sheep said to the horses: "My heart pains me, seeing a man driving horses." The horses said: "Listen, sheep, our hearts pain us when we see this: a man, the master, makes the wool of the sheep into a warm garment for himself. And the sheep has no wool." Having heard this, the sheep fled into the plain.