Quebec

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Republic of Quebec

La République des Québécois
Flag of Quebec
Flag
Coat of arms of Quebec
Coat of arms
Motto: Je me souviens
("I remember")
Anthem: "Gens du pays"
Capital Montréal
Largest city Rouillé
Official languages Quebec French
Demonym(s) French: Québécois(e)
English: Quebecer or Quebecker
Supranational union Flag of the Conference of American States.svg Conference of American States
Government Federal semi-presidential constitutional republic
• President
Bernard Couillard
Emilia Rouleau
Tristan Bourbeau
Legislature National Assembly of Quebec (Unicameral)
Independence 
from the Canada
June 22, 1774
August 3, 1930
April 13, 2000
July 21, 2000
Area
• Total
2,868,944 km2 (1,107,705 sq mi)
Population
• 2020 estimate
9,095,569
• Density
5.98/km2 (15.5/sq mi)
Time zone UTC –6, –5, –4
Date format dd-mm-yyyy
Driving side right

The Republic of Quebec (French: la République des Québécois) is a sovereign state situated in the North American continent, bordering Rainier to the west; Superior, the Union of American States, and the Northeast Union to the south; and the French island of Saint-Pierre to the east. It has an area of TBD, and a population of 32,144,200 as determined by the 2015 Census–the majority of whom reside below the 49th parallel. It is the sole Francophone state within North America, and one of the two (alongside Haiti) in the Conference of American States.

The territory that now constitute Quebec (then known as New France) had been first colonized by France. Though interest among French authorities was initially low, the lucrative fur trade as well as the emergence of a successful commercial whaling industry had attracted a sizeable number of settlers; albeit the majority of whom went back to metropolitan France after amassing personal fortunes. Under the financial sponsorship of King Louis XIV, 1,536 filles du roi arrived in 1663 to 1673. Meanwhile, Cardinal Richelieu encouraged coexistence and cohabitation with the indigenes, with Catholic converts branded as "natural Frenchmen". These efforts led to a rapid population increase, and by its cession to the British following the Seven Year's War, Quebec had a population of approximately 140,000 inhabitants–far larger than any of France's possessions in the New World. Despite the deportation of the Acadians (eventually forming the Cajun community of Louisiana) and encouragement of immigration from Britain, the French still comprised the overwhelming majority of the population. The Quebec Act of 1774–which restored usage of French civil law for private matters, maintained the use of English common law for public administration, as well as guaranteed the free practice of Catholic faith–was established to secure the allegiance of the Québécois amidst instability in the Thirteen Colonies.

During the American Revolution (1775–1783), Quebec was invaded by the Americans, but had defeated them during the ensuing Battle of Quebec which resulted in many casualties including the death of General Richard Montgomery, who led the campaign. Quebec remained under British control and was eventually absorbed into Canada as a province where it remained a province, but its strong cultural and ethnic identity contrasted that of the nation leading to Quebec being granted special autonomy in order to prevent separatistism from taking power and to stop the rise of Québécois nationalism. Quebec remained a part of Canada up until the Crimson Spring where in the summer of 1930, both Quebec and the neighboring Maritime Republic broke away in revolt and became independent nations under the control of new governments influenced by Landonism. Quebec would join Landonist International and fought in Great War I against the Entente Impériale on the North American Front. Throughout the war, Quebec aligned itself with the Union of American States and fought against the Kingdom of Sierra, Superior, Astoria and Alaska during the war and pushed into Central Canada, but the war had ended in a stalemate, though Quebec had successfully prevented a land invasion of its territory.

During Great War II, Quebec had fought in the war to support the Landonist states, but its entry was highly controversial and caused the rise of factionalism within the ruling Landonist political party, the Democratic Revolutionary Party, and even regionalism to. Throughout the 1970s, a series of reforms were made by party leaders in an attempt to maintain the party's control over the nation, but by the 1980s, internal opposition and dissent had continued to grow and by the late 1990s, protests became common place despite police brutality being used to supress them. This culminated in the Democratic Spring of 2000 which saw the end of the Landonist regime as part of the wider Revolutions of 2000 and new multi-party elections were held in the new post-Landonist era.

Quebec is the eleventh-largest economy by nominal GDP, but thirteenth when adjusted for power purchasing parity (PPP), a feat that can be attributed to exceedingly high rates of worker productivity. As a result, Rouillé and Montréal are one of the two foremost international trading and financial hubs, with the Rouillé-Waterloo Corridor often referred to as the "Silicon Valley of the North". Owing to its long history of immigration, it is a prime example of cosmopolitan multiculturalism and is often considered a melting pot. Quebec is considered a middle power and a regional power, and is considered by some analysts as an emerging power within the Francophone world. Apart from being a member of the Conference of American States (CAS), it is an observing member of the Trans-Pacific Allied Community (TPAC) and is a participant of the St. Louis Economic Zone.

Etymology[edit | edit source]

History[edit | edit source]

Pre-Columbian[edit | edit source]

New France[edit | edit source]

Early French exploration[edit | edit source]

Main article: Jacques Cartier

Portrait of Jacques Cartier by Théophile Hamel, c. 1844. No contemporary portraits of Cartier are known.

On June 24, 1534, French explorer Jacques Cartier planted a cross on the Gaspé peninsula and took possession of the territory under the name of King François I of France. On his second voyage on May 26, 1535, Cartier sailed upriver to the Saint-Laurence Iroquoian villages of Stadacona and Hochelaga, situated near present-day Quebec City and Montreal respectively. In 1541, Jean-François Roberval became lieutenant of New France and was tasked with establishing a new colony in North America; however, it was Cartier who established the first attempted European settlement in the New World, Charlesbourg Royal–situated in modern-day Cap-Rouge, Quebec City. However, the three voyages of Cartier had dismayed French authorities, who saw very little profitability in sponsoring further French colonial activity in North America. It was only until the end of the sixteenth century was interest within these northern territories renewed.

An increase in the demand for whale products led to the emergence of a competitive whaling industry, which alongside the lucrative fur trade, made France's territorial possessions within the region especially valuable. This allowed it to exert a monopoly over those industries, which garnered France a huge profit. The influx of merchants and fishermen, an increasing number of whom of whom began to opt for a permanent instead of a seasonal presence, led to a growth in the size and number of settlements. By the end of the seventeenth century, a census showed that there were ~20,000 French settlers permanently-residing in the lower Saint-Laurence Valley, which extended from modern-day Newfoundland to the Mississippi; the pattern of settlement typically coincided with networks of cod fishery and the fur trade.

French settlement[edit | edit source]

Main article: New France

Champlain's Habitation, c. 1608
Jean Talon, Bishop François de Laval and several settlers welcome several filles du roi upon their arrival. Painting by Eleanor Fortescue-Brickdale

Current-day Quebec City was founded in 1608 by Samuel de Champlain, which was the first French settlement intended to house a large permanent population, rather than function as a simple trading post. Being Quebec's earliest settlement, it was initially the most-populous, and was designated as the capital of all French colonial possessions in North America (which was organized as New France, encompassing Acadia, Newfoundland, Louisiana and Quebec itself). At its establishment, it consisted of a single-walled building, an arrangement intended to provide protection to the settlers from the indigenous people. However, the settlement's overdependence on supplies shipped from metropolitan France, the inefficient utilization of land, and generally poor living standards contributed to a disproportionately high mortality. However, the expansion of agriculture and the continuous flow of immigrants (who were disproportionately male) led an eventual increase in population.

The Catholic Church was granted large tracts of land, amounting to nearly a third of all lands that had been granted by the French Crown in its New World possessions. After meeting with Samuel de Champlain, Cardinal Richelieu granted a charter to the Company of One Hundred Associates, which gave it a monopoly over the booming fur trade and land rights across the territory–in exchange for supporting the settlement of New France. For example, specific clauses in the charter required the recruitment of ~4,000 colonists into New France over the following 15 years. However, this request was largely ignored in-favor of focusing on the fur trade, with only ~300 permanent settlers arriving before 1640. The instability that had resulted from the Anglo-French War (1627–1629) led to the company's declaration of bankruptcy; with its monopoly revoked in 1641, and finally dissolving in 1662. New France underwent a period of political restructuring following the end of company rule. Following its establishment in 1663 by King Louis XIV of France, the Sovereign Council of New France emerged as the governing body of France's overseas territories, which sought to eventually incorporate it into metropolitan France as a province. Consisting of twelve members, it served as both its main judicial and legislative institution.

The growth of the population in the competing English colonies to the south had awakened concerns among the French authorities over the ability of France to assert control over its own territory. In order to stimulate population growth and entice the formation of families, the Intendant of New France, Jean Talon, proposed that the King sponsored the passage of at least five hundred women, a proposition which was accepted. Between 1663 and 1673, a total of approximately ~1,600 women were recruited and sent to New France, thrice that of the proposed amount. These women were given not only state patronage, but were granted dowry from the King. As a result, these women are colloquially referred to as the filles du roi, or the "King's daughters" in French. The program was declared a success, with the population of French settlers doubling during the period. Despite the intensification of French settlement in the New World, New France still remained fairly sparsely-populated, with a population of only ~140,000 residents at the time of British cession.

British conquest and occupation[edit | edit source]

Main articles: French and Indian War and Seven Years' War

American Revolutionary War[edit | edit source]

A painting dramatizing the death of General Richard Montgomery in the Battle of Quebec, (John Trumbull, 1786).

Main articles: Invasion of Quebec, American Revolutionary War

When the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783) broke out, the Province of Quebec targeted by American forces, who sought to exploit the rife anti-British sentiment among the majority Francophone population to turn the tide of war to their favor. In 1775, the Continental War mounted a two-pronged offensive; one army headed towards Montreal, and another traversing through country (in modern-day Maine) towards Quebec City. The two armies eventually joined forces and fought the British in the ensuing Battle of Quebec. Despite making some ground in Quebec, the American forces had suffered heavy casualties, including the death of campaign commander Richard Montgomery, with many Americans being captured and the survivors retreating back to American-controlled territory. For the rest of the war, Quebec remained seperate from the United States and was eventually abosrbed into Canada intially as a state, but was later given the status as a province and its own autonomous government.

Province of Canada[edit | edit source]

Crimson Spring[edit | edit source]

During the Great Wars[edit | edit source]

Cold War[edit | edit source]

Revolution of 2000[edit | edit source]

Contemporary era[edit | edit source]

Geography, climate, and environment[edit | edit source]

Fauna and flora[edit | edit source]

Demographics[edit | edit source]

The 2010 Québecois Bureau of Census determined that approximately TBD people resided within Quebec. As of May 10, 2016, the Census estimated that the country had 42,220,035 inhabitants, of which, roughly ~10% (a tenth) are foreign-born. Quebec has a long history of immigration which can be divided into four waves: the arrival of French settlers during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the arrival of various Francophone American groups and free people of color, immigration from Europe coinciding with industrialization, and currently immigration from Asia, the Caribbean, and Africa. Quebec is ranked 33rd in terms of population, though it is postulated to rise in the future due to high birth and net migration rates–being one of the few industrialized countries to experience continued population growth.

Whites comprise the largest racial group within Quebec, comprising 70% of the population. Other racial groups are: Asians (13.5%), Blacks (11.5%), and Native Americans (1%). The remainder are composed of individuals who identity as biracial, multiracial, or other. The largest recognized ethnicity within Quebec is Franco-Québecois, constituting a third of the population. They can be split further into four subgroups, with the Canadiens tracing their ancestry to French Catholic pioneers during the colonial era. Huguenots, Acadians including Cajuns, Alsatians, and Louisiana Creoles comprise other groups tracing their ancestral ties to France. The other ten largest ethnicities are (ranked accordingly to their respective populations): African-Québecois, Germans, Chinese, Anglo-American, Irish, Italians, Haitians, Finns, Swedes, and Poles.

Language[edit | edit source]

Religion[edit | edit source]

Family structure and law[edit | edit source]

Government and politics[edit | edit source]

Quebec is a semi-presidential representative democratic republic and has been since the ratification of the current constitution in March 22, 2000 with Quebec City being the nation's capital. The constitution grants the seperation of powers between the Presidency, the Legislature and the Judiciary. The President and Prime Minister of Quebec make up the executive branch of the government, the legislative branch is the National Assembly of Quebec and the Supreme Court is the most senior court in Quebec and the leading court in the country's judiciary and is supported by different regional and municipal courts as well.

The President of Quebec is the official head of state of Quebec and is elected to serve four year terms with said term being renewable only two times. The president is appointed in a national popular vote which garuntees universal suffrage to all citizens aged 18 and older in presidential elections in which candidates must win 45% of the popular vote in order to win. The Prime Minister is the head of government and is appointed by the President following legislative elections with the party leader or candidate being appointed as the Prime Minister. The appointment of the next Prime Minister is dependant on which party wins the largest share of the vote in legislative elections and the largest number of seats in the legislature.

The National Assembly of Quebec is the unicameral legislature of Quebec and represents the legislative branch of the national government. The assembly has 125 seats in total with 63 seats being needed for any political party to win a majority and to form a majority government. The assembly meets in the Parliament Building in the capital city, Quebec City. Legislative elections are held once every four years aee the same time of presidential elections, typically after a presidential election is held so the new President can appoint who will serve as the Prime Minister to form a new government and a new cabinet. Members of the National Assembly are elected to represent the various provinces of Quebec with the number of assmelby members being proportional to the population of each province with the Montreal Metropolitan Area having the largest number of representatives and Nord-du-Quebec having the smallest amount.

Administrative divisions[edit | edit source]

The administrative divisions of Quebec are divided into three levels; federal provinces, regional counties and municipalities. Each administrative division level as their own sub-division such as metropolitan areas for specific provinces, parishes for regional counties and villages and small towns for municipalities which also handle with communities and counties designated for aborigional peoples in Quebec. The highest level organization are the provinces of which there exist 17 as of 2020 along with six organized counties, administrative regions that are not designated as provinces, but have the needed political infrastructure to be a seperate region. Such counties are typically organized for native tribes and other specific communities.

Parties and elections[edit | edit source]

Quebec is currently a multi-party system since the end democratic revolution in 2000 which ended the one-party rule of the Landonist regime. For much of its post-revolutionary history, the Quebec Liberal Party has been the largest and most prominent political party in Quebec with its first post-Landonist leaders being from the Liberal Party and the Liberals held the presidency throughout the modern era only interrupted in 2008 and recently in 2018. The National Coalition of Quebec was originally the second largest party in Quebec, but was dethroned from that spot in 2018 and replaced by the Coalition Avenir Québec following the 2018 elections.

Foreign relations[edit | edit source]

Economy[edit | edit source]

Culture[edit | edit source]

Navigation[edit | edit source]