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Continental Republic of Quebec
République Continentale du Québec
Motto: Je me souviens
Anthem: "Gens du pays"
|Official languages||French (Quebec French)|
English: Quebecer or Quebecker
|Government||Federal semi-presidential Continental-Landonist republic|
|Legislature||People's Assembly of Quebec (Unicameral)|
from the Canada
|June 22, 1774|
|August 3, 1930|
|2,868,944 km2 (1,107,705 sq mi)|
• 2020 estimate
|5.98/km2 (15.5/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC –6, –5, –4|
Quebec (French: Québec), officially the Continental Republic of Quebec (French: République Continentale du Québec) is a sovereign state situated in the North American continent, bordering Manitoba to the west; Superior and the United Commonwealth to the south; and the French island of Saint-Pierre to the east. It has an area of TBD, and a population of 32,144,200 as determined by the 2015 Census–the majority of whom reside below the 49th parallel. It is the one of three Francophone state within North America, along with Tournesol and Manitoba.
The territory that now constitute Quebec (then known as New France) had been first colonized by France. Though interest among French authorities was initially low, the lucrative fur trade as well as the emergence of a successful commercial whaling industry had attracted a sizeable number of settlers; albeit the majority of whom went back to metropolitan France after amassing personal fortunes. Under the financial sponsorship of King Louis XIV, 1,536 filles du roi arrived in 1663 to 1673. Meanwhile, Cardinal Richelieu encouraged coexistence and cohabitation with the indigenes, with Catholic converts branded as "natural Frenchmen". These efforts led to a rapid population increase, and by its cession to the British following the Seven Year's War, Quebec had a population of approximately 140,000 inhabitants–far larger than any of France's possessions in the New World. Despite the deportation of the Acadians (eventually forming the Cajun community of Louisiana) and encouragement of immigration from Britain, the French still comprised the overwhelming majority of the population. The Quebec Act of 1774–which restored usage of French civil law for private matters, maintained the use of English common law for public administration, as well as guaranteed the free practice of Catholic faith–was established to secure the allegiance of the Québécois amidst instability in the Thirteen Colonies.
During the American Revolution (1775–1783), Quebec was invaded by the Americans, but had defeated them during the ensuing Battle of Quebec which resulted in many casualties including the death of General Richard Montgomery, who led the campaign. Quebec remained under British control and was eventually absorbed into Canada as a province where it remained a province, but its strong cultural and ethnic identity contrasted that of the nation leading to Quebec being granted special autonomy in order to prevent separatists from taking power and to stop the rise of Québécois nationalism. Quebec remained a part of Canada up until the Crimson Spring where in the summer of 1930, both Quebec and the neighboring Maritime Republic broke away in revolt and became Landonist nations under the protection of the United Commonwealth. Quebec would join Landonist International and fought in Great War I against the Entente Impériale on the North American Front. Throughout the war, Quebec aligned itself with the United Commonwealth and fought against the Kingdom of Sierra, Superior, Astoria, Manitoba, and Alaska during the war and pushed into Central Canada, but the war had ended in a stalemate, though Quebec had successfully prevented a land invasion of its territory.
During Great War II, Quebec had joined the war to support the Landonist states, but its entry was highly controversial and caused the rise of factionalism within the ruling Landonist political party, the Democratic Revolutionary Party, between pro and anti-United Commonwealth factions. During the Cold War, Quebec would be stricken with social and political conflict, cultivating in a number of rebellions against the government, all of which were put down with the assistance of the United Commonwealth. Despite this, Quebec would have a large role in influencing the creation of the "Eastern Bloc", being a founding member of the Chattanooga Pact and OMEAD.
Quebec is the eleventh-largest economy by nominal GDP, but thirteenth when adjusted for power purchasing parity (PPP), a feat that can be attributed to exceedingly high rates of worker productivity. As a result, Rouillé and Montréal are one of the two foremost international trading and financial hubs, with the Rouillé-Waterloo Corridor often referred to as the "Silicon Valley of the North". Owing to its long history of immigration, it is a prime example of cosmopolitan multiculturalism and is often considered a melting pot. Quebec is considered a middle power and a regional power, and is considered by some analysts as an emerging power within the Francophone world. Quebec is a member of the Chattanooga Pact and the Organization for Mutual Economic Assistance and Development.
Early French exploration
Main article: Jacques Cartier
On June 24, 1534, French explorer Jacques Cartier planted a cross on the Gaspé peninsula and took possession of the territory under the name of King François I of France. On his second voyage on May 26, 1535, Cartier sailed upriver to the Saint-Laurence Iroquoian villages of Stadacona and Hochelaga, situated near present-day Quebec City and Montreal respectively. In 1541, Jean-François Roberval became lieutenant of New France and was tasked with establishing a new colony in North America; however, it was Cartier who established the first attempted European settlement in the New World, Charlesbourg Royal–situated in modern-day Cap-Rouge, Quebec City. However, the three voyages of Cartier had dismayed French authorities, who saw very little profitability in sponsoring further French colonial activity in North America. It was only until the end of the sixteenth century was interest within these northern territories renewed.
An increase in the demand for whale products led to the emergence of a competitive whaling industry, which alongside the lucrative fur trade, made France's territorial possessions within the region especially valuable. This allowed it to exert a monopoly over those industries, which garnered France a huge profit. The influx of merchants and fishermen, an increasing number of whom of whom began to opt for a permanent instead of a seasonal presence, led to a growth in the size and number of settlements. By the end of the seventeenth century, a census showed that there were ~20,000 French settlers permanently-residing in the lower Saint-Laurence Valley, which extended from modern-day Newfoundland to the Mississippi; the pattern of settlement typically coincided with networks of cod fishery and the fur trade.
Main article: New France
Current-day Quebec City was founded in 1608 by Samuel de Champlain, which was the first French settlement intended to house a large permanent population, rather than function as a simple trading post. Being Quebec's earliest settlement, it was initially the most-populous, and was designated as the capital of all French colonial possessions in North America (which was organized as New France, encompassing Acadia, Newfoundland, Louisiana and Quebec itself). At its establishment, it consisted of a single-walled building, an arrangement intended to provide protection to the settlers from the indigenous people. However, the settlement's overdependence on supplies shipped from metropolitan France, the inefficient utilization of land, and generally poor living standards contributed to a disproportionately high mortality. However, the expansion of agriculture and the continuous flow of immigrants (who were disproportionately male) led an eventual increase in population.
The Catholic Church was granted large tracts of land, amounting to nearly a third of all lands that had been granted by the French Crown in its New World possessions. After meeting with Samuel de Champlain, Cardinal Richelieu granted a charter to the Company of One Hundred Associates, which gave it a monopoly over the booming fur trade and land rights across the territory–in exchange for supporting the settlement of New France. For example, specific clauses in the charter required the recruitment of ~4,000 colonists into New France over the following 15 years. However, this request was largely ignored in-favor of focusing on the fur trade, with only ~300 permanent settlers arriving before 1640. The instability that had resulted from the Anglo-French War (1627–1629) led to the company's declaration of bankruptcy; with its monopoly revoked in 1641, and finally dissolving in 1662. New France underwent a period of political restructuring following the end of company rule. Following its establishment in 1663 by King Louis XIV of France, the Sovereign Council of New France emerged as the governing body of France's overseas territories, which sought to eventually incorporate it into metropolitan France as a province. Consisting of twelve members, it served as both its main judicial and legislative institution.
The growth of the population in the competing English colonies to the south had awakened concerns among the French authorities over the ability of France to assert control over its own territory. In order to stimulate population growth and entice the formation of families, the Intendant of New France, Jean Talon, proposed that the King sponsored the passage of at least five hundred women, a proposition which was accepted. Between 1663 and 1673, a total of approximately ~1,600 women were recruited and sent to New France, thrice that of the proposed amount. These women were given not only state patronage, but were granted dowry from the King. As a result, these women are colloquially referred to as the filles du roi, or the "King's daughters" in French. The program was declared a success, with the population of French settlers doubling during the period. Despite the intensification of French settlement in the New World, New France still remained fairly sparsely-populated, with a population of only ~140,000 residents at the time of British cession.
British conquest and occupation
American Revolutionary War
When the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783) broke out, the Province of Quebec targeted by American forces, who sought to exploit the rife anti-British sentiment among the majority Francophone population to turn the tide of war to their favor. In 1775, the Continental War mounted a two-pronged offensive; one army headed towards Montreal, and another traversing through country (in modern-day Maine) towards Quebec City. The two armies eventually joined forces and fought the British in the ensuing Battle of Quebec. Despite making some ground in Quebec, the American forces had suffered heavy casualties, including the death of campaign commander Richard Montgomery, with many Americans being captured and the survivors retreating back to American-controlled territory. For the rest of the war, Quebec remained seperate from the United States and was eventually abosrbed into Canada intially as a state, but was later given the status as a province and its own autonomous government.
Province of Canada
During the Great Wars
Revolution of 2000
Geography, climate, and environment
Fauna and flora
The 2010 Québecois Bureau of Census determined that approximately TBD people resided within Quebec. As of May 10, 2016, the Census estimated that the country had 42,220,035 inhabitants, of which, roughly ~10% (a tenth) are foreign-born. Quebec has a long history of immigration which can be divided into four waves: the arrival of French settlers during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the arrival of various Francophone American groups and free people of color, immigration from Europe coinciding with industrialization, and currently immigration from Asia, the Caribbean, and Africa. Quebec is ranked 33rd in terms of population, though it is postulated to rise in the future due to high birth and net migration rates–being one of the few industrialized countries to experience continued population growth.
Whites comprise the largest racial group within Quebec, comprising 70% of the population. Other racial groups are: Asians (13.5%), Blacks (11.5%), and Native Americans (1%). The remainder are composed of individuals who identity as biracial, multiracial, or other. The largest recognized ethnicity within Quebec is Franco-Québecois, constituting a third of the population. They can be split further into four subgroups, with the Canadiens tracing their ancestry to French Catholic pioneers during the colonial era. Huguenots, Acadians including Cajuns, Alsatians, and Louisiana Creoles comprise other groups tracing their ancestral ties to France. The other ten largest ethnicities are (ranked accordingly to their respective populations): African-Québecois, Germans, Chinese, Anglo-American, Irish, Italians, Haitians, Finns, Swedes, and Poles.
Family structure and law
Government and politics
Quebec is a semi-presidential federal republic based in the ideology of Continentalist-Landonism with Quebec City being the nation's capital. The constitution grants the separation of powers between the Presidency, the Legislature and the Judiciary. The President and Premier of Quebec make up the executive branch of the government, the legislative branch is the People's Assembly of Quebec and the Supreme Continental Court is the most senior court in Quebec and the leading court in the country's judiciary and is supported by different regional and municipal courts as well.
The administrative divisions of Quebec are divided into three levels; federal provinces, regional counties and municipalities. Each administrative division level as their own sub-division such as metropolitan areas for specific provinces, parishes for regional counties and villages and small towns for municipalities which also handle with communities and counties designated for aborigional peoples in Quebec. The highest level organization are the provinces of which there exist 17 as of 2020 along with six organized counties, administrative regions that are not designated as provinces, but have the needed political infrastructure to be a seperate region. Such counties are typically organized for native tribes and other specific communities.