Pacific States of Rainier
Motto: Powerful Prosperous Motherland
Anthem: Land of Hope and Glory
|Ethnic groups||White, Native, Asian, Black, Pacific Islander|
|Government||Federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy|
|Alexander Llewellyn (Labour)|
• Chief Justice
|Legislature||Parliament of Rainier|
|House of Senators|
|House of Councillors|
|Independence from United Kingdom|
• Dominion Status
|12th March 1865|
|9,084,543 km2 (3,507,562 sq mi)|
• 2017 estimate
|GDP (PPP)||2017 estimate|
|$1,350.780 billion (19th)|
• Per capita
|GDP (nominal)||2017 estimate|
|1,141.651 billion (15th)|
• Per capita
very high · 4th
|Currency||Rainian Pound (£)|
|Time zone||UTC-8/-7 (Pacific)|
The Pacific States of Rainier more commonly known as Rainier is a sovereign state in North America. It is bordered by Sierra to the south, Teutonica to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west. Its capital city is Victoria whilst its largest city is Seattle. Its population of 24,993,445 ranks it as the 53rd most populous country in the world, whereas its area of 9,084,543 km2 places it as being larger then Brazil but smaller then China.
Rainier was first inhabited by Native Americans up until European exploration which was first undertaken by the Spanish. In the early 1800's the Lewis and Clark Expedition sponsored by the United States was undertaken that mapped out much of Rainier alongside British explorer David Thompson. This eventually led to the Oregon boundary dispute which saw both the United States and Britain claim the area. Britain sent military forces into the area to cement their control before meeting local resistance by American settlers. In 1846 conflict broke out as several nationalists proclaimed the creation of the Columbian Republic, which prompted Britain to respond with military force. In 1865 Britain gave Rainier the right to self-government within the British Empire, becoming a dominion in 1907.
Following Rainer's self-governing the country became close to both America whilst enjoying cordial ties to Britain. However the country had several social divisions, mainly between Anglicans of British descent and Roman Catholics primarily of Irish descent. Mormons and Canaanites also helped further this divide. British Anglicans - who ruled as a dominant minority using gerrymandering to retain political power. This boiled over during the early 1900's up until 1940 when violence between Anglican and Catholic communities was common in a period known as the "Years of Strife".
Rainier participated in both world wars, playing a pivotal role in the Pacific theatre of World War Two, eventually leading the occupation of Japan between 1945-52. From the start of the Cold War Rainier quickly allied itself with the United States joining several military and economic forums associated with the first world. However, the government continued to pursue a Keynesian economic policy with the standard of living rising substantially in Rainier. In the 1980's the economy was liberalised, with positive economic growth lasting until the Great Recession, with the economy having struggled since.
Rainier is a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy possessing a developed market economy, with major exports including timber, fishing, and agriculture,machinery, electronics manufacturing, silver mining, and tourism. Rainier is one of North America's largest lumber industries alongside Canada as well as being one of the largest exporters of potatoes. Rainier also has a growing service sector with the economy having undergone significant deregulation since the 1980's. Nevertheless an extensive social safety net still exists in Rainier which has universal healthcare. A decline in industry has seen Rainier deal with crippling unemployment for the past 20 years.
Rainier has cordial relations with its closest neighbour Sierra as well as the Japan and its former colonial master Britain. Rainier is a member of various international organisations such as the LN, World Bank, IMF, OECD, OAS, NAFTA, APEC and the TPAC.
Etymology[edit | edit source]
Rainier is named after Mount Rainier, which itself was named by George Vancouver after his friend Peter Rainier. Prior to independence the region was known as the Oregon Country, with its earliest known use coming from British Major Robert Rogers who spelt it as Ouragon, which itself either came from the French word ouragan (meaning "windstorm" or "hurricane") or arose out of a misspelling of the Ouisiconsink (Wisconsin) River when a French map called it "Ouaricon-sint". However, Oregon was only widely used by Americans with Britons instead calling it "Columbia" after the Columbia District, which itself was named after Christopher Columbus and the Columbia River.
During the signing of the Victoria Treaty in 1865 there was controversy on what to call the region that would one day become a sovereign state. Oregon was favoured by American settlers whilst some Britons instead wanted Columbia. As a compromise a list of names was drawn up for the Columbia Executive Committee (who constitute the founding fathers of Rainier) to choose one with Columbia and Oregon being deliberately banned. Cascaidia (named after the Cascade Range) and Oregon were suggested alongside Rainier, with the latter eventually being picked.
People from Rainier are referred to as "Rainians" which extends to all Rainian citizens. "Oregonian" is an alternative term used, being widely used by the early American settlers. In the past in the Anglosphere a derogatory term used to describe Rainians included "Northern Yankees", which was likely first used by Britons.
History[edit | edit source]
Early history[edit | edit source]
The region that makes up modern day Rainier (and the rest of the Pacific Northwest has been said to be one of the earliest inhabited regions in North America, with humans having resided in the Olympic Peninsula since 9,000 BCE. Other parts of Rainier have housed human life from up to 14,500-15,000 years ago. Many of these people lived around the Columbia River, especially in the Columbia River Gorge.
By 8,000 BCE permanent settlements had started to crop up around the Columbia River and coastal regions. Tribes near the Columbia River were often richer then neighbouring tribes thanks to their control of Celilo Falls which enabled them to control the trade of salmon, which was a prized resource in the region.
Notable tribes that resided near coastal regions Lummi, Makah, Chinook, Quinault, Snohomish, and the Quileute. Tribes that were located in the east (known as plateau tribes) included the Palus, Cayuse, Klickitat, Nez Perce, Syilx, Yakama, Wenatchi, and Spokane. Tribes in southern region included the Takelma, Umpqua, Molala, Bannock, Kalapuya, Shasta and Klamath. The Northern Shoshone, Coeur d'Alene, Ktunaxa, Umatilla, and Walla Walla resided in the south east.
The Quadra's and Vancouver's Island similarly was the home to many indigenous people's such as the Kwakwaka'wakw, Nuu-chah-nulth, and the Coast Salish peoples. Many of these people's were the first people to come into contact with Europeans when they colonised Rainier.
Colonial history[edit | edit source]
The earliest European to sight Rainier was Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo in 1543. Juan de Fuca mapped out the Strait of Juan de Fuca in 1592. However, serious exploration of the Pacific Northwest was first seriously undertaken by Juan José Pérez Hernández on behalf of the Spanish Empire in accordance to their claims to the region in 1774. A year later Bruno de Heceta also made a expedition to the region as well as Juan Francisco de la Bodega y Quadra. Heceta was claimed land north of the Quinault River in order to counter Russian expansion into North America. Meanwhile Quadra managed to reach the mouth of the Columbia River. The region soon became a valuable trading outlet between the Americas and East Asia.
In 1778 British Captain James Cook set out to search for the Northwest Passage, which resulted in him exploring the Oregon Coast. This prompted in the 1780's for the maritime fur trade to emerge in the region. However, British influence in the region led to tensions between Britannia and Spain, who eventually signed the Nootka Convention which opened up the region to both British and Russian influence. The newly emerged United States of America also laid claim to the region.
Further Spanish explorations were undertaken by Manuel Quimper and Francisco de Eliza. However, the most successful expedition up to that date was done by George Vancouver who not only fully mapped out the Quadra's and Vancouver's Island but also reached Puget Sound, of which he claimed all land south of it for Britain.
American exploration started with Robert Gray, who found the mouth of Columbia River. In 1804 American President Thomas Jefferson commissioned navigators Meriwether Lewis and William Clark to explore the western regions of North America, which resulted in the Lewis and Clark Expedition, where they began an extensive expedition of what would become Rainier. Notably the travellers cam across many Native American tribes, which they noticed had more gender equality then other tribes in the east. One such Native American they met was Sacagawea near Salmon, who helped guide them to the Pacific Ocean. The expedition saw the first mapping out of the Clearwater, Snake, and Columbia rivers as well as Mount Hood.
Canadian-British explorer David Thompson explored the full length of the Columbia River in 1807, where he reaffirmed Britains's claims to the region, trying to create a trading outpost for the North West Company. The American Pacific Fur Company competed with the North West Company for fur trading in the region, which saw increased British and American immigration. Early American and British settlers also took up the role of being missionaries to the Native Americans. Henry H. Spalding was a preacher who helped set up the first Rainian school, irrigation system and also introduced potatoes to the region. Cataldo Mission, constructed by Catholic missionaries became an important post for travelling traders, settlers and miners.
Since 1816, both the USA and Britain claimed the region, which was known to the Americans as Oregon Country. Previously Russia had laid claim to the region along with Spain - however Britain nullified these claims with treaties. Nevertheless, America continued to encourage American immigration to the region, hoping to eventually annexe it into America. These moves were met with alarm by the British government. Tensions increased between the two countries until 1806, when Britain surrounded the Oregon Country with a naval blockade and sent troops into the territory. America threatened to declare war on Britain over the occupation, although Britannia refused to recognised America's claims to the region. Minor skirmishes started to occur on the Oregon boarder, with many Americans unhappy with the Britain imposed rule.
Columbia River Rebellion[edit | edit source]
The Oregon Country continued to face internal strife throughout British rule, which was much harsher then it was in the Thirteen Colonies. Attendance to the Anglican Church of Rainier was made mandatory. Resentment amongst settlers was high, with many being of American descent angry over the imposition of British rule over what was becoming a American region. The British government refused to agree to any proposal for more autonomy, keeping complete colonial authority in power.
On the 21st August 1829 Herbert Macdonald led a group of settlers to protest against colonial rule marching upon the governor generals offices with a list of demands, which mainly consisted of proposals for more autonomy. The colonial authorities rejected the demands sending in local forces to crush the protesters. The protesters fought back, initiating the Columbia River Rebellion. Settlers around the country started to resist colonial authorities, receiving military aid from America. Soon in the city of Salem the Pacific Republic was declared by rebel forces.
From the offset the rebels faced several problems. Britain had naval superiority, and was quickly able to enforce a blockade around the Pacific coast. Britain also had a superior army, and was able to launch several two pronged attacks from the coast. Despite this rebels led by General Macdonald were able to launch several pincer attacks on British supply lines being supplied by America. Native Americans also played a key role in the Coastal War. Britain made deals with several Native American tribes stating they could retain land rights if they fought against the Rainians, drawing comparisons with the treatment of Native Americans in the United States.
The rebellion reached its height in 1832 when riots and violence broke out in British Columbia. Although quickly suppressed, the spread of the violence worried colonial authorities who feared an American style revolution. Ultimately in 1834 the rebels were defeated by British forces, but the rebellion had led to colonial authorities to delegate more power to the four colonies, before merging Vancouver Island into British Columbia in 1859.
Self governing colony[edit | edit source]
By 1840, Rainier was split between three colonies - British Columbia, Northwest Territory and Oregon Country. Since the Columbia River Rebellion, there had been various movements in northwest America for more self government for the colony, which manifested in the Columbia Compromise in 1840 that created the three colonies.
Within the three colonies however there was a strong movement to move towards a single federal republic. These federalists were committed to constitutional means to achieve federation, but were influenced by various other traditions and so had weak unity. Many Anglicans wanted to create a "Britain of the pacific" and were strongly pro-British, whilst others more influenced by classical republicanism saw federation as the first step towards independence from Britain. A powerful Catholic movement in Oregon opposed federation on the grounds that it would lead to domination by Anglicans.
Between 1856-1865, several federation conferences were held by prominent politicians from Oregon, British Columbia and the Northwest Territories. The Tory Premier of British Columbia, Fydd Rochester, proposed the federalisation of Britain's northwest American colonies, being supported by the Whig Premier of the Oregon Country Alfred Henry Lawson. The Whig Catholic Premier of the Northwest Territory, Gordon J. Holt, was opposed to federalisation. However, in 1864 popular support for federation grew in the Northwest Territory as the province became more indebted. In 1865 Rochester and Lawson announced the Federation Congress which voted overwhelmingly to move towards Federation. Rochester was able to convince Holt to agree to federation by promising to take up the Northwest Territories debt and unloading it onto the newly created federal government. The government thus in 1865 signed the Treaty of Victoria which lay out the framework of federation.
The move towards federation was confirmed when the Liberal government of Lord Palmerston passed the 1865 Rainier Act, which gave self-government to Rainier. The creation of a government was affirmed in the Treaty of Victoria which created the basic framework of government in Rainier.
The newly formed Rainier was first led by the Anglican dominated British Imperial Party, who drafted the Constitution and formed the first government of Rainier. The prime minister, Fydd Rochester, was somewhat of a Anglophile drastically improved relations with Britain , drawing Rainier closer into Britain's sphere of influence. Following the Treaty of Victoria immigration to Rainier started to increase. Mormons established the town of Franklin in 1860 emigrating from Deseret. Canaanites also emigrated into southern regions from Sierra, Initially both groups were denied citizenship, although they were allowed to settle what was deemed common land.
Germans also immigrated to Rainier as well as English people, who soon started to support the Anglican government of Rainier. Following the Irish Potato Famine many Irish people's travelled to North America including Rainier. Basques also immigrated to Rainier as well as Chinese people's, where similar to other immigrants they were looking for agricultural opportunities. Rhodes encouraged immigration on the condition that immigrants convert to Anglicanism, although Basque and Irish immigrants largely retained Catholic beliefs. The encouragement of immigration - even including that of the Chinese, who faced legal discrimination - was intentionally done to help displace Native Americans from traditional hunting lads, where they were relocated to reservations unless they "Westernised".
The new government also began to affirm international relations, gaining recognition as a dominion in 1888 Brazoria and Sierra. Rainier soon also reached out to Latin American nations such as Colombia, Guatemala, Chile, Mexico, Honduras and Brazil, exporting mainly foodstuffs and lumber. However, new relations were considered to be most paramount with the USA and the Qing dynasty, with Rainier allowing the USA to build several naval bases on Vancouver Island which they used to trade American goods with China. Rainier's government came close to recognising the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War. However strong opposition came from those who sympathised with the United States, as well as those loyal to the British government. Ultimately Rainier supported the United States, much to the disappointment of Confederate leaders.
By 1869 the idea of Rainian identity was beginning to take root, with those descended from Britons seeing themselves as more cosmopolitan and intelligent then their American and immigrant counterparts. As such Americans and immigrants were excluded from schools unless they converted to Anglicanism.
Economic growth continued through the late 1800's, but the majority of Rainian society remained largely agrarian with industrial growth concentrated in the urban centres of Seattle, Victoria and Portland. During this time the politics of Rainier was divided between the British Imperial (later National) and Union parties, whose main division was over tariffs.
Years of Strife[edit | edit source]
Post-war period[edit | edit source]
Republic[edit | edit source]
Government and politics[edit | edit source]
Rainier is a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an independent judiciary, a bicameral legislature known as the Parliament and an executive known as the Cabinet. The head of state is the Monarch, which is legally a separate monarchy but is actuality always held by the same person as the reigning monarch of the United Kingdom. The monarch's representative in the country is the Governor-General. The head of government is the Prime Minister of Rainier who heads the cabinet. Parliament is split into an upper house known as the House of Senators and a lower house known as the House of Councillors, with the prime minister and cabinet governing with the confidence of both houses. In practice the House of Councillors is the more powerful house.
Government[edit | edit source]
The executive government of Rainier is the cabinet, which has 15 ministers including the Prime Minister. The Prime Minister is officially a primus inter pares acting more as the chairman of the government rather than head of government. Traditionally, executive decisions in Rainier are driven by consensus decision making as per tradition. The cabinet relies on the confidence of the House of Councillors in order to govern. Since 1989 all but two cabinets in Rainier have been multi-party, giving Rainier a tradition of coalition governments. The Prime Minister is the official commander-in-chief of the military. The current majority government of the Labour party under Alexander Llewellyn has been noted for being much more confrontational and centralised than the majority of governments of Rainier. This has earned Llewellyn the reputation of being the a more "presidential" prime minister.
Legislature[edit | edit source]
Rainier's legislature is known as Parliament. It is split into two chambers - an upper house known as the House of Senators and a lower house known as the House of Councillors. Constitutionally the House of Councillors is more powerful than the House of Senators.
There are 78 members of the House of Senators sit for six year terms, being elected via a single non-transferable vote. Elections are staggered, with 39 members being elected every three years. The senate can veto or delay most legalisation, but cannot veto or block government formations, budgets or constitutional changes proposed by the House of Councillors. The House of Senators can however vote down a motion of no confidence - this was done in 1980, which resulted in a lame duck government continuing until the 1981 elections.
The House of Councillors is the more powerful house. It contains 266 members and has a maximum parliamentary term of 4 years. Its members are elected via first-past-the-post with single member districts where members are elected by plurality vote. The House of Councillors officially lends support for the government, but it can only dissolve the government if it has the support of the House of Senators.
Elections[edit | edit source]
Political parties[edit | edit source]
There are six parties currently sitting in the House of Councillors. The governing party is the Labour Party, a centre-left social democratic party with 147 councillors and 40 senators. The main opposition party is the right-wing populist national liberal Reform Party with 44 councillors and 9 senators. Historically the other major party was the National Union Party, a conservative party that currently retains 38 councillors and 18 senators - however following a split in 2017 they have been reduced in size. Other parties include the liberal conservative Rainian Progressive Conservative Association which has 32 councillors and 5 senators, the Green-Left Movement, a green party that also supports democratic socialist with 4 councillors and 3 senators and the liberal Democratic Action with a single councillor and 3 senators.
Military[edit | edit source]
The Armed Forces of Rainier serve as Rainier's military. Whilst a comparatively small military in terms of manpower (with 105,850 active personnel and 50,600 reserve personnel) it is considered to be technologically advanced with a green-water navy. Rainier's military is divided into an army, airforce, navy and special forces. There also exists a coastal guard and gendarmerie force that serve under the authority of the Ministry of the Interior rather than the Ministry of Defence.
Foreign Relations[edit | edit source]
Geography[edit | edit source]
Provinces[edit | edit source]
|Flag||Emblem||Province||Capital||Largest City||Population||Total Area (km²)|
Economy[edit | edit source]
Since the 1980's Rainier has possessed a market economy based around the Anglo-Saxon model with extensive deregulation, low taxes ad high freedom of trade. However, earlier efforts especially in the 1930's-70's to construct a social market economy with greater state intervention and a larger public sector has resulted in Rainier possessing a mixed economy with an extensive welfare state. Rainier has a nominal GDP of $1,254.417 billion and a GDP per capita of $53,273. Rainier's currency is the Rainian pound, which is currently pegged to the Hudson dollar as part of the American Customs Authority.
During the 1950's the Rainian government drafted and implemented the Economic Restructuring Programme (ERP), a form of corpratism that replaced the previous heavily state controlled economy under the 1933-48 Labour government. The ERP was Keynesian in its approach, and with a strong focus on manufacturing led Rainier into quadrupling its economic growth between 1954-64. During the 1980's the economy was deregulated with most state run industries privatised alongside numerous social programmes, with free trade and deregulation being championed. In this period "Rainier went from one of the most protectionist, state run economies in the America to one of its most open and deregulated". The economic transition from the ERP to a more market friendly system "destroyed" much of Rainier's industrial base leading to higher unemployment and poverty; as such since 1993 the government has placed more regulations on the economy and expanded social welfare programmes, although not to the extent that they existed under the ERP. As a large amount of the economic deregulation was undertaken during the rule of the fourth Labour government (1987-95) union reform was a much more sensitive process, meaning that there still exists a large portion of unionised workers' comparative to other Anglo-Saxon market economies. Between 1993-2008 Rainier underwent an economic boom that saw an unprecedented expansion of the housing market, leading to a bubble that collapsed during the subprime mortgage crisis, with the Great Recession seriously damaging the Rainian economy. Whilst Rainier has recorded economic growth since, it has yet to fully recover from the crash with Rainier running a large budget deficit of $TBA million.
Demographics[edit | edit source]
Ethnic groups[edit | edit source]
Healthcare[edit | edit source]
Rainier, alongside the majority of the developed countries, maintains a two-tier system of universal healthcare, divided between a single-payer system centred around the Health Assistance Programme (HAP) and a private sector. Created in 1970, the HAP directly manages healthcare personnel and resources in Rainier being modelled off of the British National Health Service and funded through general taxation. All citizens and legal (taxpaying) residents apply for a HAP card which entitles them to access to HAP services, meaning those who do not possess HAP cards cannot use HAP services. A smaller private sector within the healthcare industry exists for those who wish to pay for private services. Private health providers are arranged around insurance schemes, which pay for healthcare providers either within the existing HAP infrastructure or private hospitals. The HAP only does partial coverage of dental and optic services. Alternative medicine is also available in Rainier.
Prior to 1970, healthcare was distributed through entirely private means, mainly through private hospitals, religious groups and charities. In 1946 the government created the National Health Fund (NHF) which provided limited monetary aid to lower income individuals seeking healthcare. However in 1970 the Labour government of Emyr Phillips promised to provide healthcare for all, nationalising private hospitals and creating the HAP through the Health Assistance Act, 1970. Since then successive governments have expanded on the program, which has been credited with eliminating various diseases in Rainier. Since the National Union government of Gerald Fairbrook more private investment in the HAP has been introduced, although moves to privatise the HAP are considered to be unpopular.
Life expectancy in Rainier is high, with women on average living for 83.8 years and men 78.4, ranking overall at around 81.1 behind Belgium but ahead of Finland. Cancer and obesity are considered the mot pressing issues in relations to Rainian health, with the government heavily advocating weight loss camps. Since the mid-1980's, smoking has been on the decline in Rainier.
Religion[edit | edit source]
|Affiliation||% of Rainian population|
Religion has been on the decline in Rainier since the 1980's, although the majority of the population identifies as Christian. Until 1985 the Anglican Church of Rainier was identified as the state religion, although in practice there were a diverse mix of Calvinistic Methodists, Mainline and Evangelical Protestants, Roman Catholics, Mormons, Baahgulists and Canaanites.
19% Rainians identify as unaffiliated, 60.5% Christian (22% Anglican, 20% Calvinistic Methodists, 6% Catholic, 5% Mainline Protestant, 4% Mormon, 3% Evangelical, 0.3 Jehovah's Witnesses, and 0.2% Orthodox) 5% Canaanites, 9% Baahgulists, 2% Jewish, 0.5% Buddhist, 2% Muslim, 0.5% Hinduism, and 1.5% other.
Language[edit | edit source]
Culture[edit | edit source]
Anthem[edit | edit source]
See also[edit | edit source]
|Pacific Ocean||North Pole||Greenland|