São Leopoldo

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Federal Republic of São Leopoldo

República Federal do São Leopoldo
República Federal de San Leopoldo
Flag of São Leopoldo
Flag
Coat of arms of São Leopoldo
Coat of arms
Location of São Leopoldo
Capital São Pedro
Largest city Curitiba
Official languages Portuguese
Spanish
Demonym(s) Leopoldean
Leopoldense
Government Federal semi-presidential constitutional republic
• President
Matheus Teixeira
Suzana Gonçalves
• Premier
Alipha Palmieri
• President
Jair Avila
Legislature National Council
Senate
Chamber of Deputies
Independence 
• Declared
March 1, 1845
• Recognized
December 19, 1853
January 2, 1854
October 24, 19??
• Current constitution
TBD
Area
• Total
576,409.6 km2 (222,553.0 sq mi)
Population
• 2019 census
36,923,229
GDP (PPP) 2019 estimate
• Total
R$642.796 billion
HDI (2019) 0.808
very high
Currency Leopoldean real (R$)
Time zone UTC-3
Driving side right
Calling code +55
ISO 3166 code SLP
Internet TLD .slp

São Leopoldo, officially the Federal Republic of São Leopoldo, is sovereign nation located in South America. It borders Brazil to the north Paraguay to the northwest and west, Argentina to the southwest and south, and Atlantic Ocean to the east. The capital city of the country is São Pedro and the largest city of the country is Curitiba.

São Leopoldo is a federal republic following the presidential system. The President is the both head of state and head of government as well. The national legislature is the National Council, which divided into two chambers: Senate (upper house) and Chamber of Deputies (lower house).

Before the Portuguese colonization, it was already inhabited by the Indian tribes while the first European explorers arrived. The colonization was started when the Spanish and Portuguese Jesuits arrived and they converted the Indians into Catholicism. The Germans settled the country when it was a part of Brazil in 1824. After the Ragamuffin war, the country declared independence from Brazil and it was unrecognized until 1853. The Italians settled the country in 1875 and most of them are originated from Northern Italy.

São Leopoldo is a member of Conference of American States and League of Nations.

Etymology[edit]

São Leopoldo was a name of the town where German immigrants settled in July 25, 1824. The name of the country was used after the independence from Brazil. Some proposed names of the country are Rio Grande, Plata, and Ragamuffia.

History[edit]

Early history[edit]

Before it's discovery by European explorers, São Leopoldo was inhabited by multiple indigenous hunter-gatherer tribes, who subsisted on a combination of hunting, fishing, and gathering. These tribes would act as individual city-states, conducting trade, war, and diplomacy with each other. Some notable tribes were Guarini and Charnia, who were one of the first Leopoldean tribes to make contact with European explorers.

Portuguese colonization[edit]

The Portuguese were the first to discovery São Leopoldo, colonizing it as apart of Colonial Brazil. Along with Portuguese settlers, Spanish Jesuits traveled to São Leopoldo to convert the indigenous Leopoldeans, who followed animistic and native religions. Many jesuits lived among the natives and converted many. For decades, both Spain and Portugal dispute over the region, with both nations claiming as apart of their own colonial territories. This prompted the Portuguese King to encourage increased Portuguese settlement in the area, resulting in a population boom.

Brazilian colonization[edit]

German settlement[edit]

At that time, Germany was suffering the effects of war against Napoleon, overpopulation, and poverty in the countryside. Many Germans were willing to immigrate in Brazil and São Leopoldo (it was a part of Brazil at that time). Brazilian Empress Maria Leopoldina encouraged the immigration of Germans in imperial Brazil. The first German immigrants prior the country's independence was happened in 1822 after Brazil gained independence from Portugal. The first immigrants arrived in 1824, settling the city of São Leopoldo (now known as Nova Alemanha).

Ragamuffin war and independence[edit]

Calls for independence would continue to rise after the end of the Ragamuffin War and the independence of the Riograndese and Juliana republics. Inspired by the republic's endeavors against the increasingly hostile and authoritative Empire of Brazil, the people of São Leopoldo declared unilateral independence from the Empire on March 1st, 1845, to the great dismay of the Brazillian government. The first capital city of the country was in Piratini. Ignazio Pereira became the president of the country while Sevastian Dias became the vice president. During Pereria presidency, the country was only recognized by Britian, France, and Uruguay (the same countries that regocnized by Riograndese republic). Despite acting as a self-governing entity, São Leopoldo would not be recognized as a country by the Empire of Brazil until December 19th, 1853. On the same date, the State of Paraná, which was orignally under Brazillian control, was seperated from the Empire and joined São Leopoldo. After Pereria ended his term on the same year, Sevastian Dias became president while Reinaldo Barros became vice president.

Post-independence[edit]

Annexation of Uruguay[edit]

In 1854, nine years after São Leopoldo officially became an independent country, Uruguay was annexed by the country when the two governments signed the Treaty of Artigas so that it became a province of Cisplatina. Former Uruguayan President Juan Francisco Giró became the first state president of Cisplatina.

Late 19th century[edit]

20th century[edit]

Before Great War I[edit]
Vargas era and Great War I[edit]

In 1931, Getúlio Vargas became the President of São Leopoldo when his opponent Antônio Salgado was overthrown after the Leopoldean Revolution. Initially Salgado won the election, but Vargas and some of his supporters were in disagreement of this. In response, the Leopoldean Revolution happened three weeks before what was supposed to be inaguration of Salgado. After the revolution happened, the coup d'etat happened in the country for two weeks and it was ruled by military officers from the Leopoldean Army.

Great War II[edit]

Post-Great War II[edit]

21st century[edit]

Geography[edit]

Location and borders[edit]

Geographically, São Leopoldo is bordered by Brazil to the north, Paraguay and Argentina to the west, and Uruguay to the south, and Atlantic Ocean to the east. It is located on the eastern coast of South America. It has a total area of approximately 576,409.6 square miles (222,553 km²), of which TBD percent is water or TBD square miles (TBD km2).

Climate[edit]

São Leopoldo has subtropical or temperate climate. Seasons are fairly well defined, and in most of Uruguay spring is usually damp, cool, and windy; summers are warm; autumns are mild; and winters are chilly and uncomfortably damp. In the summer, mainly in January, the average temperature of Porto Alegre is from 20 to 30 °C, Florianópolis is from 21 to 28 °C, Curitiba is from 16 to 26 °C, São Joaquim is from 13 to 23 °C, and Gaúcha is from 17 to 26 °C. In the winter, mainly in Juy, the average temperature of Porto Alegre is from 10 to 19 °C, Florianópolis is from 12 to 20 °C, Curitiba is from 8 to 19 °C, São Joaquim is from 6 to 14 °C, and Gaúcha is from 8 to 17 °C.

Government and politics[edit]

Government[edit]

São Leopoldo is a federal presidential constitutional democracy which serves as the foundation of the executive, legislative, and judicial branches. The president is the head of state and also the head of government. He/she is also considered as a commander in-chief in Leopoldean Armed Forces. The vice president will become a head of the cabinet and the presider of the legislative houses. The government of the country is bicameral and it is divided into two houses: Senate (upper house) and Chamber of Deputies (lower house). The Senate has 38 members, four for each federal states. They are elected directly by the people using plural voting. The Chamber of Deputies has TBD members. There are two deputies per districts, and both of the two legislative houses have no term limits.

Executive[edit]

Leopoldean Cabinet Under Teixera Administration
Position Portrait Name Political Party
President
Matheus Teixera.jpg
Matheus Texeira Liberal
Vice President
Suzana Gonçalves.jpg
Suzana Gonçalves Liberal
Premier
Roseana Sarney em agosto de 2012 (cropped).jpg
Alipha Palmieri New Democratic Union
Vice Premier Jair Avila National Republican
Chief of Staff Nelida Vasquez National Republican
Executive Secretary Gervasio Barbosa New Democratic Union
Secretary of Agriculture Alonso Meirelles Liberal
Secretary of the Arts, Culture, and Sports Virgínia Heeman National Republican
Secretary of Commerce, Industry, and Trade Claudio Zandoná Progressive
Secretary of Communications Henrique Lorenzoni Liberal
Secretary of Education Tatiana Andrade New Democratic Union
Secretary of Energy and Water Jônatas Cortez
Secretary of Environment and Foresty Rosinha Franco
Secretary of Finance and Treasury Carolina Bertolini
Secretary of Foreign Affairs Monique Sousa
Secretary of Health Lucas Almeida
Secretary of Human Settlements Cirlio Bueno
Secretary of Interior and Security Antônio Wagner
Secretary of Justice Francisco Okabe
Secretary of Labor Juscelino Pádua
Secretary of Land Reform Deborah Cameli
Secretary of National Defence Rogério Minczuk
Secretary of Natural Resources Fátima Brizola
Secretary of Public Works Teotônio Wu
Secretary of Social Services Frida Berushko
Secretary of Tourism Adriana Freitas
Secretary of Transportations Pedro Nolasco

Legislative[edit]

Judicial[edit]

Administrative divisions[edit]

São Leopoldo is composed of 22 states. The Distrito Federal is located at the capital city of the country. Each states belongs to four regions named: Independência, La Mesopotamia, Paraná, and Uruguay. The head of state of every federal states is the Governor whie the deputy head of state is the Vice Governor. Each states have their own unicameral legislatives but most of the states have elected their legislators statewide-at-large and the legislators can be also the member of the executive branch of the federal states.

States of São Leopoldo
No. Flag States Capital Established Region Separated from
1
Flag of Alegre.svg
Alegre Porto Alegre 1960 Independência Former unified state of Rio Grande
2
Flag of Paysandú Department.svg
Cisplatina Occidental Pasayndú 1898 Uruguay Former unified state of Cisplatina
3
Flag of Durazno Department.svg
Cisplatina Oriental Rocha 1898 Uruguay Former unified state of Cisplatina
4
Flag of Corrientes (São Leopoldo).svg
Corrientes Corrientes 1876 La Mesopotamia Former part of Argentina
5
Flag of Criciúma (São Leopoldo).png
Criciúma Criciúma 1992 Independência Serrana
6
Flag of Distrito Federal (São Leopoldo).svg
Distrito Federal São Pedro 1920 Independência The Distrito Federal was relocated from Piratini to São Pedro in 1920 as the aforementioned city became a capital of São Leopoldo
7
Flag of Entre Ríos (São Leopoldo).svg
Entre Ríos Santa Clara 1876 La Mesopotamia Former part of Argentina
8
Flag of Formosa (São Leopoldo).svg
Formosa Chapecó 1972 Independência Iguaçu
9
Flag of Palotina, Paraná, Brazil.svg
Iguaçu Cascavel 1943 Paraná Paraná
10
Bandera de Posadas (Misiones).svg
Missões Posadas 1876 La Mesopotamia Former part of Paraguay
11
Flag of Fernando Otorgués.svg
Montevideo Montevideo 1898 Uruguay Former unified state of Cisplatina
12
Flag of Pampas (São Leopoldo).svg
Pampas Bagé 1949 Independência Pre-1960 state of Rio Grande
13
Bandeira estadual do Paraná 1892.svg
Paraná Curitiba 1853 Paraná It was a former part of Empire of Brazil
14
Flag of San José Department.svg
Plata São José 1916 Uruguay Cisplatina Oriental
15
Flag of Rosário (São Leopoldo).png
Rosário Passo Fundo 1960 Independência Former unified state of Rio Grande
16
Bandeira de Santa Catarina.png
Santa Catarina Florianópolis 1845 Independência Original state
17
Bandeira Província de São Pedro do Rio Grande do Sul.svg
São Pedro Pelotas 1969 Independência Pampas
18
Bandeira de Londrina (alternativa).svg
São Vicente Londrina 1975 Paraná Paraná
19
Flag of Republic Juliana.png
Serrana Lages 1968 Independência Santa Catarina
20
Flag of Taquari (São Leopoldo).png
Taquari Santa Cruz 1960 Independência Former unified state of Rio Grande
21
Flag of Trinidad (São Leopoldo).svg
Trinidad Sacramento 1914 Uruguay Cisplatina Occidental
22
Flag of Vacaria (São Leopoldo).png
Vacaria Gaúcha 1960 Independência Former unified state of Rio Grande

Political parties[edit]

Politics in São Leopoldo is divided into two coalitions named: Federalist Coalition and Republican Coalition. Those two parties that are belong to the two coalitions have representation in two chambers of National Council. Federalist Coalition is formed by United People's Party, National Union Party, National Unity and Justice Party, Christian Democratic Party, and Social Liberty Party while the Republican Coalition is formed by National Republican Party, Liberal Party, New Democratic Union, Progressive Party, and Green Nature Party. Political parties that have no representation in the Senate but it have representation in Chamer of Deputies are Social Democratic Party, Socialist Party, People's Reform Party, Uruguay Independence Party, and La Mesopotamia Independence Party.

Economy[edit]

São Leopoldo is one of the most stable economies in the world with the GDP of R$541 billion. The country is active in agriculture, mining, manufacturing, and services sectors. In agricultural sector, it is known for its bigger coffee and soy production and it is one of the largest export of the said products in the world. The country have also the larger rice production with 9 milion tons produce in 2020. The Uruguay region have the largest cattle production in the country and produced 589 thousand tons of beef in 2018. The other products in that are available in the contry are sugarcane, wheat, barley, grapes, orange, apple, cassava, and many others. In mining sector, Santa Catarina have the largest coal production in the country mainly in the city of Criciúma and the production of crude mineral coal was 13.6 million tons in 2007. Gold and cement production has very active production in recent years.

Energy[edit]

Tourism[edit]

Infrastructure[edit]

Demographics[edit]

Population[edit]

Racial composition[edit]

Whites have the most number of population in the country and most of them have European ancestry such as the descendants of German and Italian immigrants. Mixed-race have second most number of population in the country are most of them have mixed with either European or African ancestry. Blacks have third most number of population and they are the descendants of African slaves during imperial Brazil period. Asians have the second least number of population and most of them are the descendants of Japanese immigrants with Paraná have the most number of the said population. Indigenous people have the least number of population in the country and the well-known tribes in the country are Guaraní and Kaingang.

Skin color/Race (2014)
White (Branca) 75.92%
Mixed (Parda) 18.96%
Black (Preta) 4.28%
Asian (Amarela) 0.57%
Indigenous (Indígena) 0.26%

Language[edit]

Portuguese and Spanish are the official languages of the country. Portuguese can be used as a language for daily life of Leopoldean people and the said language is the first language of Independência and Paraná region while Spanish can be used as a language for education and work and the said language is the first language of La Mesopotamia and Uruguay regions. Guarani is the minor language of the country.

Religion[edit]

Health[edit]

The country's public health system, the Leopoldean Healthcare Services System can be provided for the patient's to avail for their free services in public hospitals while 50% of patient's free services can be avail in private hospitals. Public health services are universal and offered for the citizens for free. The maintenance and construction of public health centers in the country are financed by 2% of its tax.

Education[edit]

Education of São Leopoldo is divided into three levels: pre-school education (educação infantil), basic education (ensino básico), and higher education (ensino superior). Pre-school education is the development of children under 6. It aims to assist in all areas of child development, including motor skills, cognitive skills, and social skills. There are nurseries for children under 2, kindergartens from 2-3 years old, and preschools for children 4 and up. Basic education is divided into two sub-levels: elementary school (ensino fundamental) and high school (ensino médio). Elementary school is mandatory for children ages 6–12. The Basic Education Council (Conselho Educação Básico) establishes a core curriculum consisting of Portuguese and Spanish languages, history, geography, science, health, mathematics, music, arts and physical education. Foreign languages and home economics can be taught for children ages 9-12. High school is mandatory for ages 13-16. Junior secondary education core curriculum comprises Portuguese, Spanish, foreign language, history, geography, algebra, geometry, physics, chemistry, biology, philosophy and sociology. Senior secondary education is also mandatory for ages 17-18. It focuses more on technical and vocational education to increase the skills of students before entering college.

In higher education, the students must take the national entrance exam before entering to a prominent colleges and universities. If a student didn't passed the exam, he or she will not chose to study in prominent schools but they can still study in other colleges. The Leopoldean standard for bachelor's degree is awarded in most areas of the arts, humanities, social sciences, businesses, or natural sciences.

The four major universities in the country São Leopoldo are: University of São Leopoldo, Federal University of São Leopoldo, National University of São Leopoldo and State University of São Leopoldo.

Culture[edit]

Cinema[edit]

Mass media[edit]

Radio and television[edit]

STL, Rede Sul, CTR, and RTVA are the four major Portuguese language television networks in the country. While VTV, RRA, TV Oriental, and Teleblanco are the four major Spanish language television networks in the country. Over 10 million Leopoldeans are subscribed to cable, satellite, or other modes of television broadcasting. They are also enjoying watching telenovelas from neighboring countries such as Argentina, Brazil, and Paraguay. 5 million Leopoldeans are listening to the radio and most of the audiences are ages 18-30 years old in music and 40 years old and above in news.

Print[edit]

The five major Portuguese newspapers in São Leopoldo are Correio Leopoldense, Arauto Nacional, Gazeta Alegre, Diário do Sul, and Jornal da Estrela and the five major Spanish newspapers in São Leopoldo Leopoldeano Noticias, El Dia Atlantico, Nación Azul, Diario del Sur and Mundo Begonia while the four major magazine in the country are Atlântico, Nova, Leia Hoje, and Revista do Sul. The newspapers and magazines in the country can help to share some exclusive updates from the daily lives of every Leopoldeans. Most of the people that are reading newspapers are ages 30 years old and above while some people at ags 13-25 years old are enjoying upon reading magazines.

Music[edit]

The music of the country are mixed with Brazilian and Argentinian music and it can be also influenced by African, European, and Amerindian forms. Tango and cambonde are popular in La Mesopotamia and Uruguay regions while samba and bossa nova are popular in Independência and Paraná regions. Other Western-influenced music such as pop, R&B, soul, rock, hip-hop, rap, classical music, disco, and gospel are also popular to the country especially to the younger audiences. The four major record labels in the country are Luar Records, Begônia Records, Universo Music (owned by Universal Music Group), and Pedra Records (owned by Warner Music Group).

Sports[edit]